2.12 Mechanics of breathing

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efrain12
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2.12 Mechanics of breathing
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2015-03-13 16:46:34
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Mechanics of breathing
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  1. What is pulmonary respiration?
    Breathing
  2. What is inspiration/inhalation
    Breathe in
  3. What Is expiration/exhalation?
    Breathe out
  4. Delta P means
    Air moves from high pressure to low pressure
  5. 3 pressures
    -atmospheric

    -intrapulmonary

    -intrapleural
  6. atmospheric pressures ) sea level ATM pressure is around
    760 mm Hg
  7. Atmpheric pressures ) what is measured relative to atmospheric pressure and how?
    Pulmonary pressure with either (+) or (-).

    Ex) 762 mm Hg in lungs then its +2 mm Hg pulmonary pressure
  8. Intrapulmonary pressure ) where is this?
    Within alveoli
  9. Intrapulmonary pressure ) what is significant about this?
    Eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure at the end of inhalation or end of exhalation
  10. What's interpleural pressure?
    Pressure between visceral and parental pleura
  11. intrapleural pressure: 2 thigns
    -fluctuates with breathing

    • -negative pressure so creates a vacuum that hold visceral and parietal layers together
    • *-4 mm hg
  12. 3 factors that affect intrapleural pressure
    -lung recoil

    -surface tension

    -elasticity of chest wall
  13. intrapleural pressure: lung recoil
    Ability of a lung to shrink and recoil back
  14. intrapleural pressure: surface tension
    Surface tension of alveoli fluid draws alveoli to their smallest size so tends to pull the lungs to recoil to make them shrink
  15. intrapleural pressure: elasticity of chest wall
    Tends to pull lungs outward
  16. intrapleural pressure: what do all 3 factors do?
    Creates a (-) pressure to keep things together
  17. What's transpulmonary pressure
    • Difference between intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressures
    • *fluctuates with breathing
  18. How is pulmonary ventilation dictated by?
    Pressure changes
  19. What Boyles law?
    By changing the volume or the chamber, it will change the pressure in the lung and air will wither flow in or out
  20. Increased volume leads to
    Pressure decreases
  21. Decreased volume leads to
    Pressure increases
  22. Inspiration is an
    Active process
  23. Inspiration ) 2 parts involved?
    -diaphragm

    -external intercostals
  24. Inspiration ) what do both structures do?
    increase volume with decreased pressure
  25. Inspiration ) diaphragm
    Most of the breathing and inspiration will be done primarily by this
  26. Inspiration ) external intercostals
    Not particular active during quiet breathing
  27. Inspiration ) pressure is higher @ lungs so
    Lower in lungs so the air will in bc its lower there
  28. Expiration ) pressure is higher in lungs ,
    Lower in atmosphere so air will flow out
  29. Expiration ) decreased volume with
    Increased pressure
  30. Expiration ) muscle...
    Relaxation
  31. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Airway resistance (2)
    - increase delta P will increase flow

    -increase resistance will decrease flow
  32. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Bronchial smooth muscle (3)
    -parasympathetic bronchoconstriction

    -asthma

    -sympathetic bronchodilator
  33. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Bronchial smooth muscle: parasympathetic
    bronchoconstriction
  34. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Bronchial smooth muscle: asthma
    Will restrict flow
  35. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Bronchial smooth muscle: sympathetic
    bronchodilation
  36. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) COmpliance: factors which affect compliance
    • -elasticity which is distention and recoil
    • *if these are high then compliance is high
  37. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Compliance, the higher compliance
    The easier to expand the lungs
  38. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Alveolar surface tension: Type 1 cell make up the
    Cell wall of alveoli
  39. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Alveolar surface tension: what secretes surfactant?
    Type II cells
  40. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Alveolar surface tension: where does it occur?
    At gas/liquid interface
  41. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Alveolar surface tension: what is it?
    • If we have a lot of water around the wall then alveolus will collapse due to surface tension on the wall of alveolus
    • *wall is very thin so anything heavy will make it collapse
  42. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Alveolar surface tension: what is surfectant
    -detergent that prevents the alveolus wall from collapsing because the phospholipids within breaks up hydrogen interactions between water
  43. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) Thoracic cage flexibility
    Higher compliance more airway in and out
  44. Physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation) airway bkloackaghe
    It'll be more difficult removing or adding air in
  45. Respiratory volumes and capacities) what are the 4 volumes?
    -tidal

    -inspiratory reserve

    -excitatory reserve

    -residual
  46. Respiratory volumes and capacities) Volumes: Tidal
    • Inhalation & exhalation
    • *normal breathing
  47. Respiratory volumes and capacities) Volumes: inspiratory reserves (2)
    • -breath deeper than usual
    • *someone scares you

    -amount of air you can inhale above tidal levels
  48. Respiratory volumes and capacities) Volumes: Expiratory reserve
    Amount of air that can be forcefully release beyond tidal
  49. Respiratory volumes and capacities) Volumes: residual (20
    Left over air after expiration

    lung has pressure to maintain the interpleaural pressure
  50. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : 4 capacities
    -inspiratory

    -functional residual capacity

    -vital capacity

    -total lung capacity
  51. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : inspiratory (2)
    Inspiratory reserve + tidal volume
  52. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : what are capacities?
    Addition of 2 or more volumes together
  53. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : functional residual capacity
    Expiratory reserves volume + residual volume
  54. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : vital capacity (2)
    • Total amount of air we can move in and out of lungs at any breathing cycle
    • *does not include residual volume
  55. Respiratory volumes and capacities) capacities : total lung capacity
    • Total lung capacity with all the volumes included
    • *smaller for small
    • Larger for laerg people
  56. Dead space) what does this refer to?
    Air that cannot be put into bloodstream
  57. Dead space) anatomical
    Conducting airways
  58. Dead space) physiological (2)
    Alveolar dead space due to collapsed alveoli or alveoli with no blood supply
  59. Dead space) approximately how much dead space do we have?
    150 ml
  60. spirometry) what is it?
    Pulmonary functions tests
  61. spirometry) what does it stand for FVC
    Forced vital capacity
  62. spirometry) FVC
    • Is the amount of gas that is expelled when you take in deep breath & forcefully exhale as maximally as possible
    • *vital capacity but its forced
  63. spirometry) FEV 1.0
    • Forced expriatory volume in one second
    • *usually 80%
    • *someone with a restricted air flow would take longer
  64. spirometry) minute volume: formula
    Flow x total volume
  65. spirometry) minute volume: analogous to
    Cardiac output
  66. spirometry) minute volume: what's wrong with this formula?
    It does not take into account deadspace
  67. spirometry) Does alveolar ventilation take into account dead space?
    yes
  68. spirometry) Alveolar ventilation: formulae
    Flow x ( Total volume - Dead space)
  69. spirometry) Alveolar ventilation: whjy is it important to take into account for dead space?
    This is the amount that is being used for gas exchange
  70. spirometry) Alveolar ventilation: rate and depth effects (2)
    Breathe slowly and deeply to increase alveolar ventilation

    Breathe fast and shallow to decrease alveolar ventilation
  71. What does spirometry measure?
    Capacities and volumes

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