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What are the first recorded instances of interpretation in history?
-Difficult to date, no physical traces
- - 3000 BC Egyptian hieroglyphic for "interpreter"
- - ancient greeks/romans at war
- - age of exploration - early C16
- - RELIGION
when did the main expansion of interpreting in the modern word occur?
-WWII 1914-1918 - consecutive interpretation
- -Nuremburg war trials starting 1945 - SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION was born
- - need for 4 langs, (French Russian German English)
- - techonolgy existed to enable
What are the 6 official UN languages?
When was simultaneous interpretation established as a thing?
- 1947 - UN establishment of permanent service
- in Un Resolution number 152
What is an interpreter?
A person who
-converts spoken language statements from 1 lang to another
-is called on to explain what each participant wants to say
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION?
Linguistic 4 -
Cultural : Explicit 2, Implicit 1
- -register (age, formality etc)
- - EXPLICIT:
- - political, intellectual, economic references
- - jargon
- - means used by speaker
- understatement, hyperbole, irony etc
Types of interpretation? 14
- 1. Simultaneous
- 2. consecutive
- 3. whispered or chuchotage
- 4. conference
- 5. seminar
- 6. escort
- 7. court (legal)
- 8. business
- 9. media
- 10. medical
- 11. educational
- 12. over the phone (OPI)
- 13. sight translation
- 14. Community
What is simultaneous interpretation?
TL is produced at the same time as the speaker produces source message
What is consecutive interpretation?
message is rendered in TL after the speaker finishes SL
What is whispered interpretation or CHUCHOTAGE?
interpret to 1 or 2 people max
what is conference interpreting?
Allows participants to speak to each other in a large conference
What is SEMINAR INTERPRETING?
Term used by US State Department for interpreting of meetings and small conferences.
Difference of scale to conference interpretation
What is escort interpretation?
informal. onsite visits
AKA "elbow interpreting"
What is court (legal) interpreting?
- judge, jury, lawyers
- judiciary or forensic settings
set usually in a court of law
2+ people re business
What is media interpretation?
press conferences, publicity events, interviews, films, video conferences, TV, Radio
What is Medical interp?
health care settings.
also known as?
Over the phone.
Instant oral interpretation of written material
What is Community I? general definition (2)
-For people not fluent in the home country
social services such as legal, health, education
- in AUS: liason interp
- in UK: public service I
- in Canada: cultural I
aka ad hoc, 3-cornered.
IMPORTANT ELEMENTS for COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS?
WHO seaks to WHOM
- and FOR WHAT PURPOSE
Places where interpreters might work -
- - international orgs
- - private sector (companies, trade unions, seminars, political parties, scientific, and academic conferences)
- meetings organized international lobbies
- goverment sectors, community interpretation
what may be involved in interpreters work?
- - highly technical and specialist
- - highly political - care with nuances
what are a consec Interpreters working conditions?
cozy, formal, tense, comfortable, field trip, etc
What are the characteristics of community interpreting? (5)
- usually informal
situations, though increas. requiring certification
provided to the community
-usually a DIALOGUE with INTERACTIONS
rather than speeches
- -presence of interpreter is more noticeable
- - community interp is viewed as ADVOCATE or CULTURAL BROKER
in what contexts do community interpreters usually work?
- MOSTLY community services
- -legal (private conversation betwn lawyer/client)
- -social services
WHAT COMPETENCIES should a community interpreter have?
- - LINGUISTICALLY competent
- - comprehend SL
- - render accurately in TL
- RESEARCH and TECHNICAL COMPETENCE
What SKILLS should a community interpreter have?
- -strong communication skills
- -polite, respectful and tactful
- - able to relate well
- - have good judgement
- - able to overcome cultural barriers that could block communication
Why are listening and comprehension important to the inerpretation process?
-To accurately transmit message with all nuances of register, tone and style
What should an interpreter do to analyze a SL message correctly so the interpretation is not skewed or inaccurate
- -Listen ACTIVELY
- -identify WHO does WHAT WHEN
- -analyze type of speech
- - identify and convey speakers INTENT
How does the main idea identification relate to listening and comprehension?
- - reveals speakers purpose
- - structures type of speech,
- - prioritzes key points and the way they relate
- so avoids overloading memory
Why are SUMMARY SKILLS iportant for interpretation?
- deliver a better more accurate message
- - MACROPROCESSING - chunking message helps memory
- avoids overload
Why is memory important to the interpretation process?
- - to be able to retain info and reformulate
- -to understand notes
- - to reproduce in a significant and accurate way
Why do consecutive interpreters have recall advantage over simult. interpreters?
- -more time to analyze and organize
- -greater distance from the source text
- - better reformulation
What is the difference between short-term memory and long-term memory?
- STM: keep, use and lose.
- made up of words and sounds
- LTM:use and keep - retain longer
- made up of semantic meaning.
What is chunking? what are the advantages for the interpreter?
- organization into units/IDEAS
- easier to remember
- easier to change sequence
why is it so important to concentrate on ideas rather than words?
- -avoid memory overload
- -enhancs memory function
- - easier to transpose into TL
What are the advantages of consecutive interpretation?
- -less interference
- -complete idea
- -cost effective
- -no equipment necessary
- -abilty ot negotiate and check
- -take notes
- - better reformulation
DISADVANTAGES of consecutive interpretation?
- -time consuming
- - depends on note taking/memory
- - may lose some meaning
- -not dynamic
basic competencies necessary before consecutive interpretation?
-vocabulary in both languages
- public speaking
- ability to capture tone, register and culture
-ability to reformulate the essence of meaning
-positive attitute and confidence
- thick skin, humility
-good research skills
how does the development of consecutive interpretation skills assist simultaneous interpretation skills?
preparation and training to simult.
improve memory, note taking, ability capture essence
Explain the components of GILE's model of consecutive interpretation
- -taking notes
- -short-term memory effort
- -interpretation of notes
According to Roderick Jones what are the three basic stages of consecutive interpreter's work?
1- Understanding (grasping ideas of the words)
What is the difference between active listening and passive listening?
- Active: close attention all details
- -identify meaning, register, tone, style
- -analysis occurs