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2015-03-30 16:14:57

intro to health
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  1. Susceptibility
    lack of resistance to a disease
  2. immunity
    ability to ward off disease
  3. innate immunity
    defense against any pathogen
  4. adaptive immunity
    immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen
  5. First line of defense
    • intact skin
    • mucous membranes and their secretions
    • normal microbiota 
    • at birth through canal
  6. Physical factor of first line defense:
    • Skin
    • Epidermis: tightly packed cells with Keratin, protective protein
    • Mucous membrane
    • Mucus: traps microbes 
    • Ciliary escalator: microbes trapped in mucus are transported away from the lungs
    • Lacrimal apparatus: washes eyes
    • Saliva: washes microbes off 
    • Urine: flows out
    • Vaginal secretions: flow out
  7. Chemical Factors first line of defense:
    • Fungistatic fatty acid in sebum: keep fungi from growing
    • Low pH (3-5) on skin
    • Lysozyme in perspiration: tears, saliva, urine
    • Low pH (1.2-3.0) of gastric juice
    • Low pH (3-5) of vaginal secretions
  8. Microbial antagonism/competitive exclusion:
    Normal microbiota compete with pathogens or alter the environment
  9. Commensual microbiota
    one organism (microbe) benefits and the other (host) is unharmed
  10. Mutualistic microbiota
    Both benefit
  11. Second Line of Defense- Formed Elements in Blood:
         Red Blood Cells
    Erthrocytes- transport CO2 and O2
  12. Second Line of Defense- Formed Elements in Blood:
         White Blood cells (granulocytes)
    • Neutrophils- Phagocytosis
    • Basophils and Mast Cells- Histamine
    • Eosinophils- Kill parasites (helminths, protozoa)
  13. Second Line of Defense- Formed Elements in Blood:
    • Monocytes- Phagocytosis
    • Dendritic Cells- Phagocytosis
    • Natural killer cells- destroy target cells
    • T cells-lymphocyte- cell mediated immunity
    • B cells- lymphocyte- produce antibodies
    • Platelets- blood clotting
  14. When an Natural Killer cell recognizes a cell as ______ it releases cytotoxic perforins and _______
    nonself, granzymes
  15. Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)
    ID or papers (name tag) patrol if does not have MHC, cytolytic mediators released to destroy it
  16. Percentage of each type of _______ in a sample of 100 ____ blood cells
    white cell, white
  17. Neutrophils white cell count percent
  18. Basophils white cell count percent
  19. Eosinophils white cell count percent
  20. Monocytes white cell count percent
  21. Lymphocytes white cell count percent
  22. Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
  23. Lymphatic system
    process inter fluid, suck up fluid and filtered by lymph node where macrophage located, travel to heart
  24. Edema
    swelling in blood vessels
  25. Phagocytosis
    ingestion of microbe or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes
  26. Phago
    from greek, meaning eat
  27. Cyte
    from greek, meaning cell
  28. Phagocytosis
  29. Phagocytosis steps 1-7
    • 1. Chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte 
    • 2. Ingestion of microbe by phagocyte
    • 3.Formation of a phagosome
    • 4. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
    • 5. Digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes
    • 6. Formation of residual body containing indigestible material
    • 7. Discharge of waste materials
  30. Inhibit adherence: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    M protein, capsules. Sterptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae
  31. Kill phagocytes: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Leukocidins. Stapylococcus aureus
  32. Lyse Phagocytes: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Membrane attack complex. Listeria monocytogenes
  33. Escape phagosome: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Shigella, Rickettsia
  34. Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    HIV, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  35. Survive in phagolysosome: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Coxiella burnettii
  36. Histamine: Chemicals released by damaged cells
    Vasodilation, increased permeability of blood vessels
  37. Kinins: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Vasodilation, increased permeability of blood vessels
  38. Prostaglandins: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Intensify histamine and kinin effect
  39. Leukotrienes: (Microbial Evasion of Phagocytosis)
    Increased permeability of blood vessels, phagocytic attachment
  40. Proteins activated in inflammation:
    complement, cytokine, and kinins
  41. Vasodilation in inflammation:
    Histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
  42. Inflammation signs/symptoms
    Redness, swelling (edema), pain, heat
  43. Process of Inflammation
    • 1. Chemicals such as histamine, kinins, prostagladins, leukotrienes, and cytokines are released by damaged cells
    • 2. Blood clot forms
    • 3. Abscess starts to form
  44. Phagocyte Migration and Phagocytosis from Inflammation
    • 1. Margination- phagocytes stick to endothelium
    • 2. Diapedesis- phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells
    • 3. Phagocytosis of invading bacteria
  45. Fever
    Abnormally high body temperature
  46. __________ normally set at ______
    hypothalamus, 37C
  47. Gram-negative endotoxin causes phagocytes to release _____
    interleukin-1 (IL-1)
  48. Hypothalamus releases ______ that reset the hypothalamus to a ______ temperature
    prostaglandins, high
  49. Fever advantages:
    • Increases transferrins
    • increases IL-1 activity
    • Produces interferon
  50. Fever disadvantages:
    • Tachycardia
    • Acidosis
    • Dehydration
    • 44-46C fatal
  51. 3 pathways of complement activation
    • 1. Classical
    • 2. Alternative
    • 3. Lectin
  52. Generalized cascade=
    Start with C3. What happens every time the compliment system is triggered/begins. Steps always follow each other
  53. 3 Outcomes of Complement Activation:
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2. opsonization
    • 3. cytolysis
  54. Capsules prevent
    C Activation
  55. Surface lipid carbohydrates prevent
    membrane attack complex (MAC) formation
  56. Enzymatic digestion of