Psych Test 2E: Life Development

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  1. Development psychology
    changes over the life span
  2. What are the three theoretical issues?
    nature vs. nurture

    continuity vs. stages

    stability vs. chnage
  3. Nature vs. urture
    genetics vs. environment

    Both: Interactionist approach
  4. Continuity Vs. stages
    Continuity: Constantly changing and growing

    Stages: stages you hit and develop (periods of intense change)

    Both: interactionist approach-- there are periods of stages, but you're always growing
  5. Stability vs. Change
    Stability: Same person you were before;; you've been stable

    Change: drastic change; subject to change due to traumatic experiences

    Both: you mature but have remnants of your childhood (stability); stable personality, ut your environment changes aspects of you
  6. Who is correct?
    interactionist approach

    Biopsychosocial model gained popularity

    Biological factors: genetic, etc

    psychological: learning, thinking, etc

    Social: family, school, etc
  7. How do we collect data to identify changes?
    • There are three approaches
    • 1) cross-sectional
    • 2) longitudinal 
    • 3) Cross-sequential
  8. Cross-sectional method

    - What is it? 
    - Problems?
    Cross-sectional: different groups at the same time to identify differences

    Problem: cohort efect= generation that you're born into impacts your development
  9. Longitudinal method
    Take a group and follow them over a long period of time; one group multiple times to identify changes

    • Problems:
    • 1) morality effect: participants exit in some way/ death, withdraw, etc.
    • 2) testing effect: long term memory leads people to put answers down that you want to hear
    • 3) history effect: something happens in society that impacts your study
  10. Cross-sequential studdy
    take multiple groups and bring all of the groups back
  11. What is culture?
    it is largely invisible and consists of ideals, values, and assumptions that are widely shared among a given gorup and that guide specific behaviors
  12. What are some examples of culture?
    things such as political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender, age, exucation, money, parenting styles, and peers
  13. Within each culture, people have a prevailing set of ideas or beliefs that attempt to explain the world around them. This is __.
  14. Three stages of prenatal development
    Stage 1
    • Germinal Stage of Prenatal Development: 14 days
    • - the zygote duplicates into many cells= last two weeks
  15. Three stages of prenatal development
    Stage 2
    • Embryonic Stage of Prenatal Development
    • - Day 15- 6 weeks

    basic blueprints form: organs and limbs form

    teratogens are most harmful during this period: substance enters the body that negatively impacts the baby
  16. Three stages of prenatal development
    Stage 3
    • Fetal Stage of Prenatal Development
    • - Beginning of month three-->birth

    Things really starting to take shape and come together
  17. Teratogens
    external substances taht invade the womb and cause birth defects

    There are of concern in the embryonic stage because it is the critical period--a developmental epoch in which certain developmental changes must occur, or they never will
  18. What are some teratogens and what are the effects?
    Stress, alcohol, drugs, radiation, etc. 

    Fetal alcohol syndrome: leads to intellectual disabilities and cleft lip
  19. What are the senses like in a baby?
    Vision: baby's vision is terrible; they love looking at faces

    Hearing: not good; neurons not developed enough

    Taste and Smell: very good

    Touch: they feel pain, temp, and pressure; good sense
  20. Reflexes
    unlearned responses

    Rooting: trying to root for things in their environment

    Sucking: knows how to suc already

    grasping: natural inclination to grasp
  21. If reflexes are missing, what is it an indication of?
    brain damage
  22. Reflexes should what?
    disappear after the first year; if they don't go away, there is an issue
  23. Adolescence
    - problems with adolescent thinking
    adolescent egocentrism: your POV is the only one that exists

    occurs when adolescents fail to differentiate between what others are thinking and their own thoughts
  24. Problems with adolescent thinking cont.
    Personal fable: you do risky things because "it can never happen to you" and "you're not a statistic."; uniqueness about you that makes you untouched to harm

    Imaginary audience: believe everything people are thinking is about you
  25. Theorists in Social-Emotional Development
    1) John Bowlby
    His research was working with WWII orphans

    Found: higher levels of depression and suicide, difficulty with relationships, self- esteem, social and emotional disturbances; mental disorders
  26. Theorists in Social-Emotional Development
    2) Harry Harlow
    Motherless Monkey Experiment

    Explored two hypotheses about what leads infants to develop attachments to their mothers: the experience of being fed or the warm, conforting contact the baby gets from the mother

    Results: comfort > nourishment
  27. Theorists in Social-Emotional Development
    3) Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation Experiment
    • Babies react in three ways
    • 1) securely attached use mom and dad as home base; run bac to them in a strange situation; reaction to them leaving: cry/ come back: stop crying

    2) avoidant: insecure attachment: mom leaves, babe doesn't care; mom comes back, babe doesn't care

    3) anxious/ambivalent: insecure attachment/ mom leaves= baby cries/ mom comes back= baby angry at mom for leaving them

    4) Disorganized: you don't know what reaction you're gonna get (insecure attachment)
  28. Four types of parenting styles
    • 1) Authoritarian
    • 2) Authoritative
    • 3) Permissive
    • 4) Neglectful
  29. Authoritarian
    Rigid and punitive; inflexible

    value unquestining obedience and mature responsibility from children

    Remain aloof and detached

    Children are easily upset, moody, aggressive, and generally have poor communication skills 

    Cold at times and don't like to be questioned

    Effect on kids: aggressive, bossy, moody, bad COM skills
  30. Permissive
    • give you everything you want
    • They want to be your friend
    • Not many demands/ responsibility
  31. Authoritative
    • foster more give-and take
    • more responsibility divided

    High expectations

    Let you question authority; give you privileges and is encouraging
  32. Neglectful
    • parents are not around
    • Kids hold all of the responsibilities to take care of selves and others

    not being neglectful because tthey want to
  33. Thomas and Chess
    Temperament theory: biology and personality development

    Said that temperament is an individual's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response; temperament is what you're born with
  34. Three types of temperament
    what you're born with
  35. What are the three types of temperament?
    • Easy: scheduled, routined, happy; Does't cry all the time
    • Difficult: cry constantly; not on a schedule; moody; stomach probs; doesn't eat when they need to
    • Slow to warm up: hesitant
  36. What did Thomas and Chess conclude?
    They concluded that, if you take your parents' style and match it up with the right temperament, then you're good to go

    Goodness of Fit between the child's nature, parental behavirs, and the social and environment setting
  37. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's Theory of Death
    If you're give the idea that you'll pass or some one you love is taken from you, you go through five stages
  38. What are the five stages?
    Denial of the terminal condition




Card Set:
Psych Test 2E: Life Development
2015-03-15 15:34:57
Test Two
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