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-define public opinion;
Public opinion is defined as the prevailing and widespread belief of the majority of people in a society about a given subject or issue.
distinguish from ideology-certain ethical set of ideals,
principles, doctrines, myths, or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
-elitist viewpoint versus pluralist viewpoint
- -Elite theory states that a small minority consisting of economic elites and policy-planning networks hold the most power, no matter the outcome in elections. It also suggests that these elites possess the intelligence and skills to run things "behind the scenes" while the rest of society is too incompetent to govern themselves effectively.
- Pluralism claims that real power lies with a wide number of coalitions, whether they originate within the governmental institutions or not. It states that because democracy is mostly a clash of ideals in a crowded field, no one political faction is capable of dominating the others. Thus, these various groups are forced to compromise in order to pass sound policy for the benefit of society.
-non-response bias and response bias
- Sometimes, individuals chosen for the sample are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey. Nonresponse bias is the bias that results when respondents differ in meaningful ways from nonrespondents.
- ; random--represenetive They provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristics of the population from which they are selected
- random-Each individual in the population of interest has an equal likelihood of selection.
- an ostensible opinion poll in which the true objective is to sway voters using loaded or manipulative questions.
The order questions appear in your survey can directly impact the responses you gather.
- Response alternatives are generally associated with closed-ended items. in which respondents are asked the extent to which they agree or disagree with a statement, the response alternatives might be strongly approve, approve, neither approve nor disapprove, disapprove , and strongly disapprove
-It is committed when someone asks a question that touches upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer
- - ¤Liberals- belive what u think u think & want from gov, enviormental more role in gov
- ¤Conservatives- less gov hands on than liberal
- ¤Populists – for the middle class, fuck the upper class
- ¤Libertarians- major party makes them force issues on the agenda, don’t need to win election
- what u identify as
- majority of ur party supports a canidate so do u
- important, ppl think u look nice u must be smart
- likability cred & consensus (o’ keefe 2002) affect
- - ¤Gender roles
- nSingle mothers; independence
- ¤Racial attitudes
- nAcceptance and bigotry handed down
- ¤Changes in family structure and rituals
- nChildren spend less time at home
- nFewer family dinners
-school&-peers and community-
- ¤Schools and political knowledge
- nOutside authority figures
- nSchool elections
- nCivics classes and community projects
- nChildren spend 53 hours a week with entertainment media
- nEntertainment at odds with values
- nPeople may learn political information, but it varies with the source
- -factors that influence strength of attitude transmission
- -directional consistency
-What is Mass media?
- ¤Television, radio, newspapers, electronic media, magazines
- ¤Marketplace of ideas
- ¤Neutrality and unbiased coverage
how has social media influenced politicians and their campaigns, as well as users?
More coverage / publicity???????
-Howard Lasswell’s 3 functions of media?
Survellance, interpretation &socialization
-Pippa Norris’s 3 functions of media?
Watch dog, civic forum, mobil agent
-what is soft news?
- ¤Late-night television
- nSpoofs political leaders and candidates
- ¤Blurring between entertainment and news
-who mostly consumes soft news?
Ppl who don’t like political science, lower class
-why do politicians go on day time and night time talk shows?
To b more likeable
-is soft news good for democracy?
- The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent Federal regulatory agency responsible directly to Congress. Established by the Communications Act of 1934, it is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
a former federal policy in the US requiring television and radio broadcasters to present contrasting viewpoints on controversial issues of public importance.
-media ownership trend and consequences-
toward greater consolidation and concentration of ownership
-partisan news (Define)
- -biased, one part. Doesn’t show other side
- -characteristics (from OutFoxed)
-conventional forms of participation
-unconventional forms of participation
-why do people vote?
- -when they can (resources)
- -when they want (interest)
- -when they are asked (mobilization)
- -internal - knowledge of the gov
- -external- feeling like ur vote matters
A group of like-minded individuals who band together to influence public policy, public opinion, or governmental officials.
-Single issue vs. Multi issue-
- ¤Single-issue interest groups
- nFocus primarily or exclusively on one issue, such as the environment, peace, or abortion
- ¤Multi-issue interest groups
- nPursue a broader range of issues grouped around a central theme
-5 functions of interst groups-
- ¤Represent constituents
- nJoin individual voices
- ¤Provide a means of political participation
- nVolunteering, contributing money
- ¤Educate the public
- nSponsoring research, testifying
- ¤Build agendas
- ¤Bringing issues to the forefront
- ¤Serve as government watchdogs
-Types (there are 4)
- rep constituents, political participation, educate public, building agendas, serve as gov watch dogs
- - ppl that don’t vote/ help ur cause
- -free rider problem
- - they are just mooching
- -overcoming the free rider problem
- -selective benefits- memebers only
- -material- sticker
- -purposive- part of something for others
- -solidarity- involved w/ ppl
Amendments extending voting rights-19th, 26th
- 19 women can vote
- 26 if ur 18 u can vote no mater what
-Motor Voter Law
- another name for the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, designed to reverse declining voter registration by allowing voters to register at motor vehicle departments.
-Help America Vote Act
- to make sweeping reforms to the nation's votingprocess. HAVA addresses improvements to voting systems and voteraccess that were identified following the 2000 election.
