Lab Exam #3 Clinical Correlation

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  1. Is an localized bulging or ballooning of the wall of an artery. They occur when an artery wall becomes weakened, and if large enough can compress adjacent structures or worse, may rupture. Many of these occur in cerebral arteries or in the aorta and if ruptured produce sever bleeding, stroke, and even sudden death.
  2. Is chest pain or discomfort pressure or squeezing. It is not a disorder itself but a symptom, usually of coronary artery disease.
  3. Is an irregular heartbeat caused by defects in the heart's conducting system. These can be categorized by speed, rhythm, and parts of the conducting system affected.
  4. Is an abnormally slow but regular heart rate less than 60 beats per minute, caused by malfunction of the SA or AV node. Symptoms include weakness, dizziness, and shortness of breath. This is normal in well-trained athletes.
  5. Is an abnormally fast but regular heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute. There can be many causes, some of which are defects in the SA or AV nodes, damage to the myocardium from a heart attack, or external substances such as medication, alcohol, caffeine or illicit drugs.
  6. Is a rapid uncoordinated heartbeat. These occur when contractions of the myocardium in heart chambers is asynchronous, producing a chamber that "quivers" rather than contracts. Depending on the chamber where the problem, they are atrial or ventricular.
  7. Is a medical emergency since it can halt blood ejection from the heart and produce circulatory failure and death.
    Ventricular fibrillation
  8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and electronic devices are used to treat ventricular fibrillation
  9. Is a congenital narrowing of the aorta. It most often occurs near the junction of the ductus arteriosus.
    Coarctation of the Aorta
  10. Is a condition in which plaques made of cholesterol, fat, and calcium build up in the walls of coronary arteries.
    Coronary Artery Disease
  11. Plaque formation in arteries is a progressive disease, which can occur in any large or medium-sized artery.
  12. Is a procedure in which a blood vessel from another part of the body is surgically attached to a coronary artery to bypass an area of blockage.
    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
  13. Is a blue tint to skin and mucous membrane produced by oxygen deficiency in systemic blood. There are many causes such as heart failure and lung disease.
  14. Is bleeding, either internal or external, resulting from trauma or rupture of blood vessels.
  15. Is high blood pressure.
  16. Is a localized tissue death due by lack of arterial blood supply. It is the end result of ischemia.
  17. Is death of areas of myocardium due to coronary artery disease commonly referred to as "heart attack".
    Myocardial Infarction
  18. Is decrease in blood flow to organs or tissues caused by complete or partial blockage of an artery. In the hear occurs with blockage of coronary arteries and severe blockage can produce infarction and/or arrhythmias.
  19. Is an opening in the septum that separates the right and left side of the hear.
    Septal Defect
  20. Is a hole in the interatrial septum caused by failure of the fetal foramen ovale to close completely after birth.
    Atrial Septal Defect
  21. Is caused by incomplete development of the interventricular septum, usually the membranous part. It is the most common type of congenital heart defect.
    Ventricular Septal Defect
  22. Are disorders involving valves of the heart that impact the heart's ability to pump blood effectively to the lungs or tissues of the body and cause the heart to work harder.
    Valvular Heart Disease
  23. Is a failure of the valve cusps to open fully. Oftentimes the cusps fuse together, producing a narrow central opening. It causes turbulence in blood flow and audible vibrations that are heard through a stethoscope as murmurs.
  24. Is a failure of the valve to close completely, usually produced by inflammation that causes enlargement of cusps or scarring of the edges of cusps. The net result is valve cusps that don't meet with one another snugly either because they are too big or have become inflexible.
    Valve Incompetence
  25. Occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is compromised either by blockage or rupture of an artery. Often occur in branches of the middle cerebral artery that supply the internal capsule.
    Cerebrovascular accident or Stroke
  26. A blood clot that forms locally within a vessel and does not move.
  27. A blood clot formed elsewhere in the body that break loose and floats downstream.
  28. Is a fancy term for nosebleed = hemorrhage in the nasal cavity.
  29. Is a mass of clotted blood outside of a vessel, is a result of hemorrhage into tissue or spaces inside the body. A bruise is a this visible through the skin.
  30. Is an accumulation of clotted blood in the potential space between skull bones and dura mater. Trauma to the head in the region of the "temple" can fracture the skull and rupture the underlying middle meningeal artery.
