English 240 Final
Card Set Information
English 240 Final
English 240 Final
a "flowering" of African-American art
New world requires new art
Problems with the term Harlem Renaissance
Renaissance=rebirth of art after a period of dark age
there was no dark age of African American literature still growing, so no "re" birth
Other names for Harlem Renaissance
New Negro Arts Movement
What made the Harlem Renaissance possible?
1. The (first) great migration
2. The Promises of the Metropolis (social/economic opportunity)
3. White Patronage (whites paid for AA living expenses in exchange for art)
Key Questions asked by HR writers
1. Racial vs. National Identity - what it means to be "black" and "American"
2. Art vs. Politics - must be written to "uplift" the race
3. History vs. Modernity
: African heritage in AA Literature
Alain Locke's "Enter the New Negro"
More "myth" than man - stereotypes, assumptions
One who knows his place
A social problem
What is the new Negro
Shaking off sense of imitation and implied inferiority
refuses anyones problem
characterized by self-respect and self dependence
Work cooperatively with whites
What is at stake for America?
augury of new democracy
committed to ideas of American democracy
the choice is not the one way
Langston Hughes's "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain"
: urge towards whiteness, associated with greatness. Artists struggle with taking the black out of their art. Wants blacks to produce negro art.
Lowdown folk or common folk-not ashamed, looking for self-reliant art
Produce art that remind that there is more to life
: limiting black expression
Langston Hughes's Jazz Poetry
: jazz= "inherent expression of Negro life" antidote to "weariness"
Jazz = A force of Democracy and Racial unity
What makes Passing possible?
mixing of genes
white mother or father
what makes passing desirable?
social and economic opportunity
strategy of survival
What causes passing to be a national obsession?
The one-drop rule
blood lines make you black not looks
Rhinelander was pressured by public to take his wife to court
good genes, breeding a better person
Pioneered "psychological fiction"
Psychological in the modernist moment
"third-person" focalized" (Narrated by Irene)
defender of racial causes
proud of blackness
all focalized through Irene so this is what she wants us to believe
Clare = Irene
Selfish and manipulative
Defende of Race
Clare, Brian, and Irene
Irene realizes affair between Brian and Clare
Brain says sex with wife is joke
Who is Irene really jealous of?
upset clare is having sex with husband and not her
Says Clare has a "tempting mouth"
Four possibilities of Clare's death
2. Murder by Bellow
4. Murder by Irene
Evidence that Irene murdered Clare
Irene suspects an affair
Irene opens window and watch cigarette fall to ground
Moment of confusion, possessed
Irene wouldn't remember exact moment of death, repressed her responsibility
Was worried what people would think
can't say the word murder
thankful when death is confirmed
Foreshadowing in Passing
Irene watch cigarette fall out window
break cups and gets ride of ugly dish, could et rid of Clare
cup stains white carpet just like blood would stain snow
What is passing a metaphor for?
a metaphor for those who are passing themselves off as something they are not
War at home
The civil rights movement
Second wave feminism
Rapid Technological advances-weapons of mass destruction, images and sounds dominate human experience, media is shaping/controlling our consciousness
Rejects modernist faith in "make it new"
mass reproduction and image dominance
no authentic reality
nothing can be truly "original"
enlightenment and Emersonianism
no "individual" our lives are determined by images
rejects that art is valid site for search for meaning
-life is meaningless and absurd
-seeks to reveal to readers "nothingness"
-suggests that since life is essentially "absurd" so must art be
Postmodernism rejects cont:
truth as objective
Proposes that instead validity of multiple meanings
expose the mechanisms used to hide "production" of truth
Themes of Postmodernism
Blending of genres
Parody [dark] humor, Irony
: alienation, limitations of freedom
Scott Momaday "The way to Rainy Mountain"
Native American Renaissance
: Kiowa history, American West, cultural LAND
Momaday as Exempler of Postmodernism
Multi-generic text (multiple genres-postmodernism)
1. Poems are conventional
2. Prose (autobiography)
3. "Trios" (piece together own past)
Destabilizing "truth" Momoday
1st passage:like fairytale, myth
: descriptive, objective, historical
Momaday as a skeptic of postmodernism
Nature is "real"
Land described in minute detail
lane is immense
Nature has power to humble humanity
nature is dominant and will always win
Laments humanity has lost reverence for nature
What he believes grandmother understood but we lost
Sandra Cisnerios "woman Hollering Creek"
Chicana feminist poet
Cisnerios is interested in possibilities of boundaries and boarders
Cleofilas "boarder" figure
Father and Husband - piece of property who needs father permission
Mexico and USA - Once married will mexico but wants both places
Action and Inaction - wants to leave when father beats but can't
Fantasy and reality - life is influenced by soap operas
Consequences of postmodernism, Media based culture (Woman Hollering Creek)
Telenoveles do not prepare
Engender dangerous expectations
Alternate paradigm (Woman Hollering Creek)
Taking the wheel
Crossing the arroyo
Learning to holler (finding one's own voice)
The Road, McCarthy
: bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism
has much in common with modernist prose writers
Significance of the form in The Road
spare prose, no contractions
: world where luxuries are gone
: easy conveniences
No quotation marks
: world in story come alive
: man and boy road=our journey through book
: names are social function, no society
No formal breaks
: text never stops, inact journey of father and son, must continue with no sign of where to stop
Location of The Road
History of slavery
What is world like (the Road)
boy was born at beginning of apocalypse
woman and children sex slaves
find human meat locker
Why won't McCarthy tell us more?
clear vision of how it all ends, we could reassure ourselves that we have time to "fix" it
Gone is the puritan notion "beacon" of light
Boy and man are pilgrims in a world of darkness
The man and the boy
religious metaphor God, Christ
Father believes son is a warrant from God
Mother has given up
: a world of gloom, remains compassionate
Where does the boys compassion come from?
the man constructed a morality through storytelling
boy would rather starve than see someone else starve
Possible outcomes of The Road
the boy represents certain features of a christ figure. One who has to help
Boy and young girl remake a new world (adam and eve figures) life will go on
The arc of American Literature
1. Puritans = "All you need is God"
2. Enlightenment = "All you need is reason"
3. Transcendentalism = "All you need is you"
4. Modernism = "All you need is 'new'"
5. McCarthy = "All you need is…gone forever"
McCarthy = "All you need is love"
The New Negro
The Negro Artist and Racial Mountian
Jazz Band in a Parisian Cabaret
I sit and Sew
N Scott Momaday
The Way to Rainy Mtn.
"Woman Hollering Creek"