Pharmaceutics II (Exam II Material) Other Solid Dosage Forms
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Solid preparations that are intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth
What is the difference between Lozenges and Troches?
Troches are compressed lozenges
What are advantages of lozenges?
- 1. Being easy to administer to pediatric and geriatric
- 2. Having formulas that are easy to change and can be
- patient specific.
- 3. Keeping
- the drug in contact with the oral cavity for an extended period of time.
List the different types of lozenges and what is used to make each.
1. Hard: sugar
2. Soft: polyehtylene glycol (PEG)
3 Chewable: gelatin
This dosage form will not disintegrate in the mouth, but will erode or dissolve over 5-10 minutes; have a pH value between 5 and 6; made with sugar
What are the major disadvantages in using hard lozenges?
- The primary disadvantage of hard lozenges is apparent.
- Heat labile drugs cannot be used in this formulation because of the high
- temperatures required for preparation
- The speed at which this happens depends on the sugar
- used and its concentration in the formulation. The best compromise seems to be
- 55 - 65% sucrose and about 35 - 45% corn syrup.
Because of their texture, this dosage form can be hand rolled and then cut into pieces which contain the correct amount of active ingredient
are typically made of ingredients such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 or 1450, chocolate, or a
What properties do acacia and silica gel add to lozenge formulations?
acacia: adds texture and smoothness
silica gel: used as a suspending agent
Are popular with
pediatric population since they are "gummy-type" lozenges
Most formulations are
based on the glycerinated gelatin suppository formula which consists of
glycerin, gelatin, and water
These lozenges are
often highly fruit flavored and may have a slightly acidic taste to cover the
acrid taste of the glycerin
What is the disadvantage of using chewable lozenges?
Gummy-type lozenge may be perceived as candy and not a serious dosage form by children
What is an alternative to achieving a satisfactory flavored and sweetened formulation?
Buy gummy-type candy and melt it with low heat until a fluid is obtained and incorporate the drug. Then allow it to cool and solidify.
Are an easily transportable and convenient dosage form for administering topical medications
Sticks can be compounded in different sizes and shapes for application to different areas of
the body for _____ or _____ effect
Sticks get their _____ from a combination
of waxes, polymers, resins, and in some cases from drug solids fused into a
What are some examples that sticks are used for?
- 1. local anesthetics
- 2. sunscreens
- 3. oncology drugs
- 4. antibiotics
What are the two types of sticks in this dosage form?
Har and Soft sticks
This stick dosage form is determined by the blend of high and low melting point ingredients used as the base
To make this stick dosage form, crystalline powder either fused by heat or held together with a binder such as, cocoa butter, or
(moisture activated; ex. styptic pencil)
This version of soft sticks may contain petroleum, cocoa butter, and PEG bases. Most medication sticks are this type.
Soft opaque sticks
This version of soft sticks contains the bases sodium stearate and propylene glycol
Soft clear sticks
Why would zinc oxide and p-amino benzoic acid
(PABA) be added to a stick medication.
would be added as a sun block
What would vitamins, A and E be used for in a stick medication preparation?
enhance emollient and skin care
What would adding a lubricant do for a stick preparation?
minimize the coherence of waxes and improve spreadability
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