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Organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
What functions do political parties perform and which is the most important?
- 1. parties provide a label (most important)
- 2. under which candidates run for offices
- 3. with which voters can identify
- 4.parties affiliation determines the govt.'s organization once candidates have been elected
degree to which Republicans have become more conservative and democrats have become more liberal
partisan or political polarization
What 2 main points discussed concerning public attitudes about parties
- -Texans increasingly identify as independent
- - Republican party controls state government
Process by which political beliefs and values are shaped by parents, teachers, social groups, religious groups and education.
what is the state divided into?
precincts (most local voting districts)
2 types of political party organization
permanent and temporary
Highest Tempory political party organization
3 third party examples
- 1. Dixiecrats
- 2. La Raza Unida-independent latino movement
- 3. Libertarian
single member district, plurality rule systems tend to produce two-party systems
under proportional representation rules multiparty systems are encouraged
Third parties have a greater chance of success under what?
want to limit influence of Wall street/big business
greatest influence on TX politics
Why was the primary often more important than the general election during Tx time as a one-party state?
In a one-party state, primary winner=general election winner
Intraparty disputes split members into different groups called factions.
disputes between liberals and conservatives within the party
Democratic dominant party
Republican dominant party
Religious conservatives vs Economic Conservatives
Urban vs rural
- cities become more democratic
- rural areas strongly republicans
Hispanics are traditionally __?
Growth suggests a ____ for the party.
low voter turnout has ____.
- -potential resurgence
- -lessened influence
Election are the mechanisms people use to: 3 things
- 1. select leaders
- 2. authorize actions by government
- 3. borrow money on behalf of government
6 types of elections
- 1. primary
- 2. General
- 3. City
- 4. School board
- 5. Special
- 6. bond
___ areheld to select a partys candidate for the general election. if no candidate receives an absolute majority (50% +1 vote) vote during the primary, there is a ____
Tx primaries are considered ___ but they operate as ___.
the decisive election that determines who is elected to office
3 topics in Special elections
- 1. vacancy
- 2. borrow money
- 3. amendments
3 reasons it is unusual for independents to run for office in TX?
- 1. lack the support of a majority party
- 2. lack organization
- 3. lack advantage of having a party label- a brand name
1918 Tx granted women the right to vote in _____ only and not general elections.
state tax imposed on voters for registration
4 ways of limited minority voting
- 1. Early registration
- 2. property ownership
- 3. residency requirements
- 4. Courts struck all down as violations of the 14th amendment
A voter must be:4 things
- 1. 18 yr
- 2. a US citizen
- 3. a Tx resident for 30 days
- 4. a county resident for 30 days
2 groups that cannot vote
current convicted felons and mentally ill
5 reasons were given to explain why voter turnout is low in tx
- 1. low per capita income/high poverty rates
- 2. low education levels
- 3. Weak political party
- 4. Young population
- 5. Number of elections/lack of advertising
2 methods to increase voter turnout
- 1. early voting
- 2. motor-voter law
registrations have increased, turnout remains low
the attitudes that people have about issues, events, elected officials, politics and policy.
recalculating how many congressional districts each state will receive based on the states population
legislature draws new congressional districts to comply with the changes in the overall number of seats allowed in the state.
Campaigns involve attempts to reach voters through: 5 things
- 1. print and electronic media
- 2. mailings
- 3. door to door campaigning
- 4. speeches to small groups
- 5. telephone solicitation
what accounts for the most significant campaign investments
One effect of the high cost of campaigns in TX is that candidates are often__
very wealthy individuals willing to use their own money in campaigns
pro business groups dominated Tx politics;
4 ways policymakers benefit from interest groups?
- 1. information and expertise-especially valuable
- 2. campaign funds
- 3. voter mobilization
- 4. voter educatin
4 advantages interest groups have over private citizens
- 1. time
- 2. money
- 3. expertise
- 4. continuity
The interest group practice of combining campaign contributions from several individuals into one group to increase the groups impact on the candidate
focus on narrow policy concerns
single issue groups
concerned with a number of policy areas
3 methods do lobbyists use to gain access to TX policymakers
entertain;personal relationships; former politicians
3 interests are often not well represented.
- 1. consumer issues
- 2. enviornment
- 3. human services
6 techniques that lobbyist use to influence the decisions of policymakers
- 1. Campaign funding
- 2. Getting out eh vote
- 3. Supporting incumbents
- 4.Defeating Opponents
- 5.get on the late train
- 6. Contribute to both candidates
The act of pleading or arguing in favor of something, such as a cause, idea or policy; active support
Private groups that raise and distribute funds for use in election campaigns
No strong interest group opposition