Intake & Exhaust Terminology

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Intake & Exhaust Terminology
2015-03-16 23:24:14
Intake Exhaust Systems

Intake & Exhaust Systems Terminology
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  1. Volatility 
    a measure of gasoline's ability to change from a liquid to a vapour.

    is affected by temperature and altitude.

    the more volatile it is - the more efficient the gasoline will vaporize.
  2. Atomization 
    contributes to changing gasoline from a liquid into a combustible vapour
  3. Vaporization 
    Changing a liquid such as gasoline into a vapour (gas) by evaporation or boiling 

    Higher the pressure - the higher the boiling point 

    Lower the pressure - the lower the boiling point
  4. Back Pressure 
    is the pressure created in the exhaust system by restrictions to the flow of the exhaust gases

    The higher the back pressure is, the lower the engine's volumetric efficiency is.
  5. Function of the Intake Manifold ?
    must provide efficient vaporization and air-fuel delivery.
  6. Overly "Lean" combustion produces what ?
    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
  7. Overly "Rich" combustion produces ?
    Unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  8. Name 3 points about "Single Plane Manifolds"
    uses short runners to connect all of the engine's inlet ports to a single common plenum. 

    permits more equal cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution at high rpm 

    can produce more horsepower at high rpm than dual plane.
  9. In-Line engines usually hav _________ manifolds.
    Single Plane
  10. Name 2 points about "Dual Plane Manifolds"
    has two separate plenum chambers connected to the intake ports of the engine. 

    mixture velocity is greater at low-to-intermediate rpm than w/ the single plane manifold at high rpm.
  11. Where are dual plane manifolds commonly found ?
    V-Engine configuration
  12. Throttle Body Fuel Injection Manifolds
    sits ON the intake manifold 

    could have either one or multiple injectors 

    the injector sprays fuel into the area of maximum air velocity to ensure thorough atomization and ideal distribution.
  13. Sonic Tuning or Ram Tuning
    Improves induction flow to increase cylinder charging and improves fuel distribution among the cylinders.
  14. One-piece manifolds
    the plenum, intake passages and runners are built into one casting.
  15. Two-Piece Manifolds
    consists of the upper intake manifold w/ a plenum and a lower intake manifold w/ individual runners.
  16. Variable Induction System
    the primary (low-speed) runners longer & narrower for the low range RPM 

    the secondary (high-speed) runners are shorter & wider for high range RPM
  17. Port Fuel Injection can also be called what ? (2 names)
    Multi-point or Multi-port Injection
  18. Construction of Port Fuel Injection ?
    Individual injection nozzles for each cylinder are located in the ends of the intake manifold passages near the intake valves.  

    Only air flows through the manifold up to the location of the injectors.
  19. What does a Carburetor consist of ?
    light-weight metal bodies that have one, two, three, or four barrels.

  20. Name four factors that can cause Vapour Lock:
    1. High gasoline temperature due to engine overheating or high temperature weather 

    2. Low fuel-system pressure 

    3. Gasoline w/ too high a volatility 

    4. Low air pressure due to driving at high altitude
  21. Vapour Lock occurs ?
    when the fuel bubbles form in the fuel lines, reducing fuel flow to the engine.

    Partial vapour lock leans the air-fuel mixture and reduces engine power 

    Complete vapour lock causes an engine to stall, and makes restarting impossible until the bubbles in the fuel system disperse - usually when the fuel system is cools.
  22. V-Engines has its intake manifold where ?
    between the cylinder banks
  23. Most In-Line engine has its intake manifold where ?
    On the same side of the engine.
  24. High-performance In-Line engines have their two manifolds mounted on opposite sides of the cylinder head is called the ________ ?
    Crossflow Design.
  25. Naturally Aspirated
    uses atmospheric pressure to fill the cylinders w/ air.

    Naturally aspirated engines operate at less than 100% volumetric efficiency.
  26. Pressurized Induction Systems
    pressuring the air in the intake system allows more air to be forced  into the cylinders which increases volumetric efficiency.

    ex. Supercharger or Turbocharger
  27. Intercooling provides 3 benefits:
    1. The density of air or air/fuel charge is increased by cooling, allowing a greater quantity of air/fuel to enter the combustion chambers, increasing power. 

    2. The heat stress on an engine is reduced, and valves, pistons and heads are cooler. 

    3. Less heat must be dissipated by the cooling system.
  28. Superchargers
    driven from the crankshaft by a belt 

    supplies boost at all engine speeds

    superchargers are positive displacement pumps
  29. A supercharger uses ___________ to drive the rotors.
    a belt
  30. The turbine of a turbocharger is driven by ?
    the outgoing exhaust gases
  31. What kind of pump is a Turbocharger ?
    Centrifugal displacement pump - driven by the wasted exhaust heat.
  32. Exhaust Manifold Materials include ?
    Cast Iron, Tubular Steel or Stainless Steel.
  33. Exhaust Systems perform several functions - which are ? (4 Points)
    to provide a path to remove hot gases 

    to reduce noise 

    to deal with harmful emission concerns 

    and to discharge them safely away from the vehicle.
  34. Intake Manifold Heating is designed to
    assist fuel vaporization at low temperatures.
  35. What is the purpose of the muffler ?
    its purpose is to cool and reduce the pressure of the exhaust gas while quieting it's noise.
  36. Purpose of the resonator ?
    can further reduce the sound level of the exhaust.
  37. Purpose of the Catalytic Converter ?
    It converts the harmful by-products of combustion to relatively harmless gases

    HC and CO to CO2 and H2O
  38. What are some factors tht can cause poor vaporization ?
    Low mixture velocity or low fuel injection pressure 

    Insufficient fuel volatility 

    A cold manifold 

    Poor manifold design 

    Cold incoming air

    Low manifold vacuum
  39. The throttle plate _________ ?
    controls how much air is allowed into the engine.