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Three emperors League
- Created in 1873
- linked the monarchs of Austria Hungary, Germany, and Russia in an alliance against radical movements.
In 1882, who made up the triple alliance?
- Italy(motivated by its tensions with France)
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
Bismarck created this; both states would promise neutrality of the other was attacked
In early 1894, France and Russia became
South African War (1899-1902)
- Between the british and the tiny dutch republics of southern africa; major impact on british policy
- Caused anti-british feelings
France's skillful foreign minister who wanted better relations with britain and was willing to accept british rule in egypt in return for british support of french plans to dominate moracco.
Result of the Moroccan crisis and Algeciras conference?
- A diplomatic revolution
- Britain, France, Russia, and even the US began to see Germany as a potential threat
After centuries ______ finally destroyed the ottoman empire in Europe
In 1915, who did Italy join? Why?
- Italy joined the triple entente (G.B., France, and Russia)
- Joined because they were promised Austrian Territory
- Ottoman Empire
What happens in April 1917?
The U.S declares war on Germany
- Free market capitalism was abandoned.
- Government planning boards established priorities and decided what should be produced and consumed.
- rationing, price and wage controls, and even restrictions on workers' freedom movements were imposed by the gov.
War Raw Materials Board
- Created by Walter Rathenau (Jewish, German industrialist)
- used to ration and distribute raw materials.
- Food was rationed in accordance with physical need
Reichstag the Auxiliary Service Law
- Required all males between 16 and 72 to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort.
- This was also aimed at women and children
Ministry of Munitions
- Created by Lloyd George in G.B
- Organized private industry to produce for the war, controlled harbors, allocated labor, fixed wage rates, and settled disputes.
- Successfully followed in Germany's footsteps
English writer; recalled how his small grocery store thrived in the slums of Manchester; poor ppl were able to afford more.
- Irish nationalists rose up against British rule
- rebels were crushed and their leaders executed
- leader- Karl Liebknecht "Down with the gov! Down with the war!"
- Captured youth and war in her famous autobiography "Testament of Youth"
- Served in military hospitals
- Her Loved one, Roland, died in war
- France's ruthless and effective wartime leader in 1917
- Established a virtual dictatorship; pouncing on strikers and jailing opponents
What did Nicholas II believe was the key to Russia's greatness?
Maintaining the sacred inheritance of supreme royal power, and the orthodox church
- council of soldiers and workers deputies
- mass meeting of 2-3 thousand workers, soldiers, and intellects
- Rival of provisional Gov
Army Order No 1
Issued to all Russian Military forces prove gov was forming
What were Lenins main ideals
- turned to The communist manifesto
- Stressed capitalism could only be destroyed through violent revolution
- social rev was possible
- *the necessity of a highly disciplined workers' party; strictly controlled by a dedicated elite of intellectuals and a leader like himself.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- Russia loses one third of its population
- trotsky begins to rebuild the russian army
- Gov moves from Petrograd to moscow
- Lenin's camp
- "Majority group"
- "minority group"
- Lenin's suppporter
- independent radical marxist that executed the bolshevik's seizure of power
- convinced petrograd to make a special military-revolutionary committee and to make him its leader
- Made by the Bolsheviks;
- made to make a new constitution
- democratically elected
Who were the whites and the reds
Why did lenin and the bolsheviks win?
- They controlled the center while the whites we disunited
- developed a better army
- trotsky leadership was decisive
- revolutionary terror
- war communism
- utilized by the bolsheviks
- the application of the total war concept to a civil conflict
- seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone tot work.
- Lenin and Trotsky's mobilization of the economy to win the civil war in Russia
- When lenin wins there is no more W.C
old starts secret police; hunted thousand of suspected foes.
What did the final peace settlement do
plant a seed for WW2
How did the German Revolution resemble the Russian Revolution
- A popular uprising welled from below, toppled an authoritarian monarchy, and brought the establishment of a liberal provisional republic
- liberate and moderate socialists
- HOWEVER in germany the moderates won
Why did the moderates win in Russia
- The social democratic party was really pink not red
- they wanted to establish real political democracy and civil liberties.
- favored gradual elimination of socialism
- German social democrats accepted defeat and ended the war the day they took power
League of Nations
Wilson believed that only a permanent international organization could protect member states from aggression and could avert future wars.
What compromise did Clemenceau agree to with Germany?
He gave up the french demand for a Rhineland buffer state in return for a formal defensive alliance with the US and Great Britain
The Treaty of Versailles
- between the allies and germany
- key and first step to restoring international order.
- Germany's territorial losses were minor, thanks to Wilson
- Parts of Germany were ceded by the new polish states
- "War guilt Clause"
- german gov protested but it was no use
Ottoman Empire and the Treaty of Versailles
- they were promised an independent nation, but when wartime stopped, France and Great Britain decided to divide and rule the empire
- Wilson wanted his "self determination" for the ottoman empire
The Balfour Declaration
- made by british foreign secretary Arthur Balfour
- Declared britain favored "A national home for the Jewish people" in palestine without prejudicing their rights
What countries were the two obstacles for peace at the end of the war
- Germany and the US
- Germany was plagues by revolutions, plots, and disillusionment
- liberal and catholic supporters faced great challenge
- needed time
- The US rejected Wilson's handiwork
- refused to accept league of nations and refused the alliance with france and GB
Impact of the war
- it was total war
- swept away monarchs and multinational empires
- self determination spread through europe
- Created 2 revolutions
- 1) the russian revolution; was it marxian or socialist? posed a powerful ongoing revolutionary challenge to europe
- 2) administrative revolution;need to mobilize entire societies and economies for total war
- the war to end all wars led to world war 2