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  1. are sterile, non pyrogenic limited, bacterial units limit, preparations intended to be administered parenterally
  2. other name of pyrogen
    bacterial endotoxin
  3. are organic metabolic products shed from Gram - bacteria which can cause fever and hypotension in patients when they are in excessive amount of IV injections
  4. refers to the injectable route of administration
  5. parenterals comes from the Greek word "__" meaning and "___" meaning
    • para - outside
    • enteron - intestine
  6. parenterals are used when:
    • rapid drug action is desired
    • patient in unconscious
    • drug is ineffective by other routes
  7. parenteral route of administration
    • IV
    • IM
    • SC
    • ID
  8. intramuscular route
    • provide effect that are less rapid but longer lasting
    • aqueous or oleaginous solutions must be administered
    • volume of medication is limited
  9. where is intradermal be administered
  10. official types of injection
    • injection
    • for injection
    • injectable emulsion
    • injectable suspension
    • for injectable suspension
  11. are liquid preparations that are drug substances or solution
  12. dry solids that yield solutions conforming to all aspects to the requirements for injection
    for injection
  13. liquid preparations of drug substances dissolved in a suitable emulsion medium
    injectable emulsion
  14. liquid preparation of solid suspended in a suitable liquid medium
    injectable suspension
  15. Dry solid that yields preparation conforming in all respects to the requirements for injectable suspensions
    for injectable suspension
  16. aqueous vehicles for injection
    • water for injection
    • sterile water for injection
    • bacteriostatic water for injection
    • sodium chloride injection
    • bacteriostatic sodium chloride injection
    • ringer's injection
    • lactated ringer's injection
  17. Most frequently used solvent in large-scale manufacturing of injections
    water for injection
  18. This water is intended to be used as a solvent, vehicle, or diluent for already sterilized and packaged injectable medications
    sterile water for injection
  19. Sterile water for injection containing one or more suitable antimicrobial agents
    bacteriostatic water for injection
  20. •Frequently used as a catheter or IV line flush to maintain patency
    NaCl injection
  21. As vehicle for other drugs or alone as an electrolyte replenisher and plasma volume
    6. Ringer’s injection, USP
  22. Used as fluid and electrolyte replenisher and as systemic alkalizer
    lactated ringer's injection
  23. ringer's solution is composed of
    • KCl
    • NaCl
    • CaCl2
  24. lactated ringer's injection is composed of
    • KCl
    • NaCl
    • CaCl2
    • Sodium Lactate NaC3H5O3
  25. added substances of injections
    Antibacterial preservatives



  26. selected vehicles must be:

    •Non toxic in the amounts administered

    •Not sensitizing

    • •Like water, it must not exert a pharmacological activity of its own nor may it
    • adversely affect the activity  of the
    • medicinal agent
  27. advantages of parenteral
    •Provides drug and nutritional option for clients unable to tolerate oral therapy

    • Circumvent absorption limitations of gastrointestinal tract

    • Quick onset of action

    • Localized delivery

    • Prolonged duration of effect
  28. disadvantages of parenteral
    •Difficulty/ impossibility of drug removal / reversal

    • Risk for infection

    • Risk for emboli formation

    • Risk  for hypersensitivity reactions

    • Higher costs
  29. an important consideration when preparing parenteral medications both for the client and for the personnel involved in compounding.
  30. important for selection of products calculation and preparation technique.
  31. the personnel involved must accept responsibility for ensuring accuracy and systematic measures.
  32. Is the destruction of all living organisms and their spores, or their complete
    removal from the preparation
  33. sterilization method

    •Dry Heat



    •Ionizing Radiation
  34. •Conducted on an autoclave and uses steam under pressure
    steam sterilization
  35. •Uses ovens which are
    heated by gas or electricity that are being thermostatically controlled
    dry heat
  36. •The physical removal of microorganisms by adsorption of a filter medium or by a sieving mechanism used for heat sensitive solutions
  37. •Constructed of randomly oriented fibers or particles of porcelain or asbestos that have been pressed, wound, or bonded together to form a flow pathway
    depth filter
  38. Continuous uniform structure that consists of fixed size pores
    membrane filter
  39. •Usedfor heat and moisture sensitive materials which are better exposed to ethylene oxide or propylene oxide gases
    gas sterilization
  40. •Sterilization through the use of Gamma and Cathode Rays
    ionizing radiation
  41. •Are natural complex of lipopolysaccharides in the outer bilayer of the gram (-) bacteria
  42. Endotoxin Test uses an extract from
    the blood cells of
    horseshoe crabs
  43. what test does Endotoxin testing use
    •Limulus amebocyte Lysate Test (LAL)
  44. scientific name of Horse Shoe crab
    Limulus polyphemus
  45. endotoxin uses

    pyrogen uses

    horseshoe crabs
  46. Sealed by fusion of the glass container under aseptic conditions
Card Set:
2015-03-16 01:32:01
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