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what is the most common organisms that HCP prescribe antibiotics for?
what is mycobacterium responsible for?
How does virus infect humans?
they invade the host, making viruses intracellular
what type of infections do fungi cause
what are the common types of fungal infections?
- skin infections such as
- Tinea pedis --athletes foot
- Tinea corporis -- ring worm
How do you treat fungal infectiions
with antifungal medications
What are the common types of parasitic infections?
- malaria (RBC of liver)
- trichomonas (reproductive tracts of women and men)
- helminths (worms that live in intestines)
What are the different types of Aerobic bacterial infections?
- staphylococcus aureus (skin infections)
- pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung infections)
What are the different types of anaerobic bacterial infections?
- produce absess and tissue necrosis
- clostridium perfringens (gangrene)
- actinomyces (abdominal and pelvic infections)
What is the action of bactericidal antibiotics?
- kills bacteria directly
- 1. weaken the cell wall (to break open or lysis)
- 2. bind to ribosomes and decrease protein synthesis (needed for replication)
- 3. bind to enzymes needed for replication of DNA (preventing the replacement of bacteria)
what is the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics?
- interfere with bacteria replication by
- bind with ribosomes (slows protein synthesis with cells)
- --gradually decrease number of bacteria and allows the body's immune system to kill off the remainder of bacteria.
What are the 2 types of classification of antibiotics?
broad spectrum and narrow spectrum
what is the action of broad spectrum antibiotics?
- -effective against a wide range of bacteria
- -exert its action on a structure that has similar characteristics between several types of bacteria such as the cell wall
what is the action of narrow spectrum antibiotics?
- effective against only a few organisms
- -exert an action on a characteristic that is specific to only a few types of bacteria
what is the goal of drug therapy for infections?
- to kill bacteria through:
- 1. interuption of cell wall synthesis
- 2. inhibit protein synthesis
- 3. inhibit DNA replication/cell replication
- 4. inhibit folic acid synthesis
To kill virus, parasites, and fungi
what are the 4 types of antibiotics that kill bacteria by interupting the cell wall synthesis and integrity?
what types of bacterial infections does penicillin treat?
broad spectrum of the ear, throat and urinary tract infections
Amoxcillin -- treat gonnorhea
what does clavulanic acid added to antibiotics do?
- stops increasing the spectrum of disorders treated effectively with amoxcillin
- --allows amoxcillin to kill bacteria
what is the prototype drug for penicillin?
- amoxcillin (Amoxil)
- amoxcillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin)
what are the other drugs in the penicillin family?
- nafcillin (Unipen)
- ticarcillin-clavulanate (Timentin)
- piperacillin (Zosyn)
what is the action of the penicillin antibiotics?
- -weakens and destroy cell wall by:
- 1. inhibit the enzyme necessary for cell wall formation (transpeptidase)
- 2. activate the enzyme that opens the cell wall (autolysin)
- --has no effect on human cells thus no cell wall
- they do not harm the host and safe for administration
what is penicillin G
is active constituent in pencillin
what are the adverse effects of penicillin?
GI symtoms: diarrhea, nausea and vomiting
- rare: psuedomembranous colitis due to overgrowth of C.diff. (suprainfection)