opioids

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Author:
klerandi
ID:
298417
Filename:
opioids
Updated:
2015-03-15 00:35:15
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pcol
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pcol
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pcol
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  1. an unpleasant sensation that can be either acute or chronic and that is a consequence of complex neurochemical processes in the peripheral and CNS
    pain
  2. are natural or synthetic compounds that produce a morphine-like effect
    opioids
  3. opiate is obtained from the juice of _______
    opium poppy
  4. 3 major receptor families that mediate the major effects of opium
    μ (mu)

    Κ (kappa)

    δ (delta)
  5. 5 general areas of CNS  that are involved in integrating inforamtion about pain
    • brainstem
    • medial thalamus
    • spinal cord
    • hypothlamus
    • limbic system
  6. major analgesic drug contained in crude opium

    prototype strong agonist
    morphine
  7. is present in crude opium in lower concentrations and is lesser potent
    codeine
  8. a neuropeptide that modulate pain perception in the spinal cord
    substance P
  9. most common cause of death in acute opioid overdose
    respiratory depression
  10. in the eyes, morphine causes ______ results from stimulation of μ and k receptors
    miosis
  11. is a synthetic opioid with an atropine-like action that is commonly employed in obstetrics
    meperidine
  12. an opioid that has 100 fold the analgesic property of morphine; used as anesthesia
    fentanyl
  13. semisynthetic opioid derivative of morphine
    oxycodone
  14. toxic metabolite excreted in the urine when Meperidine is N-Methylated in the urine
    normeperidine
  15. conjugate of morphine that is a very potent analgesic
    Morphine-6-glucuronide
  16. endogenous peptide neurotransmitters
    • endorphine
    • erkephalin
    • nociceptin
    • glutamate
  17. opioid antagonists that are used incase of overdose
    • nalmefene
    • naloxone
    • naltrexone
  18. analgesic properties of the opioids are primarily mediated by ___ receptors
    μ
  19. increasing postsynaptic K+ efflux causes
    hyperpolarization
  20. the following statements are true about hyperpolarization
    change in cell membrane's potential that makes it more negative

    caused by efflux of K+ through K channel

    caused by efflux of Cl- through Cl- Channel
  21. actions of morphine
    • urticara
    • antidiarrheal
    • antitussive
    • urinary retention
  22. fat soluble opioids
    • fentanyl
    • sulfentanil
    • methadone
    • heroin
  23. repeated use of morphine produces tolerance in the following effects:
    • analgesic
    • respiratory depression
    • euphoric
    • sedative
  24. detoxification of heroin dependent individuales is accomplished through the administration of
    • methadone
    • clonidine
    • buprenorphine
    • naltrexone
  25. diacetylated morphine
    heroin
  26. 0-methylated morphine
    codeine
  27. the three opioid receptors are members of what family
    G protein coupled receptor family
  28. duration of action of morphine
    4-6 hrs
  29. actions of M O R P H I N E
    • miosis
    • out of it (sedation)
    • respiratory depression
    • pneumonia
    • hypotension
    • infrequency (urinary retention/constipation)
    • nausea and vomiting
    • emesis
  30. is a synthetic, orally effective opioid that is equal in potency to morpine but induces less euphoria and longer duration of action
    methadone
  31. is used in controlled withdrawal of dependent user of morphine and heroin
    methadone

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