CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY 3

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rere_girl4ever
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298508
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CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY 3
Updated:
2015-03-16 12:43:08
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CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY
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CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY 3
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CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY 3
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  1. Describe the color changes in Raynaud's phenomenon.
    From White (ischemic) ⇨ Blue (hypoxic) ⇨ Red (reperfusion)
  2. What is the difference between Raynauds disease and Raynaud's syndrome?
  3. What causes Raynauds phenomenon?
    Arteriolar VASOSPASM in response to cold or stress results in ⇩blood flowto the skin.
  4. Which diseases is Raynaud's syndrome associated with?
    • Mixed connective tissue disease
    • SLE
    • CREST syndrome- 
  5. How do we treat Raynaud's phenomenon?
    • Ca2+ channel blockers- Amlodipine, nifedipine
    • Vasodilators
  6. What is the most frequent cardiac tumor in children?
    Cardiac rhabdomyoma
  7. Rhabdomyomas are associated with?
    Tuberous sclerosis
  8. What is Kussmauls sign?
    Jugular vein distention on inspiration.
  9. What normally happens to the JVD on inspiration?
    It decreases
  10. What causes Kussmaul's sign?
    Impaired filling of right ventricle ⇨ Blood backs up into vena cava

    • Constrictive pericarditis
    • Restrictive cardiomyopathies
    • R.atrial or R.ventricular tumors
  11. Describe the pathogenesis of syphilitic heart disease.
    • Tertiary syphillis
    • Disrupts the vasa vasorum of the aorta ⇨ Atrophy of vessel wall ⇨ Dilation of aorta and valve ring  ⇨ (Aortic regurgitation and mediastinal widening may be present) ⇨ Can result  in aneurysm of the ascending aorta or aortic arch or aortic insufficiency
  12. Obliterative endarteritis of the vasa vasorum is characteristic of which disease?
    Tertiary syphillis
  13. Describet the findings of syphillic heart disease.
    • Calcification of aortic root and ascending arch.
    • Leads to tree bark appearance of the aorta
  14. Man admitted followint an acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction experiences chest pain on day 4 of his hospitalization. He describes the chest pain as sharp and says that it increases with coughing and swallowing. What is the cause of his chest pain?
    • Acute pericarditis
    • Pericarditis is a reaction to the transmural necrosis. The inflammation is usually localized to the region of the pericardium overlying the necrotic myocardial segment.
  15. Describe the presentation of acute pericarditis.
    • Presents with sharp pain  which increases with inspiration, swallowing or coughing and relieved by sitting up or leaning forward. 
    • Presents with a friction rub- high pitched, leathery, scratchy
  16. What are the causes of pericarditis?
    • Viral infection
    • Cocksackie
    • Neoplasia
    • SLE
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Uremia
    • acute STEMI
    • Dressler syndrome
    • Radiation therapy
  17. What is the pathology? What causes it?
    • Corneal arcus/ Arcus senilis
    • Lipid deposition in cornea
    • Type IIa Familial hypercholesterolemia- defective LDL receptor (⇧LDL, and ⇧cholesterol)
  18. What is the pathology? What causes it?
    • Tendinous xanthoma
    • Lipid deposition in tendon (Achillies)
    • Type IIa Familial hypercholesterolemia- defective LDL receptor (⇧LDL, and ⇧cholesterol)

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