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basic survival needs, such as the need for food, water, and shelter
the need to feel secure at work or at home
the need to feel loved, accepted and part of the group
the need for recognition and acknowledgement from others, as well as self-respect and a sense of status or importance
the need to develop to one's fullest
Herzberg's Motivating Factors
- sense of achievement
- earned recognition
- interest in the work itself
- opportunity for growth
- opportunity for advancement
- importance of responsibility
- peer and group relationships
- supervisor's fairness
- company policies and rules
- job security
- supervisor's friendliness
- working conditions
Herzberg's motivating factors 2:
- The best way to motivate employees is to make their jobs interesting
- Help them achieve their objectives
- Recognize their achievements through advancement and added responsibility
McGregor's Theory X
- average person dislikes work and will avoid if possible
- Workers are forced and controlled to make them put forth more of an effort
- Average worker will prefer to be directed and wishes to avoid responsibilities
- Primary motivators are fear and money
McGregor's Theory Y
- Most people like to work and is natural to them
- They will work towards any goals they are already committed to
- Most people not only accept but also seek any other responsibilities
- People are capable of using a high degree of imagination, creativity and cleverness to solve problems.
- Employee involvement is the key to increased productivity
- Employee control is implied and informal
- Employees prefer to share responsibility and decision making
- Employees perform better in environments that foster trust and cooperation
- Employees need guaranteed employment and will accept slow evaluations and promotions
says setting ambitious but also attainable goals can help to motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted
Management by Objective (MBO)
Managers cannot always motivate people but they can thwart people's motivation because people tend to motivate themselves.
Taylor's Theory of scientific Management:
Human efficiency engineer Federick Taylor was one of the first people to study management and has been called the father of scientific management. He conducted time-motion studies to learn the most efficient way of doing a job and then trained workers in those procedures. He published his book The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911.
Henry L. Gantt and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were followers
Elton Mayo goal
The greatest impact on motivation theory was generating by the Hawthorne studies in the 1920s and early 1930s. In these studies, Elton Mayo found that human factors such as feelings of involvement and participation led to greater productivity gains than did physical changes in the workplace.
Maslow studied basic human motivation and found that motivation was based on needs. He said that a person with an unfilled need would be motivated to satisfy it and that a satisfied need no longer served as motivation.
Maslow's hierarchy (bottom to top) of need levels
physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization.
Managers can recognize what unmet needs a person has and design work so that it satisfies those needs.
Difference between Frederick Herzberg's motivator and hygiene factors:
Herzberg found that while some factors motivate workers, others cause job dissatisfaction if missing but are not motivators if present.
Factors are called motivators: the work itself, achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, and advancement.
The hygiene (maintenance) factors: Company policies, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, salary.
Douglas McGregor goal
Managers have one of two opposing attitudes toward employees: X and Y.
Theory X assumes the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. People must be forced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to accomplish organizational goals.
Theory Y: assumes people like working and will accept responsibility for achieving goals if rewarded for doing so.
Theory Z: William Ouchi based it on Japanese management styles and stresses long-term employment; collective decision making; individual responsibility; slow evaluation and promotion; implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized control; moderately specialized career paths; and a holistic concern for employees (including family)
Goal-setting theory and MBO goal
goal-setting theory: based on the notion that setting ambitious but attainable goals will lead to high levels of motivation and performance if the goals are accepted and accompanied by feedback, and if conditions in the organization make achievement possible
MBO is system of goal setting and implementation; it includes a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors, and employees.
According to Victor Vroom's expectancy theory, employees' expectations can affect an individual's motivation.
Expectancy theory centers of three questions employees often ask about performance on the job:
- Can I accomplish the task?
- If I do accomplish it, what's my reward?
- Is the reward worth the effort?
- Positive reinforcers: praise, recognition, raises
- Negative reinforcers: reprimands, pay cuts, firing
Characteristics of work affecting motivation and performance:
- skill variety
- task identity
- task significance
Two forms of job enrichment that increase motivation:
- Job enlargement combines a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.
- Job rotation makes work more interesting by moving employees from one job to another.
- Open communication helps both top manager and employees understand the objectives and work together to achieve them.
- Managers can create an organizational culture that rewards listening, training supervisors and manager to listen, use effective questioning techniques, remove barriers to open communication, avoid vague and ambiguous communication, and actively make it easier for all to communicate.
Difference between high-context and low-context cultures:
- In high-context cultures people build personal relationships and develop group trust before focusing on tasks
- In low-context cultures, people often view relationship building as a waste of time that diverts attention from the task.
Common characteristics of Millennial:
Millennial tend to be adaptable, tech-savvy, able to grasp new concepts, practiced at multitasking, efficient, and tolerant. They often place a higher value on work-life balance, expect their employers to adapt to them, and are more likely to rank fun and stimulation in their top five ideal job requirements.