Muscular Anatomy

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antruong
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298587
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Muscular Anatomy
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2015-05-20 18:47:39
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Anatomy
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  1. Auricularis muscles
    • O: Aponeurosis over head and mastoid process
    • I: Ear
    • N: Facial
    • A: Moves ear superiorly, posteriorly, and anteriorly
  2. Buccinator
    • O: Mandible and Maxilla
    • I: Orbicularis oris at angle of mouth
    • N: Facial
    • A: Retracts angle of mouth and flattens cheek
  3. Corrugator supercilli
    • O: Nasal bridge and orbicularis oculi
    • I: Skin of eyebrow
    • N: Facial
    • A: Depresses medial portion of eyebrow; draws eyebrows together as in frowning
  4. Depressor anguli oris
    • O: Lower border of mandible
    • I: Skin of lip near angle of mouth
    • N: Facial
    • A: Depresses angle of mouth as in frowning
  5. Depressor labii inferioris
    • O: Lower border of mandible
    • I: Skin of lower lip and orbicularis oris
    • N: Facial
    • A: Depresses lower lip, as in frowning
  6. Levator anguli oris
    • O: Maxilla
    • I: Skin at angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates angle of mouth as in smiling
  7. Levator labii superioris
    • O: Maxilla
    • I: Skin and orbicularis oris of upper lip
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates upper lip as in sneering
  8. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
    • O: Maxilla
    • I: Ala at nose and upper lip
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates lateral side of nostril and upper lip
  9. Levator palpebrae superioris
    • O: Lesser wing of sphenoid
    • I: Skin of eyelid
    • N: Oculomotor
    • A: Elevates upper eyelid
  10. Mentalis
    • O: Mandible
    • I: Skin of chin
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates and wrinkles skin over chin; protrudes lower lip, as in pouting
  11. Nasalis
    • O: Maxilla
    • I: Bridge and ala of nose
    • N: Facial
    • A: Dilates nostril
  12. Occipitofrontalis
    • O: Occipital bone
    • I: Skin of eyebrow and nose
    • N: Facial
    • A: Moves scalp; elevates eyebrows
  13. Orbicularis oris
    • O: Nasal septum, maxilla, and mandible
    • I: Fascia and other muscles of lips
    • N: Facial
    • A: Closes lips
  14. Orbicularis oculi
    • O: Maxilla and frontal bones
    • I: Circles orbit and inserts near origin
    • N: Facial
    • A: Closes eyelids
  15. Platysma
    • O: Fascia of deltoid and pectoralis major
    • I: Skin over inferior border of mandible
    • N: Facial
    • A: Depresses lower lip; wrinkles skin of neck and upper chest
  16. Procerus
    • O: Bridge of nose
    • I: Frontalis
    • N: Facial
    • A: Creates horizontal wrinkles between eyes as in frowning
  17. Risorius
    • O: Platysma and masseter fascia
    • I: Orbicularis oris and skin at corner of mouth
    • N: Facial
    • A: Abducts angle of mouth as in smiling
  18. Zygomaticus major
    • O: Zygomatic bone
    • I: Angle of mouth
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates and abducts upper lip as in smiling
  19. Zygomaticus minor
    • O: Zygomatic bone
    • I: Orbicularis oris of upper lip
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates and abducts upper lip as in smiling
  20. What is ptosis?
    • Droopy eyelid on one side
    • Usually indicates nerve to levator palpebrae superioris or part of the brain controlling nerve has been damaged
  21. What are the 4 muscles of mastication?
    • 1) Temporalis
    • 2) Masseter
    • 3) Pterygoids (Lateral and Medial)
