nutrition test 2.txt

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stephbrooks1
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29835
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nutrition test 2.txt
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2010-09-07 05:28:48
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nutrition chapt
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nutrition
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  1. 1. Know the three classes of fat.
    Which is the most common type?
    What is the best known example of a sterol?
    phospholipids, sterols, triglyicerides

    triglycerides

    cholesterol
  2. 2. What are the functions (usefulness) of fat in the body and in food?
    • fat is the bodys chief storage form for the energy from food eatin in excess of need.
    • 1. When low on fuel, the body draws on its stored fat for energy.
    • C. Usefulness of Fats in Food – Table 5-1 Energy storesMuscle fuel, Emergency reservw, Padding,Insulation Cell membranes,Raw materies for hormones bile and vitamin d as needed, nutrient, Energy,Transport raw materials for fats,Sensory appeal,Appetite,Satiety texture
  3. 3. What food groups are the major sources of dietary fat in the US diet?
    Fats of meat, milk, and added fats are the main contributer of saturated fat to the us diet

    not
  4. What percentage of the dietary calories should come from fat?
    20 to 35 percent
  5. 5. What is cholesterol? Why do we need cholesterol in order for our body to function properly?
    Consumed from foods of animal origin, including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods, such as grains, fruits and vegetables, and oils from these sources contain no dietary cholesterol.

    • Cholesterol serves as the raw material for
    • 1. Bile
    • 2. Vitamin D
    • 3. Steroid hormones including the sex hormones

    Free cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones, including estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, and bile acids. Humans are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet biologic requirements,
  6. ? What is the recommended limit on dietary cholesterol intake according to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
    less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol
  7. 6. Have a general understanding of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL,
    the factors that impact these blood values,
    and generally speaking should they be higher or lower values. What is the function of HDL? Of LDL?
    vldl
  8. VLDL
    lipoproteins that transport triglycerides and other lipids FROM the liver to the various tissues in the body
  9. LDL

    want it high or low?
    LIVER TO TISSUE

    transport
    cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues. LDL are made from VLDL after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells.

    bad want it to be low
  10. HDL

    want it high or low?
    critical in the process of caring cholesterol away from the body cells to the liver for disposal

    good, want it to be high

    FROM THE TISSUE TO THE LIVER FOR DISPOSAL
  11. When energy balance is _________, glycogen returns glucose to the blood.
    NEGATIVE
  12. When energy balance is ____________:
    a. Carbohydrate is converted to glycogen or faT
    b. Protein is converted to fat
    c. Food fat is stored as fat
    POSITIVE
  13. If _______ runs out, fat supplies fuel as ketone bodies, but ketosis can be dangerous
    GLUCOSE
  14. When energy balance is ________, carbohydrate is converted to glycogen or fat, protein is converted to fat, and food fat is stored as fat. Alcohol delivers calories and encourages fat storage.
    POSITIVE
  15. 3. 1 lb body fat = __________ Calories
    3,500 c
  16. Two major components of the “energy ______” side of the body’s energy budget are basal metabolism and voluntary activities.
    OUT
  17. 2. A third component of energy expenditure is the _______ effect of food.
    thermic
  18. _________ __________ IS The sum total of all the involuntary activites that are necessary to sustain life, including circulation, respiration, temprature maintenance, hormone secreation, nerve activity, and new tissue synthesis, but excluding digestion and voluntary activites. It is the largest component of the average persons daily energy expenditure.
    CAN certain foods can increase or decrease metabolic rate?
    BASAL METABOLISM

    NO
  19. BMR ________ during a weight-loss diet, fasting, or starvationLean tissue is lost
    DECREASES
  20. Lean tissue is more metabolically active then fat tissue, so a way to ______ up your BMR to the maximum possible rate is to make endurance and strength building activities a daily habit so that your body composition moves toward the lean
    SPEED
  21. _________ the physical need for food
    ________ – the psychological desire for food
    HUNGER AND Appetite
  22. __________-is a hormone produced by the stomach (source) and signals the hypothalamus of the brain to stimulate eating (function)
    Gherlin
  23. Leptin:.The __________ tissue hormone leptin suppresses the appetite in response to a gain in body fat.
    adipose
  24. ___________converts fat into compounds that the nervous system can adapt for use and so forestalls the end . it is an adaptation to prolonged fasting or carbohydrate deprivation
    KETOSIS
  25. • Ketosis reduces the nervous systems need for glucose and spares the muscles and other lean tissue from being devoured quickly and prolongs the person starving persons life this means the average fat content of a person could make them live up to ______ TO ______ WEEKS
    6 T0 8
  26. • To prevent death, the body converts _______ to ketones to help feed the nervous system and help spare tissue ________.
    • fat
    • protein
  27. • After about ________ days of fasting, the brain and nervous system can meet most of their energy needs using ketone bodies.
    10
  28. __________ occurs when the digestive organs signal the brain that enough food has been consumed.
    _________: is the feeling of fullness that lasts until the next meal
    Satiation
  29. ________ outweighs satiety in the appetite control system.
    hunger
  30. __________ fat is stored directly under the skin and it is in abdomen thights hips and leges
    Subcutaneous
  31. b. BMI 18.5 to 24.9 _______ weight
    normal
  32. BMI 25 to 29.9 _____________
    overweight
  33. d. BMI >30 _________
    obese
  34. is not good for : athletes- their heavy muscles falsey ________ BMI
    increases
  35. glycogen stored in the ________ can be used to raise blood sugar level; glycogen stored in muscle is only used to provide energy to _________ cells
    • liver
    • Muscle
  36. Lactic acid is produced by the anaerobic breakdown of ________; the liver converts lactic acid into ________.
    Glucose and glucose
  37. For a physically fit individual, doing 10 repetitions of lifting as much weight as you can as fast as you can result in the accumulation of ______ _______
    lactic acid
  38. Which of these is one of the common symptoms of both heat stroke and hyponatremia?
    confusion
  39. __________ decreased concentration of blood sodium
    hyponatremia
  40. ____ _ maximum rate at which an individual consumes oxygen
    VO 2 max .

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