how relationships between family members are formed and exist
What is connection?
the presence of a warm, stable, loving, attentive bond between parents and child
What is psychological autonomy?
the freedom to form one's own opinions, have privacy, and make decisions for oneself
What is regulation?
parental monitoring, supervision, and rule setting
What is empathy?
the ability to identify with the thoughts, attitudes, and feelings of another person
What is affect?
feelings that exist among family members
What is positive affect?
a relationship characterized by emotional warmth, affection, love, empathy, care, sensitivity, and emotional support
What is negative affect?
a relationship characterized by negative feelings of emotional coldness, rejection, hostility, anger, and insensitivity among family members
What is separation-individuation?
the process by which the adolescent becomes separated from parents and becomes a unique individual
What is autonomy?
independence or freedom
What is behavioral autonomy?
becoming independent and free enough to act on one's own without excessive dependence on others
What is emotional autonomy?
becoming free of childish emotional dependence on parents
What are enmeshed families?
those whose members are too heavily connected with one another
What are disengaged families?
those whose members are isolated from one another
What is cohesion?
the degree to which family members are connected to one another
What is control?
the degree to which parents manage their child's behavior
What is warmth?
the love, approval, and emotional support that parents give their children
What are authoritative parents?
parents who respect their children's wishes but who maintain control in the home
What are authoritarian parents?
parents who set many rules and harshly enforce them
What are permissive parents?
parents who exercise little control over their children's behavior
What are uninvolved parents?
parents who seem disinterested in their children and thus do not supervise them or give them much affection
What is induction?
parental control through offering alternative choices
What is child abuse?
may include not only physical assault of a child but also malnourishment, abandonment, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse
What is sexual abuse?
may include suggestive language, use of pornography, fondling, petting, masturbating, exhibitionism, voyeurism, oral sex, or full vaginal or anal intercourse
What is emotional abuse?
may include constant screaming at the child, calling him or her foul names, giving constant criticism and put-downs, making fun, constantly comparing the child with siblings, ignoring the child, and refusing to talk or listen to him or her
What is child neglect?
failure to provide even minimal care of a child, including adequate food, clothing, shelter, and medical care, as well as for the child's emotional, social, intellectual, and moral needs