  22. Temporalis
    • O: Temporal fossa
    • I: Anterior portion of mandibular ramus and coronoid process
    • N: Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
    • A: Elevates and retracts mandible; involved in excursion
  23. Masseter
    • O: Zygomatic arch
    • I: Lateral side of mandibular ramus
    • N: Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
    • A: Elevates and protracts mandible; involved in excursion
  24. Lateral Pterygoid
    • O: Lateral side of lateral pterygoid plate plate and greater wing of sphenoid
    • I: Condylar process of mandible and articular disk
    • N: Mandibular division of trigeminal
    • A: Protracts and depresses mandible; involved in excursion
  25. Medial Pterygoids
    • O: Medial side of lateral pterygoid plate and tuberosity of maxilla
    • I: Medial surface of mandible
    • N: Mandibular division of trigeminal
    • A: Protracts and elevates mandible; involved in excursion
  26. What are the 4 suprahyoid muscles?
    • 1) Digastric
    • 2) Geniohyoid
    • 3) Mylohyoid
    • 4) Stylohyoid
  27. Digastric
    • O: Mastoid process
    • I: Mandible near midline
    • N: Posterior belly-facial; anterior belly-mandibular division of trigeminal
    • A: Depresses and retracts mandible; elevates hyoid
  28. Geniohyoid
    • O: Mental protuberance of mandible
    • I: Body of hyoid
    • N: Fibers of C1 and C2 with hypoglossal
    • A: Protracts hyoid; depresses mandible
  29. Mylohyoid
    • O: Body of mandible
    • I: Hyoid
    • N: Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
    • A: Elevates floor of mouth and tongue; depresses mandible when hyoid is fixed
  30. Stylohyoid
    • O: Styloid process
    • I: Hyoid
    • N: Facial
    • A: Elevates hyoid
  31. What are the 4 hyoid muscles?
    • 1) Omohyoid
    • 2) Sternohyoid
    • 3) Sternothyroid
    • 4) Thyrohyoid
  32. Omohyoid
    • O: Superior border of scapula
    • I: Hyoid
    • N: Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis
    • A: Depresses hyoid fixes hyoid in mandibular depression
  33. Sternohyoid
    • O: Manubrium and first costal cartilage
    • I: Hyoid
    • N: Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis
    • A: Depresses hyoid; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression
  34. Sternothyroid
    • O: Manubrium and first or second costal cartilage
    • I: Thyroid cartilage
    • N: Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis
    • A: Depresses larynx; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression
  35. Thyrohyoid
    • O: Thyroid cartilage
    • I: Hyoid
    • N: Upper cervical, passing with hypoglossal
    • A: Depresses hyoid and elevates thyroid cartilage of larnyx; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression
  36. What are the 3 intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
    • Longitudinal
    • Transverse
    • Vertical
  37. Intrinsic tongue muscles
    • O: within tongue
    • I: Within tongue
    • N: Hypoglossal
    • A: Change tongue shape
  38. What are the 4 extrinsic tongue muscles?
    • 1) Genioglossus
    • 2) Hyoglossus
    • 3) Styloglossus
    • 4) Palatoglossus
  39. Genioglossus
    • O: Mental protuberance of mandible
    • I: Tongue
    • N: Hypoglossal
    • A: Depresses and protrudes tongue
  40. Hyoglossus
    • O: Hyoid
    • I: Side of tongue
    • N: Hypoglossal
    • A: Retracts and depresses side of tongue
  41. Styloglossus
    • O: Styloid process of temporal bone
    • I: Tongue (lateral and inferior)
    • N: Hypoglossal
    • A: Retracts tongue
  42. Palatoglossus
    • O: Soft palate
    • I: Tongue
    • N: Pharyngeal plexus
    • A: Elevates posterior tongue
  43. Levator scapulae
    • O: Transverse processes of C1-C4
    • I: Superior angle of scapula
    • N: Dorsal scapular
    • A: Laterally flexes neck; elevates, retracts and rotates scapula
  44. Scalene muscles
    • O: C2-C6
    • I: First and second ribs
    • N: Cervical and brachial plexus
    • A: Flex, laterally flex, and rotate neck
  45. Semispinalis capitis
    • O: C4-T6
    • I: Occipital bone
    • N: Dorsal rami of cervical nerves
    • A: Extends and rotates head
  46. Splenius capitis
    • O: C4-T6
    • I: Superior nuchal line and mastoid processes
    • N: Dorsal rami of cervical nerves
    • A: Extends and rotates head
  47. Splenius cervicis
    • O: C3-C5
    • I: Transverse processes of C1-C3
    • N: Dorsal rami of cervical nerves
    • A: Rotates and extends neck
  48. Sternocleidomastoid
    • O: Manubrium and medial clavicle
    • I: Mastoid process and superior nuchal line
    • N: Accessory (cranial nerve XI)
    • A: One contracting alone: laterally flexes head and neck to same side and rotates the head and neck to opposite side
    • Both contracting together: Flexes neck
  49. Trapezius
    • O: Occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous process of C7-T12
    • I: Clavicle, acromion and scapular spine
    • N: Accessory (cranial nerve XI)
    • A: Extends and laterally flexes head and neck
  50. Torticollis (Wry neck)
    • Abnormal twisting or bending of the neck
    • Can be caused by damage to sternocleidomastoid muscle resulting in fibrous tissue formation and contracture of the muscle
    • Damage to infant's neck muscles because of interuterine position or a difficult birth may cause torticollis
    • Most cases resolve spontaneously
  51. Spasmodic Torticollis
    • Can occur in adults; many causes
    • Intermittent contracture of neck muscles, especially sternocleidomastoid and trapezius resulting in rotation, flexion, and extension of the neck and elevation of the shoulder
