developmental psy exam 2

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Jiacheng.Liu
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298395
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developmental psy exam 2
Updated:
2015-03-17 02:04:07
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devlepmental
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EXAM 2 PROBLEM SET!
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  1. How many chromosomes dose a zygote contains? (hint: genetic blueprint)

    A 23
    B 46
    C 24
    D48
    B 46
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. How many days for fetus to be ready for birth?
    A 266 days or 9 months
    B 180 days or 6 months
    C 210 days or 7 months
    D 356 days or 1 year
    A 266 days or 9 months
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Experts who study early growth and development
    A Geneticist
    B Embryologists
    C constructionist
    D fundamentalist
    B Embryologists
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Prenatal stages are usually divided as three stages. During the first stage, zygotes divides many times through ___, and it's reported that 8-30% of recognized pregnancies end in ___ during this stage____.

    A meiosis, miscarriage, germinal stage
    B Mitosis, miscarriage, germinal stage
    C meiosis, Spina bifida, Embryonic stage
    D Mitosis, mutation, Fetal stage
    B Mitosis, miscarriage, germinal stage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Germinal stage usually lasts approximately 2 weeks. At the end of this period, how many cells does the blastocyst has?
    • A 8
    • B 16
    • C 32
    • D 250
  6. During the second period of prenatal stages, embryonic period, which layer below offer nutrition for the embryo?
    A: placenta 
    B: amnion 
    C: decidua vera
    D: chorion
    D: chorion
  7. Which layer of blastocyst below is considered as watertight membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the embryo?
    A: amnion
    B:Chorion
    C: Placenta 
    D: Zygote
    A: amnion
  8. What tissue during the embryo period is fed by blood vessels from the mother and connected to the embryo by umbilical cord?
    A: placenta
    B:Uterine cavity
    C: Yolk sac
    D:Chorion frondosum
    A: placenta
  9. when neural tube fails to close, Which illness is considered as fatal
    A spina bifida
    B anencephly 
    C cleft lips
    D diabetes
    B anencephly
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Neutral tube fails to close at bottom is ___ while it fails to close at__ is ___
    A spina bifida, up, anencephly
    B Cleft lips, middle, anencephly (congenital absence ofpart or all of the brain)
    C anencephly, up, spina bifida
    D spina bifida, middle, cleft lips
    A spina bifida, up, anencephly
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Neural tube can be defected and more common when mother has folate ___(type of __vitamin)
    A deficiency A
    B sufficiency B
    C sufficiency A
    D deficiency B
    D deficiency B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. age viability
    • 2nd trimester of Fatal period , thumb sucking
    • –When survival outside the uterus is
    • possible if the brain and respiratory
    • system are sufficiently developed
    • –Approximately 23 weeks after conception
  13. A Woman’s Experiences During
    Pregnancy
    • Environmental
    • events during pregnancy may alter the
    • expected genetic unfolding of the embryo/fetus
  14. •Teratogen
    • •Teratogen
    • –Any disease, drug, or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus
    • •Effects are worse during the critical period
    • •Effects depend on the quality of
    • the prenatal and postnatal environments
  15. Thalidomide
    • –Then
    • it became clear that there are critical periods for
    • different deformities
  16. If mother had taken thalidomide 20–22 days
    • •the
    • baby was born without ears
  17. At 22–27 days
    after conception
    • •the
    • baby often had missing or small thumbs
  18. At 35 or 36 days after conception
    • baby was not
    • affected
  19. •Tobacco
    • •Increased risk of miscarriage
    • •Prematurity,growth retardation, and small size
    • •Respiratory problems
    • Cleft lips and cleft palates
    • •Centralnervous system (CNS) impairment
    • Raises risk of SIDS (sudden infant death?)
  20. •Alcohol
    • Crosses the placenta
    • –Disrupts the normal process of neuronal migration
    • –Can lead to neuronal death
    • –Fetal
    • alcohol syndrome

    •Noticeable physical symptoms; signs of CNS damage; lower than average IQ
  21. •Cocaine
    • spontaneous abortion 
    • –Premature detachment of placenta and fetal strokes later in pregnancy
    • –Contributes to fetal malnourishment, retarded growth, and low birth weight
  22. Rubella
    • –first
    • trimester
    • disease in first
    • two months of
    • pregnancy
    • ––Blindness–Deafness
    • Heart
    • defects

    • –Intellectual
    • disability
  23. maternal diabetes
    • –Risk
    • of premature
    • delivery

