Human Anatomy Chapter 16 Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

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dahotstuff30
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298368
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Human Anatomy Chapter 16 Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
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2015-03-13 23:56:59
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spinal cord conus medullaris cauda equina filum terminale
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Human Anatomy
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Human Anatomy Chapter 16 Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
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  1. Which body regions are innervated by the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord?

    A)head and neck
    B)abdomen and pelvis
    C)lower limbs
    D)upper limbs
    C)lower limbs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What is the collective name for all of the axons that project inferiorly from the spinal cord?

    A)conus medullaris
    B)cauda equina
    C)sacral nerves
    D)coccygeal nerves
    B)cauda equina
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Within the cauda equina is a thin strand of pia mater called the

    A)conus medullaris
    B)filum terminale
    C)denticulate ligament
    D)posterior rootlet
    B)filum terminale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Cell bodies of sensory neurons are housed in each

    A)posterior root
    B)posterior root ganglion
    C)anterior root
    D)anterior gray horn
    B)posterior root ganglion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which structure contains motor axons only?

    A)anterior root
    B)posterior root ganglion
    C)posterior root
    D)anterior gray horn
    B)posterior root ganglion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Within each intervertebral foramen, an anterior root and its corresponding posterior root unite to form a

    A)cranial nerve
    B)sensory nerve
    C)spinal nerve
    D)motor nerve
    C)spinal nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The spinal cord meninges, in order from the outermost to the innermost, are the

    A)dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
    B)pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater
    C)dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
    D)periosteal layer, meningeal layer, arachnoid, and pia mater
    A)dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The tough, protective ____________ extends between adjacent vertebrae to fuse with the connective tissue surrounding the spinal nerves.

    A)pia mater
    B)arachnoid
    C)periosteal layer
    D)dura mater
    D)dura mater
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Between the dura mater and the inner walls of the vertebrae is the

    A)epidural space
    B)subdural space
    C)arachnoid
    D)subarachnoid space
    A)epidural space
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The substance that fills the subarachnoid space is

    A)lymph
    B)synovial fluid
    C)blood plasma
    D)cerebrospinal fluid
    D)cerebrospinal fluid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What are the paired, triangular extensions of the pia mater that help anchor the spinal cord laterally to the dura mater?

    A)suspensory ligaments
    B)posterior rootlets
    C)anterior rootlets
    D)denticulate ligaments
    D)denticulate ligaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The outer region of the spinal cord, composed primarily of myelinated axons, is called the

    A)gray matter
    B)white matter
    C)gray commissure
    D)lateral horns
    B)white matter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The word root commissura most nearly means

    A)a crossing
    B)hidden
    C)a seam
    D)gray
    C)a seam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The lateral horns found in the T1-L2 regions of the spinal cord contain

    A)cell bodies of somatic motor neurons
    B)cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
    C)somatic and visceral sensory nuclei
    D)axons crossing from side to side
    B)cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which spinal cord components contain cell bodies of interneurons and axons of sensory neurons?

    A)posterior horns
    B)lateral horns
    C)anterior horns
    D)all of the above
    A)posterior horns
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. White matter of the spinal cord is partitioned into ____________, each containing both ascending and descending ____________.

    A)fasciculi; tracts
    B)columns; nerves
    C)fasciculi; funiculi
    D)funiculi; tracts
    D)funiculi; tracts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The anterior funiculi are interconnected by the

    A)posterior funiculi
    B)lateral funiculi
    C)white commissure
    D)gray commissure
    C)white commissure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The spinal nerves inferior to ____________ exit below the vertebra of the same number.

    A)C1
    B)T1
    C)C8
    D)T12
    C)C8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which term describes the specific region of skin monitored by a single spinal nerve?