  52. What 3 subgroups make up the Erector spinae muscles?
    • 1) Iliocostalis
    • 2) Longissimus
    • 3) Spinalis
  53. Iliocostalis
    • O: Sacrum, ilium, and angle of ribs
    • I: Angles of ribs and transverse processes of vertebrae
    • N: Cervical, thoraic, and lumbar spinal nerves
    • A: Extends, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column; maintains posture
  54. Longissimus
    • O: Sacrum, transverse processes of lumbar, thoracic, and lower cervical vertebrae
    • I: Transverse processes of vertebrae, angles of ribs, and mastoid process
    • N: Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal nerves
    • A: Extends head, neck, and vertebral column; maintains posture
  55. Spinalis
    • O:Spinous processes of T11-L2 and C7
    • I: Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae and axis
    • N: Cervical and thoracic, spinal nerves
    • A: Extends back and neck, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column
  56. Deep back muscles
    • O: Spinous and transverse processes of each vertebrae
    • I: Next superior spinous or transverse process, ribs, and occipital bone
    • N: Spinal nerves
    • A: Extends back and neck, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column
  57. Quadratus lumborum
    • O: Iliac crest and lower lumbar vertebrae
    • I: 12th rib and transverse processes of upper four lumbar vertebrae
    • N: 12th thoracic and upper lumbar spinal nerves
    • A: One acting alone: Laterally flexes vertebral column and depresses 12th rib
    • Both contracting: Extend vertebral column
  58. What are the 4 muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?
    • 1. Rectus abdominis
    • 2. External abdominal oblique
    • 3. Internal abdominal oblique
    • 4. Transversus abdominis
  59. Rectus abdominis
    • O: Pubic crest and symphysis pubis
    • I: Xiphoid process and inferior ribs
    • N: Branches of lower thoracic
    • A: Flexes vertebral column; compresses abdomen
  60. External abdominal oblique
    • O: 5th to 12th rib
    • I: Illiac crest, inguinal ligament, and rectus sheath
    • N: Lower thoracic
    • A: Flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax
  61. Internal abdominal oblique
    • O: Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, and lumbar fascia
    • I: 10 to 12 ribs and rectus sheath
    • N: Lower thoracic
    • A: Flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax
  62. Transversus abdominis
    • O: 7 to 12 costal cartilages, lumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inguinal ligament
