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Solid dosage forms that are usually prepared with the aid of suitable pharmaceutical excipients
What are the uses of tablets?
1. convenient product for handling, identification and administration
2. Ease of commercial mass production
3. Ease of incorporating small quantities of active drugs into tablet preparation
Compressed tablets are designed to be _____.
sublingual molded tablets are placed under the _____.
Buccal molded tablets are administered in the _____.
Sintered tablets are either, dissolved in the _____ or _____.
Chewable tablets are _____ and _____.
Soluble effecrvescent tablets contain mixtures of _____ and _____, which release _____ when dissolved in water.
acid; sodium bicarbonate; carbon dioxide
Implants/pellets are usually administered _____; providing continuous release of the drug over time.
What are the compressed tablet making methods?
- 1. direct compression method
- 2. dry granulation method (sluggish method)
- 3. wet granulation method
Describe the direct compression method.
A compressible vehicle is blended with the medicinal agent, and if necessary, with a lubricant and a disintegrate, and then the blend is compressed
List some substances that are commonly used as direct compressible vehicles.
- 1. anhydrous lactose
- 2. dicalcium phosphate (Emcompress)
- 3. granulated ,annitol
- 4. microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel)
- 5. compressible sugar (Di-pac)
- 6. Starch (Sta-Rx 1500), hydrolyzed starch (Celutab), and/or
- 7. A blend of sugar, invert sugar, starch and magnesium stearate (Nutab)
Describe the dry granulation/sluggish method.
The ingredients in the formulation are intimately mixed and pre-compressed on heavy duty tablet machines.
The slug which is formed is ground to a uniform size and compressed into the finished tablet
Describe the wet granulation method.
- This method has more
- operational manipulations, and is more time-consuming than the other methods
- The wet granulation
- method is not suitable for drugs which are thermolabile or hydrolysable by the
- presence of water in the liquid binder
Molded tablets are prepared by mixing the active drug with _____ contain 10-20% _____ (tablet-firmer)
Molded tablets are used with drugs that react with sugars, use special bases such as,precipitated _____, precipitated _____, and kaolin or bentonite.
calcium carbonate; calcium phosphate
Molded tablets employ wetting agents, which are mixtures of _____ and _____.
(typically 50-80% alcohol)
How will alcohol effect the process of making molded tablets?
will speed up the drying of liquid and water and cause the sugars to dissolve, and bind the tablet
What are the advantages of making molded tablets?
- Quick disintegration
- in the presence of moisture
- Easy to adjust the
- composition for any number of dosages (since the tablets are actually
- compressed powder mixtures)
What are the disadvantages of making tablets?
small size, limiting their use to substances in small doses
What are the most common tablets made by punch machines?
- 1. chewable tablets
- 2. effervescent tablets
- 3. compressed tablets
Which tablet form uses mannitol as the base for the sweet cooling taste?
Which tablet form uses ingredients like tartaric acid, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate?
What are the methods of tablet evaluation?
- 1. analytical determination of tablet content
- 2. tablet hardness
- 3. tablet disintegration
- 4. tablet dissolution
Why is the dissolution method preferred over disintegration in tablet evaluation?
- Disintegration time determination is a useful tool for production control, but disintegration
- of a tablet does not imply that the drug has dissolved. A tablet can have a rapid disintegration time yet be biologically unavailable
Why is dissolution more indicative of the availability of a drug from a tablet than the disintegration test?
- The dissolution rate of the drug from the primary particles of the tablet is the
- important factor in drug absorption and for many formulations is the
- rate-limiting step.
(best method but most pharmacies do not have the equipment for this method)