- -lower taxes
- -less government etc.
- -larger role for government etc.
- -tripartite structure (electorate, government, organization)
-functions of the formal organization
(i.e. : organize the election process; facilitate voter choice; recruit candidates; aid candidates; organize a complex government (by bringing some of the myriad pieces divided by our system checks and balances under an umbrella of united action); educate citizens and promote involvement; and ensure accountability).
-third parties; what is their impact? How are they significant?
- party other than one of the two dominant ones in a two-party political system
- putting shit on the agenda
- -attitudinal barriers to third parties (wasted vote syndrome)
- -institutional barriers to third parties
-single member districts-
is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
-first past the post voting system-
methods can be used for single and multiple member elections. In a single member election the candidate with the highest number, not necessarily a majority, of votes is elected.
- - in the US) a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.
- • a body of electors chosen or appointed by a larger group.
which intrrest group includes trade associations & lbor unions
intrest groups may use these benefits, which allow ppl to feel like they are part of a worthwhile cause, in order to attract members
which political ideologies belive that gov should protect commoners against elites
the process by which individuals develop their political views is called
these groups tend to learn politically to the left (liberal) on social issues
ppl with edu
which communication forms in campaigns have increased dramatically in the last few yrs
providing context &explaining complex issues falls under what role of the mass media
when the white house wants to publicize program, its press office likely will issue
when cable channels & internet programs focus on a small audience, its called
according to privacy rules in the media which of the following could expect to have the highest threshold of privacy
a victim of a crime
the process by which inviduals develop their political views is called
the most direct means of socialization is though
which of the following is not an agent of political socialization
a person w/ which of the following idelolgies is likeler to increses in gov spending for health care & to favor gov funding of faith-based social service agencies that help the poor
the general trend in media ownership in teh 20th century has been
toward greater consolidation & concentration of ownership
who theorized that the media performs the 3 important social functions of sureveillanc intereptation & socialization
the greater ones sense of poplitical efficacy the...
the more likely on is to vote
political socialization is
the process by which pl learn political info, organize political knowledge
the 3 element view of american political parties includes which of the following elements
party members, party officals &formal apparatus
what institutional feature contributes to teh limited success of minor parties
what is a wasted vote phenonmenon
voters tendency to not vote fo a minor party, even if they like them but they dont have a chance
whats a public intrest group
a group that works to gain benefits fro society as whole
in order to oovercome the free rider prob, many intrest groups offer slective benfits. what are selective benefits
benifits only to group members
which intrest groups include trade associations & lbor unions
intrest groups may use these benefits which allow ppl to feel like they are part of a worthwhile cause in order to attract members
this is the common name for the law passed to encourge voter registration
mottor voter act
party head quaters, offieces & leaders belong to
party as organization
which of these is a barrier to success of minor parties
ballot access limitations, single member &electoral college
framers didnt forsee this development when they crafted the electoral college
political party influece
- pie-partyin the elect- ppl attach to party
- pigs-party in gov (top)officials elected under 1 party banner
- po-party as organization- formal appartatus of a party
- 538 =senateors+ reps
- mayn &nebraska dont count for the winner takes all
- cali has 53 reps & 2 senators
first pass vs proptrional
- first pass the post-who won the race(single seats)
- propartional rep-(multiple seats) everyone but theres some ppl in teh seats.
what parties mean
- REPUBLICAN-The Republican Party is the more socially conservative and economically libertarian of the two major parties, and has closer ties to both Wall Street (large corporations) and Main Street (locally owned businesses) than do the Democrats and less affiliation with labor unions. Republicans have a strong belief in personal responsibility, limited government, and corporate entrepreneurship. Republicans generally oppose gay marriage, oppose abortion, and oppose embryonic stem cell research. center-right wing
- DEMOCRAT-The party has favored farmers, laborers, labor unions, and religious and ethnic minorities; it has opposed unregulated business and finance, and favored progressive income taxes. In foreign policy, internationalism (including interventionism) was a dominant theme from 1913 to the mid 1960s. In the 1930s, the party began advocating welfare spending programs targeted at the poor. Since the 1970s, environmentalism has been a major new component.
- In recent decades, the Party advocates civil liberties, social freedoms, equal rights, equal opportunity, and a free enterprise system tempered by government intervention (what economists call a mixed-economy). The Party believes that government should play a role in alleviating poverty and social injustice, even if that means a larger role for government and progressive taxation to pay for social services. They support gay marriage, abortion, and stem call research
- .LIBERAL-Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. Liberalism has its roots in the Western Age of Enlightenment, but the term now encompasses a diversity of political thought. Broadly speaking, liberalism emphasizes individual rights. It seeks a society characterized by freedom of thought for individuals, limitations on power, especially of government and religion, the rule of law, free public education, the free exchange of ideas, a market economy that supports relatively free private enterprise, and a transparent system of government in which the rights of all citizens are protected. In modern society, liberals favor a liberal democracy with open and fair elections, where all citizens have equal rights by law and an equal opportunity to succeed.
- CONSERVATIVE-Conservatism is a political philosophy that necessitates a defense of established values. Since different cultures have different established values, conservatives in different cultures have different goals. Some conservatives seek to preserve the status quo, while others seek to return to the values of an earlier time, the status quo ante.