Additional Conditions and Test
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What is Temporal Arteritis?
What is another name for it?
What mode is best seen with?
- -The superficial temporal artery's wall is inflamed.
- -Giant Cell
- -On B-Mode
What does temporal arteritis look like on ultrasound?
- -Artery diameter larger in B-Mode.
- -May see an anechoic 'halo' from the edema.
- -intimal thickening causes lumen to be narrowed by an overgrowth of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue.
When is Temporal Arteritis most common? (2)
What are three possible symptoms?
- -Usually occurs on one side than becomes bilateral.
- -Age group is 50 years or older.
- 1.) red mark (line) in temporal area on one side
- 2.) headaches
- 3.) eye sight problems start on one side than can eventually become both sides.
What is another name for Blue Toe Syndrome?
What are the 3 causes of Blue Toe Syndrome?
What are 2 diagnositic tests?
- 1.) emboli from an aneurysms
- 2.) heart
- 3.) ulcerated plaque may travel to smallest arteries.
- 1.) arterial duplex with ABI's
- 2.) Art. Seg.
What is Takayasu's Disease caused from?
What happens to the artery? (3)
Can cause? (2)
Seen commonly in?
- Unknown cause- likely autoimmune mechanism
- 1.) Media and adventitia become inflamed.
- 2.) Fibroelastic tissue multiples and causes the walls to become thickened.
- 3.) Artery shortens
- -Appears: intima looks "peddle like"
- 1.) Small aneurysms can develop
- 2.) Thrombus can form
- Commonly seen in young Asian women
What is another name for Buerger's Disease?
Caused by what?
Affects who commonly?
Could cause what? (4)
- -Thromboangiitis Obliterans
- -Small to medium sized arteries in arms and leg
- -Unknown cause
- -Young male smokers
- -Arterial thrombosis or thrombophlebitis.
- ---Which can cause:
- 1.) Ischemia
- 2.) Occlusion
- 3.) Amputation
- 4.) Neurosis/Arterial Ulcers
How does arterial thrombosis or thrombophlebitis cause ischemia?
Blood can't get through to tissue
How does Thromboangiitis Obliterans affect the arteries? (2)
1.) Causes focal inflammations in the outer layer of the artery wall.
2.) The intima thickens but no lipid formation
What is another name for Periarteritis nodosa?
What does it cause? (2)
Most common in? (2)
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- 1.) focal inflammatory lesions in small to medium sized arteries.
- 2.) inflammation involves all layers of the artery
- 1.) more common in men than women
- 2.) commonly in ages 50-60
- May cause aneurysms
- Symptom: little red blotches on skin
- Do arterial duplex
What does MRA stand for?
What does it use? (3)
How many planes is it in?
What does the images (compare) look like?
What two things are well distinquished from each other?
- -Magnetic resonance imaging
- 1.) Radiofrequency energy
- 2.) strong magnetic field
- 3.) non-ionizing radiation
- -Multi planes
- -Look like angiograms
- -Flowing blood and soft tissue without contrast agents
What are 3 limitations to MRA?
1.) Metallic clips, pacemakers, monitoring equipment
2.) Inability to accurately assess degree of stenosis
3.) Can overestimate stenosis due to slow flow or turbulence, resulting in loss of magnetic signal
What are 3 things that MRA use to look at?
- 1.) AAA
- 2.) dissections
- 3.) PVD
What does CT stand for?
What does it use? (2)
What are 3 things that CT is used for?
- Computerized Tomography
- - Ionizing radiation to get transverse images
- - Can use IV contrast
- 1.) Determine size of aorta
- 2.) Size of aneurysm
- 3.) ID's renal arteries to aorta
What are 5 limitations to CT?
- 1.) Patient movement
- 2.) Presence of metal surgical clips will lessen image quality
- 3.) Requires more time and is more expensive than US.
- 4.) One plane is used
- 5.) Limited on smaller arteries trying to locate PVD
What does PET stand for?
What does it show? (2)
What does it not show?
How does it work? (2)
- Position Emission Tomography
- -Chemical function and metabolism of an organ or tissue.
- -Creates a 3D image of areas of increased metabolism.
- Does not show body's anatomy
- 1.) pt. receives IV injection of radioactive fluorine.
- 2.) needs to lie still for approx. 45 minutes while isotopes circulates throughout the body
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