    • I: Xiphoid process, linea alba, and pubic tubercle
    • N: Lower thoracic
    • A: Compresses abdomen
  63. What are the muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum?
    • 1. Bulbospongiosus
    • 2. Coccygeus
    • 3. Ischiocavernosus
    • 4. Levator ani
    • 5. External anal sphincter
    • 6. External urethral sphincter
    • 7. Transverse perinei
  64. Bulbospongiosus
    • O: Male: Central tendon of perineum and median raphe of penis
    • Female: Central tendon of perineum
    • I: Dorsal surface of penis and bulb of penis; base of clitoris
    • N: Pudendal
    • A: Constricts urethra (Male) and erects penis/clitoris
  65. Coccygeus
    • O: Ischial spine
    • I: Coccyx
    • N: S3 and S4
    • A: Elevates and supports pelvic floor
  66. Ischiocavernosus
    • O: Ischial ramus
    • I: Corpus cavernosum
    • N: Perineal
    • A: Compresses base of penis or clitoris
  67. Levator ani
    • O: Posterior pubis and ischial spine
    • I: Sacrum and coccyx
    • N: 4th sacral
    • A: Elevates anus and supports pelvic viscera
  68. External anal sphincter
    • O: Coccyx
    • I: Central tendon of perineum
    • N: 4th sacral and pudenda
    • A: Keeps orifice of anal canal closed
  69. External urethral sphincter
    • O: Pubic ramus
    • I: Median raphe
    • N: Pudendal
    • A: Constricts urethra
  70. Transverse pernei (Deep)
    • O: Ischial ramus
    • I: Median raphe
    • N: Pudendal
    • A: Supports pelvic floor
  71. Transverse pernei (Superficial)
    • O: Ischial ramus
    • I: Central perineal
    • N: Pudendal
    • A: Fixes central tendon
  72. What are the muscles of the thorax?
    • 1. Diaphragm
    • 2. Intercostalis (External and internal)
    • 3. Scalene
  73. Diaphragm
    • O: Interior of ribs, sternum, and lumbar vertebrae
    • I: Central tendon of diaphragm
    • N: Phrenic
    • A: Inspiration; depresses floor of thorax
  74. Intercostalis (external)
    • O: Inferior margin of each rib
    • I: Superior border of next rib below it
    • N: Intercostal
    • A: Inspiration; elevates ribs
  75. Intercostalis (internal)
    • O: Superior margin of each rib
    • I: Inferior border of next rib up
    • N: Intercostal
    • A: Expiration; depresses ribs
  76. Scalene Muscles (Anterior, middle, posterior)
    • O: transverse processes of C2-C6
    • I: First and second rib
    • N: Cervical and brachial plexuses
    • A: Elevates first and 2nd ribs
  77. What are the muscles acting on the scapula?
    • 1. Levator scapulae
    • 2. Pectoralis minor
    • 3. Rhomboideus (Major and Minor)
    • 4. Serratus anterior
    • 5. Trapezius
  78. Levator scapulae
    • O: Transverse processes of C1-C4
    • I: Superior angle of scapula
    • N: Dorsal scapular
    • A: Elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula; laterally flexes neck
  79. Pectoralis Minor
    • O: 3rd to 5th ribs
    • I: Coracoid process of scapula
    • N: Medial pectoral
    • A: Depresses scapula or elevates ribs
  80. Rhomboideus Major
    • O: Spinous process of T1-T4
    • I: Medial border of scapula
    • N: Dorsal scapular
    • A: Retracts, rotates, and fixes scapula
  81. Rhomboideus Minor
    • O: Spinous processes of C6-C7
    • I: Medial border of scapula
    • N: Dorsal scapular
    • A: Retracts, slightly elevates, rotates and fixes scapula
  82. Serratus anterior
    • O: 1st to 8th or 9th ribs
    • I: Medial border of scapula
    • N: Long Thoracic
    • A: Rotates and protracts scapula; elevates ribs
  83. Trapezius
    • O: External occiptial protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of C7-T12
    • I: Clavicle, acromion, and scapular spine
    • N: Accessory and cervical plexus
    • A: Elevates, depresses, retracts, rotates, and fixes scapula; extends neck
  84. What muscles act on the arm?
    • 1. Coracobrachialis
    • 2. Deltoid
    • 3. Latissimus dorsi
    • 4. Pectoralis major
    • 5. Teres major
  85. Corachobrachialis
    • O: Coracoid process of scapula
    • I: Midshaft of humerus
    • N: Musculocutaneous
    • A: Adducts arm and flexes shoulder
  86. Deltoid
    • O: Clavicle, acromion, and scapular spine
    • I: Deltoid tuberosity
    • N: Axillary
    • A: Flexes and extends shoulder; abducts and medially rotates arm
  87. Latissimus dorsi
    • O: Spinous processes of T7-L5; sacrum and iliac crest; inferior angle of scapula in some people
    • I: Medial crest of intertubercular groove
    • N: Thoracodorsal
    • A: Adducts and medially rotates arm; extends shoulder
  88. Pectoralis major
    • O: Clavicle, sternum, superior six costal cartilages, and external abdominal oblique aponeurosis
    • I: Lateral crest of intertubercular groove
    • N: Medial and lateral pectoral
    • A: Flexes shoulder; adducts and medially rotates arm; extends should from flexed position
  89. Teres Major
    • O: Lateral border of scapula
    • I: Medial crest of intertubercular groove
    • N: Lower subscapular C5 and C6
    • A: Extends shoulder; adducts and medially rotates arm
  90. What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
    • 1. Infraspinatous
    • 2. Supraspinatous
    • 3. Teres Minor
    • 4. Subscapularis
    • (SITS)
  91. Infraspinatous
    • O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • I: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • N: Suprascapular C5 and C6
    • A: Laterally rotates arm; holds head of humerus in place
  92. Subscapularis
    • O: Subscapular fossa
    • I: Lesser tubercle of humerus
    • N: Upper and lower subscapular C5 and C6
    • A: Medially rotates arm; holds head of humerus in place
  93. Supraspinatus
    • O: Supraspinous fossa
    • I: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • N: Suprascapular C5 and C6
