Lab Exam #4

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Lab Exam #4
2015-03-17 00:00:53
Clinical Correlations Lab Exam

Clinical Correlations Lab Exam #4
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  1. Is a condition affecting the bronchial tree in which there are episodes of widespread narrowing of the air tubes due to contraction of smooth muscles, edema of the mucous membranes, and excessive mucus production by glands in the walls of the airways.
  2. Is a acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tree.
  3. Is the most common type of lung cancer. It arises from the epithelial cells of the bronchial tree, obstructs air tubes, and aggressively invades nearby lung tissue.
    Bronchogenic Carcinoma
  4. Is the term for common head cold. It is caused by infection of upper respiratory system organs by a class of highly contagious virus called rhinoviruses.
  5. Is a progressive disease of the lungs in which the walls of alveoli become inflamed, their elastic fibers are destroyed, and they lose their ability to stretch and recoil properly when inspiration and expiration occurs. Destruction of the alveolar wall architecture causes their collapse when attempting to exhale, making it hard for air to leave the lungs and for new air to enter.
  6. Emphysema and Bronchitis are subtypes.
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  7. Is the inflammation of mucous membranes in the larynx. The resulting edema interferes with vibration of the vocal folds and produces hoarseness.
  8. Is a form of cancer that affects the pleura. This is the simple squamous epithelium component of a serous membrane.
  9. Is inflammation of the pleura usually caused by viral or bacterial infection. Inflammation roughens the pleural surfaces and produces pain when the body wall is moved during inspiration and expiration.
    Pleurisy or Pleuritis
  10. Is acute inflammation of the lungs caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections of the alveoli. It is a leading infectious cause of death in the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.
  11. Is the entrance of air into the pleural cavity. Normally the pleural cavity is a sealed potential space containing only a small amount of serous fluid. The pressure in the pleural cavity is slightly below atmospheric pressure, which allows the lungs to follow the excursions of the chest wall and filled with air during inspiration.
  12. Is the abnormal accumulations of fluid in the pleural cavity. This occurs when when the rate of fluid formation exceeds the rate of fluid absorption.
    Pleural Effusion
  13. Is inflammation of paranasal sinuses. The condition usually begins with a viral infection that produces a head cold. Inflammation of paranasal sinuses follows, which impedes their normal drainage and may set up the proper conditions for an ensuing bacterial infection.
  14. Is a procedure in which an incision is made through the neck into the trachea to produce an opening through which a tube is inserted to improve air flow to the lungs.
  15. Is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium. It usually affects the lungs since the bacterium is spread from a person to another person through tiny droplets released into the air by a cough or sneeze.
  16. Results when the cells of the suprarenal cortex produce too little of the steroid hormone cortisol, and perhaps too little aldosterone too.
    Addison's Disease
  17. Is a rare disorder that occurs when the body is exposed to chronic high levels of the steroid hormone cortisol. It can be caused by overproduction of cortisol by cells in the suprarenal cortex or when people take steroid hormone medication similar to cortisol for too long.
    Cushing's Syndrome
  18. Is a disease in which there is an inability to produce or use insulin the hormone made by beta cells in the pancreatic islets the endocrine part of the pancreas.
    Diabetes Mellitus
  19. Occurs when beta cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system.
    Type I Diabetes
  20. Insulin injections are required to lower blood sugar levels.
    Insulin-dependent diabetes
  21. It is most often occurs in older patients who are obese. Either the body does not produce enough insulin or the body's cell become less sensitive to insulin.
    Type II Diabetes or Non-Insulin-dependent diabetes
  22. Is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. The most common cause worldwide is lack of iodine in the diet.
  23. Is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. This increases the body's basal metabolic rate and may be caused by an autoimmune disorder and thyroid tumors.
  24. Is an underactive thyroid gland that produces too little thyroid hormone, which decreases the body's basal metabolic rate.
  25. Is an artificial cleansing of the blood when the kidneys are diseased or damaged to the point where they cannot perform this function.
