English 240 Final

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  1. Harlem Renaissance
    • a "flowering" of African-American art
    • New world requires new art
  2. Problems with the term Harlem Renaissance
    • Renaissance=rebirth of art after a period of dark age
    • there was no dark age of African American literature still growing, so no "re" birth
  3. Other names for Harlem Renaissance
    • New Negro Arts Movement
    • African-American Modernism
  4. What made the Harlem Renaissance possible?
    • 1. The (first) great migration
    • 2. The Promises of the Metropolis (social/economic opportunity)
    • 3. White Patronage (whites paid for AA living expenses in exchange for art)
  5. Key Questions asked by HR writers
    • 1. Racial vs. National Identity - what it means to be "black" and "American"
    • 2. Art vs. Politics - must be written to "uplift" the race
    • 3. History vs. Modernity: African heritage in AA Literature
  6. Alain Locke's "Enter the New Negro"
    • More "myth" than man - stereotypes, assumptions
    • Stock figure
    • One who knows his place
    • A social problem
  7. What is the new Negro
    • Shaking off sense of imitation and implied inferiority
    • refuses anyones problem
    • characterized by self-respect and self dependence
    • Work cooperatively with whites
  8. What is at stake for America?
    • augury of new democracy
    • committed to ideas of American democracy
    • the choice is not the one way
  9. Langston Hughes's "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain"
    • Racial mountain: urge towards whiteness, associated with greatness. Artists struggle with taking the black out of their art. Wants blacks to produce negro art.
    • Lowdown folk or common folk-not ashamed, looking for self-reliant art
    • Produce art that remind that there is more to life
    • Consequences: limiting black expression
  10. Langston Hughes's Jazz Poetry
    • Recall: jazz= "inherent expression of Negro life" antidote to "weariness" 
    • Jazz = A force of Democracy and Racial unity
  11. What makes Passing possible?
    • mixing of genes
    • white mother or father
  12. what makes passing desirable?
    • opportunity
    • social and economic opportunity
    • strategy of survival
  13. What causes passing to be a national obsession?
    • The one-drop rule
    • Rhinelander/Jones case
    • blood lines make you black not looks
    • Rhinelander was pressured by public to take his wife to court
  14. eugenics
    good genes, breeding a better person
  15. Larsen
    • Pioneered "psychological fiction"
    • Psychological in the modernist moment
    • "third-person" focalized" (Narrated by Irene)
  16. Clare
    • Selfish 
    • cold
    • hard
    • cat like
    • race betrayal
  17. Irene
    • safe
    • maternal
    • selfless
    • defender of racial causes
    • proud of blackness
    • all focalized through Irene so this is what she wants us to believe
  18. Clare = Irene
    • Race betrayer
    • Selfish and manipulative 
    • Superior
    • Defende of Race
  19. Clare, Brian, and Irene
    • Irene realizes affair between Brian and Clare
    • Brain says sex with wife is joke
  20. Who is Irene really jealous of?
    • Suppressed desire
    • upset clare is having sex with husband and not her
    • Says Clare has a "tempting mouth"
  21. Four possibilities of Clare's death
    • 1. Accident
    • 2. Murder by Bellow
    • 3. Suicide 
    • 4. Murder by Irene
  22. Evidence that Irene murdered Clare
    • Irene suspects an affair
    • Irene opens window and watch cigarette fall to ground
    • Moment of confusion, possessed
    • Irene wouldn't remember exact moment of death, repressed her responsibility
    • Was worried what people would think 
    • can't say the word murder
    • thankful when death is confirmed
  23. Foreshadowing in Passing
    • Irene watch cigarette fall out window
    • break cups and gets ride of ugly dish, could et rid of Clare
    • cup stains white carpet just like blood would stain snow
  24. What is passing a metaphor for?
    a metaphor for those who are passing themselves off as something they are not
  25. War at home
    • The civil rights movement
    • Second wave feminism
    • Rapid Technological advances-weapons of mass destruction, images and sounds dominate human experience, media is shaping/controlling our consciousness
  26. Postmodernism
    • Rejects modernist faith in "make it new"
    • mass reproduction and image dominance
    • no authentic reality
    • nothing can be truly "original"
  27. Postmodernism rejects:
    • enlightenment and Emersonianism
    • no "individual" our lives are determined by images
    • rejects that art is valid site for search for meaning
    • -life is meaningless and absurd
    • -seeks to reveal  to readers "nothingness"
    • -suggests that since life is essentially "absurd" so must art be
  28. Postmodernism rejects cont:
    • truth as objective
    • Proposes that instead validity of multiple meanings
    • expose the mechanisms used to hide "production" of truth
  29. Themes of Postmodernism
    • Blending of genres
    • Parody [dark] humor, Irony
    • Themes: alienation, limitations of freedom
  30. Scott Momaday "The way to Rainy Mountain"
    • Native American Renaissance
    • Themes: Kiowa history, American West, cultural LAND
  31. Momaday as Exempler of Postmodernism
    • Multi-generic text (multiple genres-postmodernism)
    • 1. Poems are conventional
    • 2. Prose (autobiography)
    • 3. "Trios" (piece together own past)
  32. Destabilizing "truth" Momoday
    • 1st passage:like fairytale, myth
    • 2nd passage: descriptive, objective, historical
    • 3rd passage: personal
  33. Momaday as a skeptic of postmodernism
    • Nature is "real"
    • Land described in minute detail
    • lane is immense
    • Nature has power to humble humanity
    • nature is dominant and will always win
    • Laments humanity has lost reverence for nature
    • What he believes grandmother understood but we lost
  34. Sandra Cisnerios "woman Hollering Creek"
    • Chicana feminist poet
    • Cisnerios is interested in possibilities of boundaries and boarders
  35. Cleofilas "boarder" figure
    • Father and Husband -  piece of property who needs father permission
    • Mexico and USA  - Once married will mexico but wants both places
    • Action and Inaction - wants to leave when father beats but can't
    • Fantasy and reality - life is influenced by soap operas
  36. Consequences of postmodernism, Media based culture (Woman Hollering Creek)
    • Telenoveles do not prepare
    • Engender dangerous expectations
  37. Alternate paradigm (Woman Hollering Creek)
    • Female solidarity
    • Taking the wheel
    • Crossing the arroyo
    • Learning to holler (finding one's own voice)
  38. The Road, McCarthy
    • McCarthy: bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism
    • has much in common with modernist prose writers
  39. Significance of the form in The Road
    • spare prose, no contractions
    • blank space: world where luxuries are gone
    • No contractions: easy conveniences
    • No quotation marks: world in story come alive
    • -Analogy: man and boy road=our journey through book
    • No names: names are social function, no society
    • No formal breaks: text never stops, inact journey of father and son, must continue with no sign of where to stop
  40. Location of The Road
    • American South
    • Ocean
    • Southern Flora
    • History of slavery
  41. What is world like (the Road)
    • blood cults
    • boy was born at beginning of apocalypse 
    • male violence
    • woman and children sex slaves
    • find human meat locker
  42. Why won't McCarthy tell us more?
    clear vision of how it all ends, we could reassure ourselves that we have time to "fix" it 