    • A: Abducts arm; holds head of humerus in place
  94. Teres Minor
    • O: Lateral border of scapula
    • I: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • N: Axillary C5 and C6
    • A: Laterally rotates and adducts arm; holds head of humerus in place
  95. What muscles are involved in flexion of the shoulder and arm?
    • 1. Deltoid
    • 2. Pectoralis Major
    • 3. Coracobrachialis
    • 4. Biceps brachii
  96. What muscles are involved in extension of the shoulder and arm?
    • 1. Deltoid
    • 2. Teres Major
    • 3. Latissimus dorsi
    • 4. Pectoralis major
    • 5. Triceps brachii
  97. What muscles are involved in abduction of the shoulder and arm?
    Deltoid and Supraspinatus
  98. What muscles are involved in adduction of the shoulder and arm?
    • 1. Pectoralis major
    • 2. Latissimus dorsi
    • 3. Teres minor
    • 4. Teres major
    • 5. Triceps brachii
    • 6. Coracobrachialis
  99. What muscles are involved in medial rotation of the shoulder and arm?
    • 1. Pectoralis major
    • 2. Teres major
    • 3. Latissimus dorsi
    • 4. Deltoid
    • 5. Subscapularis
  100. What muscles are involved in lateral rotation of the shoulder and arm?
    • 1. Deltoid
    • 2. Infraspinatous
    • 3. Teres minor
  101. What are the 3 main muscles of the arm?
    • 1. Biceps brachii
    • 2. Brachialis
    • 3. Triceps brachii
  102. What are the 5 major muscles of the forearm?
    • 1. Anconeus
    • 2. Brachioradialis
    • 3. Pronator quadratus
    • 4. Pronator teres
    • 5. Supinator
  103. Biceps brachii
    • O: Long head- supraglenoid tubercle
    •      Short head- coracoid process of scapula
    • I: Radial tuberosity and aponeurosis of biceps
    • N: Musculocutaneous
    • A: Flexes shoulder and elbow; supinates forearm and hand
  104. Brachialis
    • O: Anterior surface of humerus
    • I: Ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna
    • N: Musculocutaneous and radial
    • A: Flexes elbow
  105. Triceps brachii
    • O: Long head- infraglenoid tubercle on lateral border of scapula
    •      Lateral head- lateral and posterior surface of humerus
    •      Medial head- posterior humerus
    • I: Olecranon process of the ulna
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends elbow; extends shoulder and adducts arm
  106. Anconeus
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Olecranon process and posterior ulna
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends elbow, "assists" triceps brachii is main agonist for extension of elbow
  107. Brachioradialis
    • O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • I: Styloid process of radius
    • N: Radial
    • A: Flexes elbow
  108. Pronator quadratus
    • O: Distal ulna
    • I: Distal radius
    • N: Anterior interosseous
    • A: Pronates forearm and hand
  109. Pronator teres
    • O: Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
    • I: Radius
    • N: Median
    • A: Pronates forearm and hand
  110. Supinator
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and ulna
    • I: Radius
    • N: Radial
    • A: Supinates forearm and hand
  111. What are the 6 muscles in the anterior forearm?
    • 1. Flexor carpi radialis
    • 2. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • 3. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • 4. Flexor digitorum superficialis
