Pharmaceutics II (Exam II Material) Other Solid Dosage Forms

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mbailey585
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298303
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Pharmaceutics II (Exam II Material) Other Solid Dosage Forms
Updated:
2015-03-12 22:50:48
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Pharmaceutics Lozenges Troches
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Other Solid Dosage Forms: Lozenges/Troches and Sticks
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  1. Solid preparations that are intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth
    Lozenges/Troches
  2. What is the difference between Lozenges and Troches?
    Troches are compressed lozenges
  3. What are advantages of lozenges?
    • 1. Being easy to administer to pediatric and geriatric
    • patients.

    • 2. Having formulas that are easy to change and can be
    • patient specific.

    • 3. Keeping
    • the drug in contact with the oral cavity for an extended period of time.
  4. List the different types of lozenges and what is used to make each.
    1. Hard: sugar

    2. Soft: polyehtylene glycol (PEG)

    3 Chewable: gelatin
  5. This dosage form will not disintegrate in the mouth, but will erode or dissolve over 5-10 minutes; have a pH value between 5 and 6; made with sugar
    Hard lozenges
  6. What are the major disadvantages in using hard lozenges?
    • Heat/temperature:
    • The primary disadvantage of hard lozenges is apparent.
    • Heat labile drugs cannot be used in this formulation because of the high
    • temperatures required for preparation

    • Grainy:
    • The speed at which this happens depends on the sugar
    • used and its concentration in the formulation. The best compromise seems to be
    • 55 - 65% sucrose and about 35 - 45% corn syrup.
  7. Because of their texture, this dosage form can be hand rolled and then cut into pieces which contain the correct amount of active ingredient

    are typically made of ingredients such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 or 1450, chocolate, or a
    sugar-acacia base
    Soft lozenges
  8. What properties do acacia and silica gel add to lozenge formulations?
    acacia: adds texture and smoothness

    silica gel: used as a suspending agent
  9. Are popular with
    pediatric population since they are "gummy-type" lozenges

    Most formulations are
    based on the glycerinated gelatin suppository formula which consists of
    glycerin, gelatin, and water

    These lozenges are
    often highly fruit flavored and may have a slightly acidic taste to cover the
    acrid taste of the glycerin
    Chewable lozenges
  10. What is the disadvantage of using chewable lozenges?
    Gummy-type lozenge may be perceived as candy and not a serious dosage form by children
  11. What is an alternative to achieving a satisfactory flavored and sweetened formulation?
    Buy gummy-type candy and melt it with low heat until a fluid is obtained and incorporate the drug. Then allow it to cool and solidify.
  12. Are an easily transportable and convenient dosage form for administering topical medications
    Sticks
  13. Sticks can be compounded in different sizes and shapes for application to different areas of
    the body for _____ or _____ effect
    local; systemic
  14. Sticks get their _____ from a combination
    of waxes, polymers, resins, and in some cases from drug solids fused into a
    firm mass
    consistency
  15. What are some examples that sticks are used for?
    • 1. local anesthetics
    • 2. sunscreens
    • 3. oncology drugs
    • 4. antibiotics
  16. What are the two types of sticks in this dosage form?
    Har and Soft sticks
  17. This stick dosage form is determined by the blend of high and low melting point ingredients used as the base
    Soft sticks
  18. To make this stick dosage form, crystalline powder either fused by heat or held together with a binder such as, cocoa butter, or
    petrolatum
    Hard sticks

    (moisture activated; ex. styptic pencil)
  19. This version of soft sticks may contain petroleum, cocoa butter, and PEG bases. Most medication sticks are this type.
    Soft opaque sticks
  20. This version of soft sticks contains the bases sodium stearate and propylene glycol
    Soft clear sticks
  21. Why would zinc oxide and p-amino benzoic acid
    (PABA) be added to a stick medication.
    would be added as a sun block
  22. What would vitamins, A and E be used for in a stick medication preparation?
    enhance emollient and skin care
  23. What would adding a lubricant do for a stick preparation?
    minimize the coherence of waxes and improve spreadability

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