WFC134 Final Review

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  1. Which family of Anurans is known as toads
  2. What is Bidder's organ and in which family is it found?
    • a rudimentary ovary which becomes a full ovary if the male testes are removed
    • Bufonidae
  3. Which Anuran has internal fertilization?
  4. Which family contains the Psychedelic toad?
    • Bufonidae
    • many others in this family┬áhave aposematic coloration as well
  5. What is the most speciose Anuran family?
  6. Which family is the most common arboreal species for temperate regions in anurans?
  7. Which family has intercalary elements and what are they?
    • Hylidae
    • cartilaginous extensions between the finger bones which give greater dexterity for tree climbing
  8. Which species has a tadpole that is much larger than its adult morph?
    Psuedis paradoxa
  9. Which family of Anurans contains the "Glass Frogs?"
  10. What is the difference between Centrolenidae and Hylidae in terms of their feet?
    • Both have intercalary elements with expanded toe discs
    • BUT Hylidae has claw-shaped terminal phalanges while Caentrolenidae's are t-shaped
  11. What is the purpose of toe discs?
    Use of microepithelial cell with capillary adhesion and surface tension
  12. Which family was Ceratophyidae previously a part of?
  13. Which family of Anurans is known as the "Pac-man frogs?"
  14. Which Anuran family has an egg tooth?
  15. Which Anuran family is very small, but surprisingly loud?
  16. Which family contains Rheobatrachus silus and Assa darlingtoni and what are each of these frogs known for?
    • Myobatrachidae
    • Rheo = gastric brooding frog (extinct)
    • Assa = Australian pouched frog
  17. Which Anuran family has a fleshy proboscus on its snout?
  18. Which family male will swallow the eggs and hold in its vocal pouch?
    Rhinderma darwini
  19. Which Anuran family has a fermisternal girdle?
  20. To which family do the Dart poison frogs belong?
  21. Which is the only Anuran family with a frog extending up into the Arctic circle?
  22. Which family once contained the world's largest frog?
    • Ranidae
    • Today the Goliath frog is in the family Conrauidae
  23. Which Anuran family is home to the gliding frogs?
  24. Which Anuran family is found ONLY in Madagascar?
  25. Which Neobatrachian is monophyletic?
  26. What is the smallest frog?
    • Paedophyrne amanuensis
    • or Stumffia
  27. Which two Neobatrachian families only use direct development?
    Strabomatidae and Eleutherodactylidae
  28. What was once the most speciose vertebrate genus?
    Prismantis within the family Strabomatidae
  29. What are the morphological adaptations of Caecilians which allow them to live underground?
    • No limbs/limb girdles
    • Compact skull
    • Olfactory tentacle
  30. What is the olfactory tentacle in Caecilians?
    an outgrowth of the brain which either exits through the eye socket or a separate hole between nose and eye
  31. What are the basal Caecilian groups?
    • Rhinatrematidae
    • Ichthyophiidae
    • - both are oviparous
  32. Which Caecilian family has well developed eyes and bright yellow stripes on its sides?
  33. Which Caecilian family has two well-developed lungs?
  34. What is Atretochoana eiselti?
    The largest lungless tetrapod in the Typhlonectidae family of Caecilians
  35. Which caecilians practice maternal care?
  36. What is a phallodeum?
    The caecilians copulatory organ which is part of the cloaca and used for internal fertilization
  37. What are annuli?
    Folds which ring the body of Caecilians
  38. What are the two major differences between the basal and non-basal Caecilian groups?
    • Rhintrematidae and Ichthyyopiidae are oviparous and tailed
    • Typhlonectidae and Caecillidae are viviparous and both lack a tail
  39. What teeth types do reptiles possess?
    • Homodont except for snakes, some of which are polyphodont (venomous)
    • Acrodont (fused in groove), PLeurodont (inner wall attachment), and Thecodont (long cylindrical base in a deep socket)