    • Gone is the puritan notion "beacon" of light
    • Boy and man are pilgrims in a world of darkness
  43. The man and the boy
    • religious metaphor God, Christ
    • Father believes son is a warrant from God
    • Mother has given up
    • The Boy: a world of gloom, remains compassionate
  44. Where does the boys compassion come from?
    • Storytelling
    • the man constructed a morality through storytelling 
    • boy would rather starve than see someone else starve
  45. Possible outcomes of The Road
    • Hope 
    • the boy represents certain features of a christ figure. One who has to help
    • Boy and young girl remake a new world (adam and eve figures) life will go on
  46. The arc of American Literature
    • 1. Puritans = "All you need is God"
    • 2. Enlightenment = "All you need is reason"
    • 3. Transcendentalism = "All you need is you"
    • 4. Modernism = "All you need is 'new'"
    • 5. McCarthy = "All you need is…gone forever"
    •  or
    •  McCarthy = "All you need is love"
  47. Alain Locke
    The New Negro
  48. Langston Hughes
    • The Negro Artist and Racial Mountian
    • Jazzonia
    • Jazz Band in a Parisian Cabaret
  49. Countee Cullen
  50. Alice Nelson
    I sit and Sew
  51. Nella Larson
  52. N Scott Momaday
    The Way to Rainy Mtn.
  53. Sandra Cisneros
    "Woman Hollering Creek"
  54. Cormac McCarthy
    The Road
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English 240 Final
2015-03-17 15:26:42
ENGL 240

English 240 Final
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