    Epidural Hematoma
  31. Is an increase in pressure within the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries caused by blockage of blood flow within the liver or perhaps a tumor associated with the pancreas.
    Portal Hypertension
  32. Is the formation of a clot within a blood vessel.
  33. Is a clot formation in one or more of the deep veins of the lower limb, often in the calf. It occurs when blood clots in areas where blood flow is slow due to muscular inactivity, extended bed rest, or weakened vessel walls.
    Deep venous thrombosis
  34. It can be dangerous since clot could break loose and migrate to the lungs to obstruct a pulmonary artery, a life-threatening condition.
    Pulmonary embolism
  35. Are twisted, dilated veins. They are common in the lower limb, since veins here experience constant pressure from standing and blood must flow against gravity.
    Varicose veins
  36. Is a blood draw obtaining a blood sample from a patient by puncturing a superficial vein with a needle and collecting blood in a syringe.
  37. Is swelling of tissue due an abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid. There are many causes including heart failure, liver or kidney disease, and malfunctions of the lymphatic system.
  38. Is a swelling of lymph nodes. The usual cause is a viral infection but swelling may also be due to bacterial infections or cancer.
  39. Are a family of cancer that develop from lymphocytes and involves lymphoid tissue, especially lymph nodes. Hodgkin's disease which is characterized by the presence of a distinctive large cell within lymph nodes called a Reed-Sternberg cell.
  40. Are the first set of lymph nodes to receive metastatic cancer cell from an involved organ. These are the guards that watch over an organ their inflammation is an indication of infection or cancer in a particular organ.
    Sentinel nodes
  41. Is an acute inflammation of the appendix. As the inflammation progresses and the appendix enlarges pain shifts to the right lower quadrant of the abdominal wall in the area external to the appendix.
  42. Surgical removal of appendix
  43. Is the pathologic presence of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity, often caused by liver disease such as cirrhosis.
  44. Is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lier in which hepatocytes are destroyed over time usually by alcoholism or viral infections and replace by connective tissue.
  45. Is the name of the procedure when the colon is cut and the proximal end is brought to the surface of the abdominal wall serving as a substitute anus. Thus, feces leave the body through this newly created orifice.
  46. Is a type of inflammatory bowel disease causing inflammation and ulceration of the inner lining of the alimentary canal, most often the ileum or colon. Its cause is unclear, but it may be autoimmune in nature, possibly an abnormal response of the immune system to a bacterium or virus.
    Crohn's Disease
  47. Is a condition describing many small pouches bulging externally from the alimentary canal, most commonly from the sigmoid color, through weak spot in the wall.
  48. The pouches may become infected by bacteria or plugged with fecal material. Inflammation of the pouches.
  49. Are concretions made from bile salts, cholesterol, or calcium carbonate that from in bile.
  50. Removal of the gallbladder
  51. Is a disorder in which there is frequent reflux of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.
    Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  52. Are swollen veins in the wall of the anal canal. They can be caused by increased pressure on the rectum and anal canal when straining to pass hard feces out of the body or by chronic elevated abdominal pressure due to obesity or pregnancy.
  53. Is an inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection. The liver enlarges and its functioning becomes impaired.
  54. Is the protrusion of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
    Hiatal Hernia
  55. Occur when the abdominal esophagus and cardia of the stomach slide upwards into the esophageal hiatus whenever intra-abdominal pressure is raised.
    Sliding Hiatal Hernias
  56. Occur when the fundus of the stomach is wedged into the hiatus and lies next to the lower thoracic esophagus.
    Para-esophageal hernias
  57. Is yellow coloring of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eye. It is caused by excess amounts of bilirubin a substance produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin when worn red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen.
  58. Is inflammation of the peritoneum caused by bacterial infection.
  59. Is inflammation of tonsils due to viral or bacterial infection. Most cases are due to a virus, such as the Epstein-Barr virus that causes mononucleosis.
  60. Are sores in the lining of the stomach or first part of the duodenum, caused by erosion of the mucosa. Since damage to the mucosa is caused by gastric juice which contains HCl and the enzyme pepsin.
    Ulcers or Peptic Ulcers
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Lab Exam #3 Clinical Correlation
2015-03-16 07:32:17
Lab Exam WSU

Lab Exam #3
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