ANTIVIRAL PHARMACOLOGY

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rere_girl4ever
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298322
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ANTIVIRAL PHARMACOLOGY
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2015-03-13 17:26:58
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ANTIVIRAL PHARMACOLOGY
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ANTIVIRAL PHARMACOLOGY
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  1. What is the MOA of Zanamivir?
    • Zanamivir, oseltamivir
    • MOA: Inhibit influenza neuraminidase → 
    • ⇩Ž the release of progeny virus
    • Use: Prevention of both influenza A and B.
  2. What is the MOA of Oseltamivir?
    • Zanamivir, oseltamivir
    • MOA: Inhibit influenza neuraminidase → 
    • ⇩Ž the release of progeny virus
    • Use: Prevention of both influenza A and B.
  3. This drug inhibits neuraminidase.
    • Zanamivir, oseltamivir
    • MOA: Inhibit influenza neuraminidase → 
    • ⇩Ž the release of progeny virus
    • Use: Prevention of both influenza A and B.
  4. These drugs are used in the treatment and prevention of both influenza A and B.
    • Zanamivir, oseltamivir
    • MOA: Inhibit influenza neuraminidase → 
    • ⇩Ž the release of progeny virus
    • Use: Prevention of both influenza A and B.
  5. How do we treat shingles?
    • Famcyclovir **
    • Acyclovir
    • Valacyclovir
  6. This drug inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination?
    • Guanosine analogs- Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir, Ganciclovir
  7. What toxicities are associated with the use of guanosine a nalogs- Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir?
    • Obstructive crystalline nephropathy
    • Acute renal failure (if not adequately hydrated)
  8. In which patients should the use of guanosine analogs- Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir be avoided and why?
    • Patients with renal problems.
    • Obstructive crystalline nephropathy
    • Acute renal failure (if not adequately hydrated)
  9. This prodrug of acyclovir has better oral bioavailability.
    Valacylovir
  10. These drugs are Guanosine analogs.
    • Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir (HSV, VZV)
    • Ganciclovir
  11. Monophosphorylation of this drug is by CMV viral kinase.
    Ganciclovir
  12. Monophosphorylation of this drug is by thymidine kinase.
    Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir
  13. What is used to treat cytomegalovirus infections?
    Ganciclovir
  14. What is the use of Ganciclovir?
    To treat CMV (Cytomegalovirus) infections, especially in immunocompromised patients
  15. This prodrug of Ganciclovir has better oral bioavailability.
    Valganciclovir
  16. What are the side effects of Ganciclovir?
    • Leukopenia
    • Neutropenia
    • Thrombocytopenia ⇩platelets
    • Renal toxicity
    • More toxic to host enzymes than acyclovir.
  17. What is the MOA of Foscarnet?
    • DNA/ RNA polymerase inhibitor
    • HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • Binds to pyrophosphate-binding site of enzymes
  18. This drug binds to pyrophosphate-binding sites of enzymes.
    Foscarnet
  19. This drug is used to treat CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails.
    Foscarnet
  20. This drug is used to treat acyclovir-resistant HSV.
    • Foscarnet
    • Cidofovir
  21. What is the use of Foscarnet?
    • CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails
    • Acyclovir-resistant HSV
  22. This drug is a pyrofosphate analog
    Foscarnet
  23. What toxicities are associated with the use of Foscarnet?
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Electrolyte abnormalities
    • Ca2+⇧/ ⇩
    • PO43-: ⇧/ ⇩
    • Mg2+
    • Can lead to SEIZURES
    • K+: ⇩
  24. This antiviral drug can cause electrolyte abnormalities which can lead to seizures.
    Foscarnet
  25. A mechanism of resistance to this drug is by mutation of DNA polymerase
    Foscarnet
  26. A mechanism of resistance to this drug is by mutation of viral kinase.
    Ganciclovir
  27. A mechanism of resistance to this drug is by mutation of thymidine kinase
    Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir
  28. How do viruses resist therapy by Foscarnet?
    Mutated DNA polymerase
  29. What is the MOA and use of Cidofovir?
    • Inhibits viral DNA polymerase.
    • UseCMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients; acyclovir-resistant HSV. Long half-life
  30. Which drugs are used to treat CMV retinitis?
    • Ganciclovir
    • Foscarnet (when ganciclovir fails)
    • Cidofovir
  31. What toxicities are associated with the use of Cidofovir? How to we avoid this?
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Coadminister with probenecid and IV saline 
    • to ⇩toxicity
  32. These antiviral agents do not require phosphorylation by viral kinase.
    • Cidofovir
    • Foscarnet
  33. What is the MOA of Ribavirin?
    Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides  (AMP and GMP) by competitively inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
  34. This antiviral drug inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.
    • Ribavirin
    • Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides  (AMP and GMP) by competitively inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
  35. This antiviral drug  inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides (AMP and GMP).
    • Ribavirin
    • Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides  (AMP and GMP) by competitively inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
  36. What is the use of Ribavirin?
    • Chronic hepatitis C 
    • RSV (palivizumab is preferred).
  37. What toxicities are associated with the use of Ribavirin?
    • Teratogen
    • Hemolytic anemia
  38. What is the MOA of Simeprevir?
    HCV protease inhibitor; prevents viral replication
  39. This drug is a protease inhibitor of hepatitis C virus.
    Simeprevir
  40. This drug prevents viral replication of hepatitis C.
    • Simeprevir
    • HCV protease inhibitor; prevents viral replication
  41. What is the clinical use of Simeprevir?
    • Chronic HCV in combination with Ribavirin and Peginterferon alfa
    • DO NOT USE AS MONOTHERAPY
  42. What toxicities are associated with the use of Simeprevir?
    Photosensitivity reactions and rash
  43. This drug should be avoided in pregnant patients with hepatitis C because it is a teratogen.
    Ribavirin
  44. This drug causes photosensitivity in the treatment of hepatitis C.
    • Simeprevir
    • Photosensitivity reactions and rash
  45. This drug used in the treatment of hepatitis C virus inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase acting as a chain terminator.
    Sofosbuvir
  46. What is the MOA of Sofosbuvir?
    Inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase acting as a chain terminator
  47. During therapy of chronic hepatitis C, patients may experience fatigue, nausea, headache with this drug.
    Sofosbuvir
  48. What is the use of Sofosbuvir?
    • Chronic hepatitis C in combination with Ribavirin +/- Peginterferon alfa
    • DO NOT use as monotherapy
  49. Patients may experience hemolytic anemia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C with this drug?
    Ribavirin

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