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1. Know the three classes of fat.
Which is the most common type?
What is the best known example of a sterol?
phospholipids, sterols, triglyicerides
2. What are the functions (usefulness) of fat in the body and in food?
- fat is the bodys chief storage form for the energy from food eatin in excess of need.
- 1. When low on fuel, the body draws on its stored fat for energy.
- C. Usefulness of Fats in Food – Table 5-1 Energy storesMuscle fuel, Emergency reservw, Padding,Insulation Cell membranes,Raw materies for hormones bile and vitamin d as needed, nutrient, Energy,Transport raw materials for fats,Sensory appeal,Appetite,Satiety texture
3. What food groups are the major sources of dietary fat in the US diet?
Fats of meat, milk, and added fats are the main contributer of saturated fat to the us diet
What percentage of the dietary calories should come from fat?
20 to 35 percent
5. What is cholesterol? Why do we need cholesterol in order for our body to function properly?
Consumed from foods of animal origin, including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods, such as grains, fruits and vegetables, and oils from these sources contain no dietary cholesterol.
- Cholesterol serves as the raw material for
- 1. Bile
- 2. Vitamin D
- 3. Steroid hormones including the sex hormones
Free cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones, including estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, and bile acids. Humans are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet biologic requirements,
? What is the recommended limit on dietary cholesterol intake according to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol
6. Have a general understanding of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL,
the factors that impact these blood values,
and generally speaking should they be higher or lower values. What is the function of HDL? Of LDL?
lipoproteins that transport triglycerides and other lipids FROM the liver to the various tissues in the body
want it high or low?
LIVER TO TISSUE
transport cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues. LDL are made from VLDL after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells.
bad want it to be low
want it high or low?
critical in the process of caring cholesterol away from the body cells to the liver for disposal
good, want it to be high
FROM THE TISSUE TO THE LIVER FOR DISPOSAL
When energy balance is _________, glycogen returns glucose to the blood.
When energy balance is ____________:
a. Carbohydrate is converted to glycogen or faT
b. Protein is converted to fat
c. Food fat is stored as fat
If _______ runs out, fat supplies fuel as ketone bodies, but ketosis can be dangerous
When energy balance is ________, carbohydrate is converted to glycogen or fat, protein is converted to fat, and food fat is stored as fat. Alcohol delivers calories and encourages fat storage.
3. 1 lb body fat = __________ Calories
Two major components of the “energy ______” side of the body’s energy budget are basal metabolism and voluntary activities.
2. A third component of energy expenditure is the _______ effect of food.
_________ __________ IS The sum total of all the involuntary activites that are necessary to sustain life, including circulation, respiration, temprature maintenance, hormone secreation, nerve activity, and new tissue synthesis, but excluding digestion and voluntary activites. It is the largest component of the average persons daily energy expenditure.
CAN certain foods can increase or decrease metabolic rate?
BMR ________ during a weight-loss diet, fasting, or starvationLean tissue is lost
Lean tissue is more metabolically active then fat tissue, so a way to ______ up your BMR to the maximum possible rate is to make endurance and strength building activities a daily habit so that your body composition moves toward the lean
_________ the physical need for food
________ – the psychological desire for food
HUNGER AND Appetite
__________-is a hormone produced by the stomach (source) and signals the hypothalamus of the brain to stimulate eating (function)
Leptin:.The __________ tissue hormone leptin suppresses the appetite in response to a gain in body fat.
___________converts fat into compounds that the nervous system can adapt for use and so forestalls the end . it is an adaptation to prolonged fasting or carbohydrate deprivation
• Ketosis reduces the nervous systems need for glucose and spares the muscles and other lean tissue from being devoured quickly and prolongs the person starving persons life this means the average fat content of a person could make them live up to ______ TO ______ WEEKS
6 T0 8
• To prevent death, the body converts _______ to ketones to help feed the nervous system and help spare tissue ________.
• After about ________ days of fasting, the brain and nervous system can meet most of their energy needs using ketone bodies.
__________ occurs when the digestive organs signal the brain that enough food has been consumed.
_________: is the feeling of fullness that lasts until the next meal
________ outweighs satiety in the appetite control system.
__________ fat is stored directly under the skin and it is in abdomen thights hips and leges
b. BMI 18.5 to 24.9 _______ weight
BMI 25 to 29.9 _____________
d. BMI >30 _________
is not good for : athletes- their heavy muscles falsey ________ BMI
glycogen stored in the ________ can be used to raise blood sugar level; glycogen stored in muscle is only used to provide energy to _________ cells
Lactic acid is produced by the anaerobic breakdown of ________; the liver converts lactic acid into ________.
Glucose and glucose
For a physically fit individual, doing 10 repetitions of lifting as much weight as you can as fast as you can result in the accumulation of ______ _______
Which of these is one of the common symptoms of both heat stroke and hyponatremia?
__________ decreased concentration of blood sodium
____ _ maximum rate at which an individual consumes oxygen
VO 2 max .