Research Exam 2: PP's

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Research Exam 2: PP's
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2015-03-17 14:02:12
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  1. What is the study of research questions about human experiences
    Qualitative Research
  2. What type of research takes place in a natural setting and uses data that are words or text rather than numerical in order to describe experiences being studied
    qualitative
  3. Is qualitative systematic objective or subjective
    systematic subjective
  4. What is qualitatives worldview of reality
    Based on perception and subject to change
  5. What is qualitatives worldview to knowledge
    • Meaning only given within a given situation or context
    • Knower and knowledge is inseperable
    • Inquiry is value bound
  6. What is the reasoning process of qualitative research
    Perceptually putting pieces together to make wholes which produces meaning
  7. What is the goal of qualitative research NOT?
    hypothesis testing
  8. What does the philosophical base of qualitative research direct
    • Questions asked
    • Observations made
    • Approach to interpretation of data
  9. What is each type of qualitative research guided by (what is the framework)
    Philosophical
  10. Does qualitative research incorporate perceptions and beliefs of researcher, participant, or both?
    Both
  11. Does qualitative research have specific or generalized findings
    generalized
  12. What is the purpose of qualitative research for nursing knowledge
    Theory development
  13. What do findings of qualitative research allow?
    Understanding of phenomenon in particular situation
  14. Name 6 key methods of qualitative research
    • Phenomenology
    • Grounded theory
    • Ethnography
    • Historical
    • Epistemology
    • Case studies
  15. What is a research approach that aims to describe experiences as they are lived?
    Phenomenology
  16. What is an interpretation of some phenomenon
    Truth
  17. What is a theory that is constructed inductively from a base of observations of the world as it is lived by a selected group of people? (uses a systematic set of procedures to arrive at a theory of basic social processes)
    Grounded theory
  18. What is Grounded Theory based on?
    Symbolic interactions
  19. What method of qualitative research explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to actions
    Grounded Theory
  20. How does grounded theory view reality
    • attaches meaning to situations
    • SYMBOLS
  21. What is the difference between Grounded Theory and Phenomenological method of qualitative research
    GT: How people's belief of reality leads to their actions (SYMBOLIC & SOCIAL SCIENCE)

    P: Describes lived experience to understand the meaning for those who lived it (PHILOSOPHICAL: DESCRIBE)
  22. What is informational redundancy
    When the research stops learning new information
  23. What is theoretical Saturation
    When theoretical ideas seem complete
  24. What is the role of the participant in research
    • determine research questions
    • guided data collection
    • interpreting results
  25. What is bracketing
    Suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about whats being studied
  26. Name the 5 elements of Quantitative Research design
    • participants (who)
    • observation (what)
    • measurement of time (when)
    • selection of subjects (where)
    • role of investigator
  27. Name 4 types of quantitative research
    • Descriptive
    • Correlational
    • Quasi-experiemental
    • Experimental
  28. name the main characteristics of experimental research
    • Controlled manipulation of at least 1 variable
    • Uses experimental and control groups
    • Random assignment of sample
  29. What is the difference between Basic and Applied research
    • Basic: Investigate WHAT IS
    • Applied: Attempts to SOLVE
  30. Difference between random and convenience sampling
    • random: equal chance of being selected
    • convenience: whoever is available
  31. What type of quantitative studies use natural settings
    • descriptive
    • correlational
  32. What happens in a partially controlled setting
    researcher controls environment
  33. What happens in a highly controlled setting
    pure laboratory
  34. What type of quantitative study uses highly controlled settings and why
    experimental to reduce extraneous variables
  35. What is an area of concern needing research for nursing practice (identifies, describes, predicts situation)
    Research PROBLEM
  36. Two types of limitations in quantitative studies
    • methodological
    • theoretical
  37. What comes from the research problem and identifies the specific goal or aim of the study (includes variables, population, and settings for the study)
    Research process
  38. What is the purpose of Literature review
    collecting pertinent information to give in-depth knowledge about the problem to make changes in practice
  39. What is the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledge?
    Framework
  40. What is an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control phenomena
    Theory
  41. What do objectives, questions, and hypothesis have in common
    Identify relationship between variables and indicate a population to be studied
  42. What are concepts that are measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study
    variables
  43. Is temperature and weight an example of a concept or abstract variable
    concept
  44. Is creativity and empathy an example of a concept or abstract variable
    abstract
  45. Describe the difference between conceptual and operational definitions
    • conceptual: give meaning
    • operational: variable can be measured
  46. What are statements taken advantage of or are considered true
    assumptions
  47. What are restrictions in a study that may decrease the credibility and generalizability of the findings
    Limitations
  48. What type of limitation restricts the generalization of the findings and are reflected in the framework and definitions
    Theoretical Limitations
  49. What type of limitation restricts the population to which the findings can be generalized
    methodological
  50. What can cause a methodological limitation
    unrespresentative sample or weak design
  51. What is the blueprint for conducting the study
    Research Design
  52. What does the research design direct
    • population
    • sample
    • methods of measure
    • plans for data collection
    • analysis
  53. What is the purpose of a pilot study
    to determine whether a proposed study is feasible
  54. What are all elements that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a study
    population
  55. What is a subset of the population that is selected for study
    sample
  56. How is data gathered for measurement? name the 4 types of measurements
    • Nominal
    • Ordinal
    • Interval
    • Ratio
  57. What is reliability
    consistency of tool
  58. what is validity
    does it measure what its suppose to measure
  59. What is precise, systematic gathering of information for the study
    data collection
  60. What is the purpose of data analysis
    reduce, organize, give meaning to data
  61. What organizes results from research study
    • objectives
    • questions
    • hypothesis
  62. What is the purpose of research outcome
    interpret data findings in a meaningful manner
  63. What summarizes major findings of a study and identifies contributions of study to nursing knowledge
    • research report
    • communication of findings
  64. What is the interest of correlational studies
    association/relationship BETWEEN TWO variables or AMONG SEVERAL variables that predict a particular outcome
  65. Name 3 types of correlational design
    • descriptive
    • predictive
    • model testing
  66. What is it called in correlation data when there is quantitative data on TWO variables
    Bivariate
  67. What would the value have to be close to for r to indicate a strong correlation?
    -1 or +1
  68. When is Spearson r appropriate to use
    rank and order correlation
  69. What is variable of interest
    characteristics or features of a situation, condition, or experience
  70. Independent verse dependent variable, which happens first
    • independent - prior to time
    • dependent - later in time
  71. What are extraneous variables
    not of interest but have influence on results
  72. What type of research allows the researcher to apply different levels of CONTROL so it can be said that the INDEPENDENT variable REALLY changed the DEPENDENT variable and not something else
    Descriptive
  73. Name 4 criterias for judging scientific rigor
    • credibility
    • auditability
    • fittingness
    • confirmability
  74. What is truth of findings as judged by participants and others within the discipline
    credibility
  75. What is accountability as judged by the adequacy of information leading the reader from the research question and raw data through various steps of analysis to the interpretation of findings
    auditability
  76. What is the faithfulness to everyday reality of the participants, described in enough detail so that others in the discipline can evaluate the importance for their own practice, research, and theory development
    fittingness
  77. What are findings that reflect implementation of credibility, auditability, and fittingness standards
    confirmability
  78. Quotes to theme order
    Original Quote > Code > similar codes > theme
  79. What is a way of indexing or identifying categories in data
    coding

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