  26. Involves pumping the patient's blood from the body into a fluid compartment, which is separated by a semipermeable filter from another compartment containing a solution with mineral ions.
  27. Are crystallized deposits of minerals and acids that are normally dissolved in the urine.
    Kidney Stones or Renal Calculi
  28. Is a genetic disorder involving the formation of numerous noncancerous fluid-filled sacs called cysts. As the cysts multiply and get larger they can affect kidney function and cause high blood pressure over time.
    Polycystic Kidney Disease
  29. Are common infections of the urethra and bladder, and possibly the kidneys in serious cases.
    Urinary Tract Infections
  30. Urethral Infections
  31. Bladder infections
  32. Kidney Infections
  33. Is a mucus-filled swelling of the greater vestibular gland, the gland that lubricates the vestibule in the female perineum.
    Bartholin's Gland Cyst
  34. Is the most common form of cancer in women and is currently the second leading cause of death due to cancer in women, behind lung cancer. Aries from the cells lining the ducts of the lactiferous gland.
    Breast Cancer
  35. Is a disorder in which endometrium grows ectopically. Common locations of ectopic endometrial tissue include the uterine tubes, ovaries, or peritoneal cavity.
  36. Is surgical incision of the posterior wall of the vagina during delivery of a child in order to enlarge the vaginal opening and to presumable decrease uncontrolled tearing of the perineal muscles and connective tissues.
  37. Are benign tumors of the smooth muscle in the uterus. Their causes are unclear, but it appears that muscle cells reproduce themselves many times, producing a rubbery mass of smooth muscle.
  38. Is surgical removal of the uterus.
  39. Are fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary or extend from its surface.
    Ovarian cysts
  40. Is an inflammatory condition involving the female internal genital organs.
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  41. Is the term describing the dropping or falling down of an organ. It can affect the bladder, rectum or uterus.
  42. Usually affects postmenopausal women who have had several pregnancies with vaginal deliveries, since the ligaments that support the uterus and the pelvic diaphragm may weaken over time.
    Uterine prolapse
  43. Is a permanent form of birth control for females, also known as getting one's tubes tied. It prevents pregnancy by blocking the passage of oocytes through the uterine tubes so that sperm and oocytes cannot meet.
    Tubal Ligation
  44. Is noncanerous enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men and one that affects every man who lives long enough.
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  45. Is the condition when a testis has not descended from the body cavity into the scrotum. The migration of the testes occurs before birth and by the third trimester the testes have descended as far as the inguinal canal descent into the scrotum occurs at the tail end of full-term gestation.
  46. Is the abnormal protrusion of an organ, organ part, or tissue through an opening or through a weak area in the wall of a body cavity.
  47. Occurs when the organ or tissue protrudes directly through the abdominal wall in the region of the superficial inguinal ring without passing through the inguinal canal the hernia simply pushes the layers of the body wall ahead of itself into the scrotum.
    Direct Inguinal Hernia
  48. Occurs when the organ or tissue enters the deep inguinal ring and passes through the body wall into the scrotum via the inguinal canal.
    Indirect Inguinal Hernia
  49. Is the accumulation of excess fluid in the cavity of the tunica vaginalis, which is normally a potential space.
  50. Is one of the most common cancer in men. It occurs when cells in the glandular part of the prostate grow uncontrollably and produce tumors.
    Prostate Cancer
  51. In males can occur because of straddle injuries such as falling off a skateboard onto a metal beam.
    Rupture of the Urethra
  52. Is a condition characterized by swollen veins in the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord. They occur most often on the left side due to more vertical position of the left testicular vein, which somehow predisposes the valves within the vein to fail.
  53. Is a surgical procedure that produces male sterility a permanent form of male birth control. It is outpatient surgery in which a segment of the ductus deferens within the spermatic cord is removed and the two ends of the tube are tied shut.
  54. Is a medical emergency that occurs when a testis rotates and causes the spermatic cord above it to twist. This produces sudden, severe pain and compresses the testicular artery, cutting off arterial blood supply to the testis.
    Testicular Torsion