Medical Terminology Chapter #9

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Medical Terminology Chapter #9
2015-03-15 16:24:28
medical terminology chris son wsu

Medical Terminology Chapter #9
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  1. located on the superior surface of each kidney
    adrenal glands or suprarenal glands
  2. hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
    steroid hormones
  3. regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antiinflammatory effects
  4. maintain salt and water balance
    mineral corticosteroids
  5. influences development and maintenance of male sex characteristics
  6. hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affects the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
  7. secreted in response to fear or physical injury
    epinephrine or adrenaline
  8. secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
  9. located on both sides of the uterus in the femal pelvis, secrete estrogen and progesterone
  10. responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics
  11. regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy
  12. endocrine tissue within the pancreas; secretes insulin and glucagon
    islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  13. a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islet of Langerhans that is responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
  14. a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans that serves to regulate carbohydrates metabolism by raising blood sugar levels
  15. two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck
    parathyroid gland
  16. regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  17. located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
    pineal gland
  18. exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
  19. a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
  20. located at the base of the brain; considered the master gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands
    pituitary gland or hypophysis
  21. anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
  22. stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  23. stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  24. initiates the growth of ovarian follicles; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and the production of sperm in males
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  25. causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
    luteinizing hormones (LH)
  26. affects skin pigmentation
    melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
  27. influneces growth
    growth hormone (GH)
  28. stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
    prolactin or lactogenic hormone
  29. posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis
  30. influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  31. influences uterine contraction
  32. located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone
  33. affects masculinization and reproduction
  34. located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin
    thymus gland
  35. regulates immune response
  36. located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and calcitonin
    thyroid gland
  37. regulates metabolism
    triiodothyronine and thyroxine
  38. regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  39. protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
    exophthalmus or exophthalmos
  40. glucose in the urine
    glucosuria or glycosuria
  41. shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places
  42. an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
  43. an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
  44. high blood sugar
  45. low blood sugar
  46. an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
  47. deficient level of potassium in the blood
  48. abnormally increased secretion
  49. abnormally decreased secretion
  50. presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
    ketosis or ketoacidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  51. all chemical process in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
  52. excessive thirst
  53. excessive urination
  54. a collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; may be due to excessive production by the adrenal gland or a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid hormones
    cushing syndrome
  55. excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia
    adrenal virilism
  56. metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria
    diabetes mellitus (DM)
  57. diabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
    type 1 diabetes mellitus
  58. diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
    type 2 diabetes mellitus
  59. a condition resulting from excessive amounts of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions
  60. inflammation of the pancreas
  61. hypersecretion of the parathyroid gland, usually caused by a tumor
  62. hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
  63. disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped
  64. a condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature
    pituitary dwarfism
  65. a condition of hypersecretion of growth hormones during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone
    pituitary gigantism
  66. enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet or inflammation
  67. a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball, goiter
  68. the most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by an autoimmune defect that creates antibodies that stimulates the overproduction of thyroid hormones
    Graves disease
  69. a condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse and often obesity
  70. advanced hypothroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin
  71. condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature
  72. measurement of the level of sugar in the blood
    blood sugar or blood glucose (BS)
  73. measurement of blood sugar level after fasting for 12 hours
    fasting blood sugar (FBS)
  74. measurement of blood sugar level after a meal
    postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
  75. measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, the measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter for 4 to 6 hours
    glucose tolerance test (GTT)
  76. a molecule in hemoglobin, the level of which rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar
    glycohemoglobin or glycosylated hemoglobin(HbAlc)
  77. measurement of the level of specific ions along with carbon dioxide in the blood; electrolytes are essential for maintaining water balance as well as nerve, muscle and heart activity
    electrolyte panel
  78. measurement of the thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine the efficiency of glandular secretions including T3, T4, and TSH
    thyroid function study
  79. chemical test to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as a screen for diabetes
    urine sugar and ketone studies
  80. used on the head to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland
    computed tomography (CT)
  81. testing are useful in identifying abnormalities of the pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland and thyroid glands
    magnetic resonance imagining (MRI)
  82. images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as thyroid ultrasound
  83. radionuclide scan of the thyroid to visualized the radioactive accumulation of previously injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
    thyroid uptake and image
  84. excision of the adrenal gland
  85. excision of the pituitary gland
  86. excision of the of the pancrease
  87. excision of the parathyroid gland
  88. excision of the thymus gland
  89. excision of the thyroid gland
  90. use of an insulin delivery device that is worn on the body and subcutaneously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to the individual needs of the diabetic patient
    continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or insulin pump therapy
  91. use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells; treatment is administered in a nuclear medicine facility
    radioiodine therapy
  92. an of several agents used to control blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes mellitus
    antidiabetic drug
  93. an agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
    antithyroid drug
  94. treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency
    hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  95. a drug that lowers the blood glucose level
    hypoglycemic or antihyperglycemic