  40. Which reptile groups need more structural integrity in their teeth and why?
    Crocs which have bigger prey and so are Thecodonts
  41. What are the three upper layers of reptile skin and what purpose does each serve?
    • 1. Epidermis
    • 2. Stratum corneum: flat, dead, keratinized cells
    • 3. Stratum germinativum: deepest layer of epidermis gives rise to outer layers
  42. What is ecdysis?
    shedding of skin
  43. Which reptiles have heat-sensing pits and in which are they homologous/homoplasies?
    • Snakes
    • Pit vipers = homoplasy
    • Boas and pythons = homologies
  44. What is temporal emargination?
    Loss of structure at rear of skull, found in Testudines due to the retraction of their skull into their shell
  45. What are the three parts of the shell?
    • 1. carapace
    • 2. plastron
    • 3. bridge
  46. Describe the Testudines cloacal vent?
    Longitudinal (as opposed to the snakes and lizards)
  47. How are Testudines' sex determined?
    Temperature: hot girls, cool guys
  48. What is the pivotal temp?
    defined as the temp. @ which a nest will produce equal sex ratios
  49. What was the first major break in the turtle lineages?
    • Pleurodira and Cryptodira
    • Morphological, pleuro = side neck, crypto = hidden-neck
  50. Which Testudines are monotypic or only have a few species?
    • Monotypic: Dermochelyidae, Dermatemydidae, Carettochelyidae
    • 2 genera, 4 species: Chelydridae
  51. Which of the two lineages has anterior pelvis fusion?
  52. Which of the three Pleurodira does NOT have a mesoplastra?
  53. What is a mesoplastra?
    strip of bone devoted to bridge of carapace and plastron
  54. Which family within Pleurodira has scales on its head?
  55. Which family within Pleurodira has a cervical skute?
  56. From which family do the snapping turtles come?
  57. How are Cryptodira heads withdrawn?
    Via vertical flexure
  58. What species has the lingual lure?
    Alligator snapping turtles
  59. Which family used to be a part of Chelydridae, but was separated via molecular differences?
  60. Which families are sea turtles a part of?
    Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae
  61. What are horny skutes?
    Platelike skull coverings
  62. What is regional endothermy?
    a counter-current mechanism that utilizes muscular heat which warm blood transferred out via arteries while cold blood is transferred in via veins, and the warm blood within the arteries also warms the incoming blood
  63. Which sea turtle has a leathery skin covering?
  64. Which family has the largest species of all turtles?
  65. Which family is a monotypic river turtle?
  66. Which Testudine family includes stink turtles and has 3 keels?
  67. Which family includes the pig-nosed turtle?
  68. What is the only exception to the only sea turtles have flippers rules?
  69. How does a sea turtle swim?
    With both arms in synchrony
  70. Which family contains soft-shelled turtles?
  71. Which Testudine family contains the Tortoises?
  72. Which is the most terrestrially evolved and adapted family?
  73. Which turtle family is one of the most widely distributed freshwater species?
  74. Which turtle family includes the box turtles?
  75. Which turtle has a slight sagittal crest and what does it indicate?
    • Trionychidae
    • indicates a carnivorous species
  76. What is the only brackish water turtle?
    Malaclemys terrapin
  77. What is the most speciose turtle group?
  78. Which two groups have deeply emarginated temporal areas?
    Geomyidae and Emydidae
  79. Which turtle has extreme sexual dimorphism?
    The diamondback in Emydidae
  80. Which family do red-eared slider belong in?
  81. Which turtle family includes Lonesome George?
  82. What turtle has a weakened/reduced lower jaw and why?
    Dermochelys coriacea because it eats jellyfish
  83. What is the name of the giant, ancient turtle?
  84. What is the largest freshwater turtle in terms of carapace?
    Podocnemis expansa
  85. Which turtle family calls?
    • Chelidae
    • Chelodina
  86. Which turtle relies on suction feeding rather than biting?
    • Mata mata
    • Chelidae
  87. What is caudal autonomy?
    • self-dissection of tail
    • breakage of the vertebrae itself
    • loss in response to stress
  88. Explain temperature dependence in lizards
    Hot guys, and cool girls (which is opposite to that of turtles)
  89. What reproductive mode does the Tuatara have?
    grooves and folds which is the ancestral condition
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WFC134 Final Review
2015-03-16 05:43:42

WFc134 Final Review
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