    • 5. Flexor pollicis longus
    • 6. Palmaris longus
  112. What are the 9 muscles in the posterior forearm?
    • 1. Abductor pollicis longus
    • 2. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • 3. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • 4. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    • 5. Extensor digiti minimi
    • 6. Extensor digitorum
    • 7. Extensor indicis
    • 8. Extensor pollicis brevis
    • 9. Extensor pollicis longus
  113. Flexor carpi radialis
    • O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Second and third metacarpals
    • N: Median
    • A: Flexes and abducts wrist
  114. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • O: Medial epicondyle of humerus and ulna
    • I: Pisiform, hamate, and 5th metacarpal
    • N: Ulnar
    • A: Flexes and adducts wrist
  115. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • O: Ulna
    • I: Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
    • N: Ulnar and Median nerves
    • A: Flexes fingers at MCPs, PIPs, DIPs, and wrist
  116. Flexor digitorum superficialis
    • O: Medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process, and radius
    • I: Middle phalanges of digits 2-5
    • N: Flexes fingers at DIP and PIP joints and wrist
    • A: Median
  117. Flexor pollicis longus
    • O: Radius
    • I: Distal phalanx of thumb
    • N: Median
    • A: Flexes thumb
  118. Palmaris longus
    • O: Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Palmar fascia
    • N: Median
    • A: Tenses palmar fascia; flexes wrist
  119. Abductor pollicis longus
    • O: Posterior ulna and radius and interosseous membrane 
    • I: Base of first metacarpal
    • N: Radial
    • A: Abducts and extends thumb; abducts wrist
  120. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Base of 3rd metacarpal
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends and abducts wrist
  121. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • I: Base of second metacarpal
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends and abducts wrist
  122. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Base of 5th metacarpal
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends and adducts wrist
  123. Extensor digiti minimi
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
    • I: Phalanges of fifth digit
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends pinky and wrist
  124. Extensor digitorum
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Extensor tendon expansion over phalanges of digits 2-5
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends fingers and wrist
  125. Extensor indicis
    • O: Ulna
    • I: Extensor tendon expansion over 2nd digit
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends index finger and wrist
  126. Extensor pollicis brevis
    • O: Radius
    • I: Proximal phalanx of thumb
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends and abducts thumb; abducts wrist
  127. Extensor pollicis longus
    • O: Ulna
    • I: Distal phalanx of thumb
    • N: Radial
    • A: Extends thumb
  128. Where do the superficial anterior forearm muscles have their origin?
    Medial epicondyle of humerus
  129. Where do the superficial posterior forearm muscles have their origin?
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  130. Where do the deep forearm muscles have their origin?
    Radius and Ulna
  131. What nerves innervate the posterior forearm muscles?
    Radial
  132. What nerves innervate the anterior forearm muscles?
    Median and Ulnar
  133. What are the 3 gluteal muscles?
    • 1. Gluteus maximus
    • 2. Gluteus medius
    • 3. Gluteus minimus
  134. What are the 6 Deep Hip muscles?
    • 1. Inferior Gemellus
    • 2. Superior Gemellus
    • 3. Obturator Externus
    • 4. Obturator Internus
    • 5. Piriformis
    • 6. Quadratus femoris
  135. Gluteus maximus
    • O: Posterior surface of ilium, sacrum, and coccyx
    • I: Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
    • N: Inferior gluteal
    • A: Extends hip; abducts and laterally rotates thigh
  136. Gluteus medius
    • O: Posterior surface of ilium
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • N: Superior gluteal
    • A: Abducts and medially rotates thigh; tilts pelvis toward supported side
  137. Gluteus minimus
    • O: Posterior surface of ilium
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • N: Superior gluteal
    • A: Abducts and medially rotates thigh; tilts pelvis toward supported side
    • Directly under gluteus medius
  138. Inferior Gemellus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Obturator internus tendon
    • N: L5 and S1
    • A: Laterally rotates and abducts thigh
  139. Superior Gemellus
    • O: Ischial spine
    • I: Obturator internus tendon
    • N: L5 and S1
    • A: Laterally rotates and abducts thigh
  140. Obturator Externus
    • O: Inferior margin of obturator foramen
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • N: Obturator
    • A: Laterally rotates thigh
  141. Obturator Internus
    • O: Interior margin of obturator foramen
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • N: L5 and S1
    • A: Laterally rotates thigh
  142. Piriformis
    • O: Sacrum and Ilium
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • N: S1 and S2
    • A: Laterally rotates and abducts thigh
  143. Quadratus femoris
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Intertrochanteric ridge of femur