    • –Stillbirth
    • or miscarriage

    • –Immature
    • lung
    • development

    • Large
    • fetal size
  24. •Syphilis
    • –Can
    • cause miscarriage or stillbirth in approximately 6% of cases

    –Blindness

    • –Mental
    • retardation
  25. •Radiation
    • –Higher-than-normal
    • rate of intellectual
    • disability,  greater incidence of leukemia and cancers
  26. •Pollutants
    • –Lower
    • birth weight

    • –Preterm
    • birth

    • –Impaired
    • intellectual functioning
  27. The Mother’s State
    • anxiety –irregular
    • heart rate
    • •Lower
    • birth weight
    • •crying
  28. The Mother’s •Malnutrition
    First trimester
    spinal cord

    fewer brain cells
  29. The Mother’s •Malnutrition
    Third trimester
    • smaller
    • neurons, smaller brain, and  smaller
    • child
  30. •Maternal obesity
    • –Offspring
    • obesity and diabetes
  31. The Father’s State
    • –Odds
    • of miscarriage are higher

    • •Approximately
    • twice the
    • rate when fathers are in their 40s or 50s 

    • –Elevated
    • risk of congenital
    • heart defects,
    • neural tube defects, and kidney problems

    • –Odds
    • of Down
    • syndrome higher

    • –Risk
    • factor for schizophrenia
  32. •1990
    • One out
    • of 100 births took place at home(medical
    • problem to be solved with high technology
  33. •Childbirth is a three-stage process
    • 1)First
    • stage of labor mother experiences regular
    • contractions

    • 2)Second
    • stage of labor delivery

    • 3)Third
    • stage of labor delivery of the placenta
  34. •Anoxia
    • –Oxygen
    • shortage
    • •Umbilical
    • cord becomes pinched or tangled

    • Sedatives interfere with
    • baby’s breathing

    • Breech
    • presentation

    • –Severe
    • oxygen shortage

    • Memory
    • impairment

    • Cerebral
    • palsy
  35. Vaginal Delivery
    • Vacuum extractor
    • Forceps
  36. •Cesarean section
    • –11%
    • of
    • first-time cesarean sections are unnecessary

    • –65%
    • of
    • second-time cesareans are unnecessary
  37. •Postpartum depression
    • 15%
    • of
    • new mothers
    • –Lack
    • of social support; previous depression increases risk
  38. The Father’s Experience
    • •Some fathers experience physiological
    • symptoms of pregnancy

    Couvade

    •Bloating

    • •Weight
    • gain

    •Fatigue

    •Insomnia

    •Nausea
  39. •Numerous advantages of
    breast milk over formula
    • –Fewer
    • ear infections and respiratory
    • tract problems for children

    • –Lower risk
    • of ovarian
    • cancer and
    • early breast cancer for mothers
  40. Apgar test
    • –Assessment
    • of the newborn’s heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and reflexes
  41. Risk and Resilience
    • •One-third of
    • at risk children show resilience

    • –Effects
    • of prenatal and perinatal complications decrease over
    • time

    • –Outcomes
    • of early risk depend on the quality of
    • the postnatal environment

    •Protective factors

    • –Personal
    • resources

    • –Supportive
    • postnatal environment
  42. •6 months spend only 25–30% of their
    total sleep in REM sleep
    • Closely
    • resembles adult
    • sleep
  43. One-third of
    infant deaths caused by complications of
    premature birth
  44. •analytic
    reasoning and language
    processing
    • –Left
    • hemisphere controls right side
    • of the body
  45. •Simultaneous
    processing for spatial and visual-motor
    information and emotional
    content
    • –Right
    • hemisphere controls left side
    • of the body
  46. –fatal
    injuries
    • Motor vehicles crashes cause
    • the largest
    • number
  47. gray matter
    • –Associated
    • with increased
    • synaptogenesis just before
    • puberty
  48. white matter
    • consisting of clusters of axons,
    • increases in linear fashion
  49. The Adolescent Brain: What’s
    Going On in There?
    • •Display poor
    • judgment and
    • decision-making
  50. hypo hypo-responsive
    • under, need more •stimulation
    • to
    • achieve the same level of satisfaction
  51. hyper, over  –hyper-responsive
    • has greater
    • need for
    • reward
  52. Girls’
    peak rate of growth for height
    • 12
    • years
  53. Boys’
    peak rate of growth for height is
    • 13.4
    • years

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