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2015-03-15 01:13:56
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  1. an intimate mixture of dry, finely divided drugs or chemicals
  2. prepared agglomerates of powdered materials
  3. advantages of powders
    • versatile and convenient
    • doc has options to deviated from the conventional dose
    • stable
    • can be reduced to desired size for rapid absorption
    • less incompatibility
    • small particles offer large surface area
    • can be mix with milk, juice to become palatable
    • economic wise
  4. disadvantages of powders
    • may be misunderstood in correct method of use
    • undesirable to take bitter or unpleasant tasting drugs by oral admin
    • difficult to protect from hygroscopic, deliquescent or aromatic materials from decomposition
    • individually wrapped dose or sachet are required and it increases expense
    • must be homogeneous blend of all the components
    • must be the most advantageous particle size
  5. types of powders
    • bulk powder
    • divided powder
    • dry powder
    • dusting powder
  6. composed of a large # of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or titled, in what bottles
    • bulk powders
    • glass or plastic bottles
  7. individual powders packed separately that is volatile, hygroscopic or deliquent; what bottles
    • divided powders
    • foil or plastic bottles
  8. powdered agent made up of a base and an active ingredients
    dusting powders
  9. device that delivers medicated to the lungs in the form of dry powders
    dry powder inhaler
  10. other name of dry powder inhaler
    insufflator or nasal powders
  11. sizes of sieves according to USP
    • very coarse no. 8
    • coarse no. 20
    • moderately coarse no. 40
    • fine no. 60
    • ver fine no. 80
  12. particle size and analysis method:
    • sieving
    • microscopy
    • sedimentation rate
    • light energy diffraction / light scattering
    • laser holography
    • cascade impaction
  13. simplest and the most commonly used method used for determining particle size distribution; by mechanical shaking
  14. measured using calibrated grid background
  15. terminal settling velocity of particles through a liquid medium in a gravitational and centrifugal environment and calculated by Stroke's Law
    sedimentation rate
  16. determined by the reduction of light reaching the sensor
    light energy diffraction
  17. pulsed laser is fired through an aerosolized particle spray and is photographed in 3D with a holographic camera
    laser holography
  18. particle size driven by an air stream will hit a surface in its path
    cascade impaction
  19. methods in small scale comminution
    • grinding or truituration
    • levigation
  20. method used for ointments or suspension
  21. methods in large scale comminution
    • millsĀ 
    • pulverizers
  22. two or more powdered substances are to be combined to form a uniform mixture
    blending powders
  23. employed both to comminute and to mix powders
  24. small amount of potent substances is to be mixed by large amount of diluent
    geometric dilution
  25. mixing of 2 or more powders by passing it in sifter
  26. blending the powders in a rotating chamber