    • N: L5 and S1
    • A: Laterally rotates thigh
  144. What are the 2 anterior hip muscles?
    • 1. Iliacus
    • 2. Psoas major
  145. Iliacus
    • O: Iliac fossa 
    • I: Lesser trochanter of femur and capsule of hip joint
    • N: Lumbar plexus
    • A: Flexes hip
  146. Psoas major
    • O: T12-L5
    • I: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • N: Lumbar plexus
    • A: Flexes hip
  147. How is the thigh divided into compartments?
    Anterior, Medial, and lateral compartments
  148. What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
    • 1. Quadriceps femoris
    • 2. Sartorius
    • 3. Tensor fasciae latae
  149. What muscles are in the medial compartment of the thigh?
    • 1. Adductor brevis
    • 2. Adductor longus
    • 3. Adductor magnus
    • 4. Gracilis
    • 5. Pectineus
  150. What muscles are in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
    • 1. Biceps femoris
    • 2. Semimembranosus
    • 3. Semitendinosus
  151. Quadriceps femoris
    • O: Rectus femoris- anterior inferior iliac spine
    •     Vastus lateralis- greater trochanter and           linea aspera of femur
    •     Vastus intermedius- body of femur
    •     Vastus medialis- linea aspera of femur
    • I: Patella and onto tibial tuberosity through patellar ligament
    • N: Femoral
    • A: Extends knee; rectus femoris also flexes hip
  152. What are the 4 heads of the quadriceps femoris?
    • 1. Rectus femoris
    • 2. Vastus lateralis
    • 3. Vastus intermedius
    • 4. Vastus medialis
  153. Sartorius
    • O: Anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: Medial side of tibial tuberosity
    • N: Femoral
    • A: Flexes hip and knee; rotates thigh laterally and leg medially
  154. Tensor fasciae latae
    • O: Anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: Through iliotibialtract to lateral condyle of tibia
    • N: Superior gluteal
    • A: Flexes hip; abducts and medially rotates thigh; stabilizes femur on tibia when standing
  155. Adductor brevis
    • O: Pubis
    • I: Pectineal line and linea aspera of femur
    • N: Obturator
    • A: Adducts, laterally rotates thigh; flexes hip
  156. Adductor longus
    • O: Pubis
    • I: Linea aspera of femur
    • N: Obturator
    • A: Adducts, laterally rotates thigh; flexes hip
  157. Adductor magnus
    • O: Adductor part: Pubis and ischium
    •      Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity
    • I: Adductor part: linea aspera of femur
    •     Hamstring part: adductor tubercle of femur
    • N: Adductor part: obturator
    •     Hamstring part: tibial
    • A: Adductor part: adducts thigh and flexes hip
    •      Hamstring part: Extends hip
  158. Gracilis
    • O: Pubis near symphysis
    • I: Tibia
    • N: Obturator
    • A: Adducts thigh; flexes knee
  159. Pectineus
    • O: Pubic crest
    • I: Pectineal line of femur
    • N: Femoral and obturator
    • A: Adducts thigh and flexes hip
  160. Biceps femoris
    • O: Long head- ischial tuberosity
    •      Short head- Femur
    • I: Head of fibula
    • N: Long head- tibial
    •      Short head- common fibular
    • A: Flexes knee; laterally rotates leg; extends hip
  161. Semimembranosus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Medial condyle of tibia and collateral ligament
    • N: Tibial
    • A: Flexes knee; medially rotates leg; tenses capsule of knee joint; extends hip
  162. Semitendinosus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Tibia
    • N: Tibial
    • A: Flexes knee; medially rotates leg; extends hip
  163. What muscles are involved in flexion of the thigh and hip?
    • 1. Ilipsoas
    • 2. Tensor fasciae latae
    • 3. Rectus femoris
    • 4. Sartorius
    • 5. Adductor longus
    • 6. Adductor brevis
    • 7. Pecinteus
  164. What muscles are involved in extension of the thigh and hip?
    • 1. Gluteus maximus
    • 2. Semitendinosus
    • 3. Semimembranosus
    • 4. Biceps femoris
    • 5. Adductor magnus
  165. What muscles are involved in abduction of the hip and thigh?
    • 1. Gluteus maximus
    • 2. Gluteus medius
    • 3. Gluteus minimus
    • 4. Tensor fasciae latae
    • 5. Obturator internus
    • 6. Gemellus superior and inferior
    • 7. Piriformis
  166. What muscles are involved in adduction of the hip and thigh?
    • 1. Adductor magnus
    • 2. Adductor longus
    • 3. Adductor brevis
    • 4. Pectineus
    • 5. Gracilis
  167. What muscles are involved in medial rotation of the hip and thigh?
    • 1. Gluteus medius
    • 2. Gluteus minimus
    • 3. Tensor fasciae latae
  168. What muscles are involved in the lateral rotation of the hip and thigh?
    • 1. Gluteus maximus
    • 2. Obturator internus
    • 3. Obturator externus
    • 4. Superior gemellus
    • 5. Inferior gemellus
    • 6. Quadratus femoris
    • 7. Piriformis
    • 8. Adductor longus
    • 9. Adductor magnus
    • 10. Adductor brevis

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