galenicals

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klerandi
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298484
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galenicals
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2015-03-15 19:46:30
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  1. is a Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance
    Claudius Galen
  2. described various method of extracting the crude drugs for the first time
    Galen
  3. the branch dealing with the extraction of plants and animal drugs
    Galenical Pharmacy
  4. involves the separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissue from the inactive or inert components by using selective solvents
    extraction
  5. various methods used for extraction
    • Infusion
    • Decoction
    • Digestion
    • Maceration
    • Percolation
  6. emetine is from _____
    reserpine is from ______
    atropine is from ______
    • ipecac root
    • Rauwolfia Serpentina root
    • Belladonna leaves
  7. carmine is from the insect
    cochineal bugs
  8. solvent of extraction
    menstruum
  9. filtrate is known as
    extract
  10. damp crude drug is known as
    marc
  11. advantages of infusion
    • herb teas are good substitute for black tea or coffee addiction
    • absorbed better than tablets
    • good choice when strong doses are not desired
  12. disadvantages of infusion
    • shorter shelf life
    • inconvenient to carry
    • large amount must be taken
    • unpalatable
    • toxic when taken in raw form
  13. advantages of maceration
    • for extraction of plants containing large amounts of gum or mucilage which swell considerably when moistened
    • more simple
    • less complicated and more easily acquired
  14. disadvantage of maceration
    time consuming
  15. advantages of percolation
    • lesser time to make than maceration
    • easier and faster to prepare
    • does not have to press the marc
  16. disadvantages of percolation
    • fine powders may clog the percolator
    • if materials are not distributed homogenously, solvent may not reach all areas
  17. advantages of water
    • cheap
    • wide solvent action
    • non toxic
    • non inflammable
  18. disadvantages of water
    • helps growth of molds and bacteria
    • large amount of heat is required
  19. advantages of alcohol
    molds and bacteria cannot grow on ↑20% alcohol

    • non toxic
    • small amount of heat is required
  20. disadvantages of alcohol
    • costly
    • certain alcohols are rarely used
  21. in this process a suitably finally divided drug is treated with either hot or cold water for certain length of time, after which the fluid portion is strained off and retained and the solid portion is rejected
    infusion
  22. 2 types of infusion
    • fresh infusion
    • concentrated infusion
  23. classification of maceration
    • simple maceration
    • maceration with adjustment
    • multiple maceration
  24. a process for tinctures made from organized drugs
    simple maceration
  25. a process for tinctures made from unorganized drugs such as oleo resins and gum resins
    maceration with adjustment
  26. process wherein the menstruum used is divided into parts
    multiple maceration
  27. 3 types of apparatus used in percolation
    • conical percolator
    • cylindrical percolator
    • seam jacketed percolator
  28. in this process the drug is subjected to pressure and thus its juices are obtained
    expression
  29. in this process solids are separated from fluids by allowing the latter to pass out through a porous diaphragm
    filtration
  30. in this process the watery constituents of drugs are got rid by the aid of current of either hot or cold air
    vesication
  31. in this process volatile substances are separated from non volatile or less volatile by the aid of heat
    distillation
  32. in this process the drug is reduced to a very finely divided condition
    pulverization
  33. intimate mixing and powdering of two drugs by means of a mortar and pestle or of a spatula
    trituration
  34. fluid esters of the higher fatty acids with glycerol obtained by expression from fruits, seeds, etc
    fixed oils
  35. are solid esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol and are soluble in the same reagents as the oils
    fats
  36. are usually mixtures of higher fatty acids and glycerol and higher alcohol
    waxes
  37. are usually mixtures of hydrocarbons chhiefly fluids terpenes associated with more highly more oxidized mebers stearoptenes which may be obtained in a solid state
    volatile or essential oil
  38. solid preparation obtained from oils by oxidation
    resins
  39. resins or oleo resins either liquid or solid which contain benzoic or cinnamic acids or both
    balsams
  40. solid or semi solid exudations of plants which dissolve either partially or completely in water, forming a mucilage or an adhesive jelly and are precipitated by alcohol
    gums
  41. active principles which may be readily broken up by acids or alkalies in the presence of water setting free glucose
    glucosides
  42. nitrogenous organic bases usually pyridine derivatives which are generally crystalline though some are liquid
    alkaloids
  43. these are weak acids containing benzene ring, astingent in taste, freely soluble in alcohol and water
    tannins or tannic acid

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