    A)anterior ramus
    B)ramus communicans
    C)dermatome
    D)posterior ramus
    C)dermatome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The anterior rami of spinal nerves T1-T11

    A)are called intercostal nerves
    B)contain only sensory axons
    C)all contribute to the brachial plexus
    D)form the cervical plexus
    A)are called intercostal nerves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The four principal nerve plexuses are the

    A)cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral
    B)brachial, lumbar, sacral, and pelvic
    C)cranial, cervical, brachial, and lumbosacral
    D)cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
    A)cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Branches of which plexuses innervate anterior neck muscles, the skin of the neck, and parts of the head and shoulders?

    A)brachial
    B)lumbosacral
    C)cervical
    D)all of the above
    C)cervical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Nerves from the brachial plexuses innervate the

    A)neck and upper arms
    B)head and neck
    C)thorax and pectoral girdles
    D)pectoral girdles and upper limbs
    D)pectoral girdles and upper limbs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. All of the following branch from the lumbar plexus except the

    A)femoral nerve
    B)ilioinguinal nerve
    C)sciatic nerve
    D)obturator nerve
    C)sciatic nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which nerve innervates the posterior thigh and leg muscles, plantar foot muscles, and skin of the sole of the foot?

    A)tibial
    B)deep fibular
    C)inferior gluteal
    D)common fibular
    A)tibial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which adjective best describes reflex responses?

    A)variable
    B)automatic
    C)deliberate
    D)voluntary
    B)automatic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The first step involved in a typical neural reflex is

    A)activation of a motor neuron
    B)activation of a receptor by a stimulus
    C)response of a peripheral effector
    D)information processing
    B)activation of a receptor by a stimulus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following is not generally involved in a reflex?

    A)transmission of a nerve impulse to a peripheral effector organ
    B)inhibition of an effector by a stimulus from a motor neuron
    C)information processing by interneurons in an integration center
    D)conduction of a nerve impulse to the CNS by a sensory neuron
    B)inhibition of an effector by a stimulus from a motor neuron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. If its receptor and effector are on the same side of the body, a reflex arc is termed ____________; if on opposite sides, it is ____________.

    A)monosynaptic; polysynaptic
    B)parallel; commissural
    C)ipsilateral; contralateral
    D)hypoactive; hyperactive
    C)ipsilateral; contralateral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. A familiar type of monosynaptic reflex that monitors and regulates the length of skeletal muscle is the

    A)stretch reflex
    B)flexor reflex
    C)withdrawal reflex
    D)Golgi tendon reflex
    A)stretch reflex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Where does the adult spinal cord end?

    A)immediately above the filum terminale
    B)at the tip of the conus medullaris
    C)usually at the level of vertebra L1
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  32. Although extending from the end of the spinal cord, the ____________ contains no neural fibers, only fibrous connective tissue.

    A)conus medullaris
    B)filum terminale
    C)cauda equina
    D)cervical enlargement
    B)filum terminale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The posterior and anterior roots of the ____________ must elongate because the spinal cord stops growing before the vertebral column does.

    A)denticulate ligaments
    B)cauda equina
    C)thoracic spinal nerves
    D)all of the above
    B)cauda equina
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Fibers of the ____________ intertwine on one side with those of another meninx, and on the other, with glial cells.

    A)pia mater
    B)dura mater
    C)arachnoid
    D)all of the above
    A)pia mater
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which spinal meningeal layer is sandwiched between a potential space and a very significant space occupied by connective tissue fibers and cerebrospinal fluid?

    A)dura mater (periosteal layer)
    B)dura mater (meningeal layer)
    C)pia mater
    D)arachnoid
    D)arachnoid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Helping to prevent side-to-side and inferior movement of the spinal cord are paired ____________ that connect the pia mater to the dura mater.

    A)fasciculi
    B)anterior rootlets
    C)denticulate ligaments
    D)posterior rootlets
    C)denticulate ligaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The sensory nuclei of the spinal cord contain which type of neuron cell bodies?

    A)motor
    B)sensory
    C)association
    D)bipolar
    C)association
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. In the spinal cord, a ____________ is to a tract as a horn is to a nucleus.

    A)fasciculus
    B)nerve
    C)commissure
    D)funiculus
    D)funiculus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which structures would not be found in the anterior horns of the spinal cord?

    A)cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
    B)glial cells
    C)cell bodies of somatic motor neurons
    D)motor nuclei
    A)cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The roots of the brachial plexus are actually

    A)the posterior roots of spinal nerves
    B)the anterior roots of spinal nerves
    C)the anterior rami of spinal nerves
    D)the posterior rami of spinal nerves
    A)the posterior roots of spinal nerves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Which branches of spinal nerves innervate the limbs and the anterolateral portions of the trunk?

    A)posterior rami
    B)anterior rami
    C)rami communicantes
    D)all of the above
    B)anterior rami
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Of the following, which nerve ranges farthest from its roots in the cervical plexus and is most vital to your health?

    A)supraclavicular
    B)phrenic
    C)ansa cervicalis
    D)lesser occipital
    B)phrenic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. In a freak golfing accident, Jim damaged a nerve in his arm and now has trouble extending his forearm, wrist, and fingers. Which nerve did he damage?

    A)ulnar
    B)axillary
    C)radial
    D)median
    C)radial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. "Crutch palsy" and "drunkard's paralysis" both refer to conditions resulting from injury to the ____________ of the brachial plexus.

    A)inferior trunk
    B)posterior cord
    C)superior trunk
    D)lateral cord
    B)posterior cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which nerve is most likely to be injured by fractures or dislocations of the elbow (or by an extra hard hit to the "funny bone")?

    A)radial
    B)axillary
    C)ulnar
    D)median
    C)ulnar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Damage to which nerve would likely cause the most severe dysfunction in both the urinary and reproductive systems?

    A)genitofemoral
    B)ilioinguinal
    C)pudendal
    D)fibular
    C)pudendal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Bob had polio as a child and now drags his right leg slightly when he walks because of weakness in flexing his hip and extending his knee. In addition, his leg swings outward slightly with each step, and he has difficulty in crossing his right leg over his left. These all result from damage to which nerve?

    A)tibial
    B)obturator
    C)sciatic
    D)femoral
    D)femoral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which branches of the lumbar plexus innervate muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?

    A)iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
    B)genitofemoral and obturator nerves
    C)femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves
    D)all of the above
    A)iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Loss of sensation in a single dermatome on one side of the body could indicate damage to a spinal nerve or to

    A)an anterior root
    B)a posterior root ganglion
    C)a major branch from a nerve plexus
    D)any of the above
    B)a posterior root ganglion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which terminal branch of the brachial plexus innervates the skin just distolateral to the acromion, as well as an abductor and a lateral rotator of the arm?

    A)axillary nerve
    B)musculocutaneous nerve
    C)median nerve
    D)radial nerve
    A)axillary nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. The patterns of ____________ innervation of each pair of spinal nerves, termed ____________, do not match the sensory distribution of any terminal nerve in the limbs because of recombinations in the plexuses.

    A)somatic sensory; dermatomes
    B)visceral sensory; dermatomes
    C)autonomic motor; myotomes
    D)somatic motor, myotomes
    A)somatic sensory; dermatomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. If a reflex arc involves a single interneuron, it is classified as

    A)polysynaptic
    B)contralateral
    C)monosynaptic
    D)ipsilateral
    A)polysynaptic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Clinically, a ____________ reflex accompanied by ____________ strongly indicates brain or spinal cord injury.

    A)hyperactive; clonus
    B)cremasteric; irritation
    C)withdrawal; pain
    D)monosynaptic; paresthesia
    A)hyperactive; clonus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. In males, what reflex protects a testis from damage by elevating it when the medial side of the thigh is briskly stroked?

    A)crossed-extensor
    B)withdrawal
    C)cremasteric
    D)Golgi tendon
    C)cremasteric
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Normal for infants but indicative of CNS damage in adults, the ____________ is essentially a reversal of the ____________ reflex.

    A)Achilles reflex; ankle
    B)stretch response; flexor
    C)triceps reflex; biceps
    D)Babinski sign; plantar
    D)Babinski sign; plantar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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