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what are practical consideration in test selection?
- Can they read
- length of test (e.g. frustration)
- do you need special training to administer
In what ways does a test need to be standardised in order to be considered for test selection
- The populationit is normed on must match the population you are testing
- the sample size should be adequate
- it should contain norms for subgroups e.g. disabilities or cultures
- the physical setting and administration must be replicated.
when selecting a test reliability/consistency of results must be?
- Reliable statistically
- take into account other factors that can influence reliability e.g statistics measuring reliability and test format
when assessing accuracy/validity of a test what do you need to consider?
- what was used to validate the test
- will it be accurate for what you want to use it for.
when considering theoretical orientation in test selection you need to consider what?
- that the test measures what it says it will measure
- that the test items relate to the construct being measured.
what is standardisation in terms of test results?
- test norms which provide information about where how a score compares to other scores on a test.
- Raw scores have meanings (e.g. significant/maladaptive) and give percentile rankings, (how someone compares to same aged peers)
what is the SEM?
Standard error of measurement which is the error in testing that occurs because defining some constructs that can be inferred is imprecise.
what can cause errors in testing?
- client mood/motivation
- administration errors
what does a CI tell us in testing?
where the answer lies.
what is more reliable, a short test or a long test?
a long test.
what is more reliable, an overall score or a subtest score?
An overall score
what is more reliable, true false or multi choice format?
Multi choice format.
what are the 5 types of reliability?
- product moment VS intracorrelation coefficient
- split half relaibility
- alternate/equivalent forms
what is test retest reliability
checking that scores are the same when measured at two different temporal points.
what is test retest best at measuring?
what can test/retest be adversely affected by?
time lapse, things that happen between the first and second test that are the result of something else and not what is being measured. e.g. performance on a test is lowered because a persons mother died since the first test was administered.
Practice - people able to practice a skill in the first test that improves performance on the second test.
Memory - people remember the test questions from the first test
what is alternate/equivalent forms?
a different test, testing the same thing.
Does alternate forms give the lowest or highest estimate of reliability?
possibly because the tests are different but measuring the same thing they are not equitable and so can not be compared.
does split half reliability give the lowest or highest estimate of reliability?
possible because the test can be compared to itself.
what is alternate forms useful for assessing?
treatment effects over time.
what problems does alternate forms solve?
what problem is not solved with alternate forms?
what is split half reliability?
taking all the items in a test and splitting them into 2 groups to create 2 versions of the test and possibly giving both versions to someone at the same time
what is split half reliability best at measuring?
fluctuating traits e.g. anxiety
what can split half reliability be adversely affected by?
- warm up effects because they are sitting 2 versions of the same test.
what improves reliability of split half reliability?
the more items, the more reliable.
what is interscorer/examiner rater reliability?
the degree of agreement between 2 examiners
why is it necessary to use interscorer reliability?
for tests that are subjective.
how is interscorer reliability measured?
score the same answers to a test (e.g. ink blot test) or 2 administartions of the same test.
what is the difference between intercorrelation coefficient and product moment coefficient?
- ICC= the degree of relationship between groups of things. how much data of groups resemble each other. it can tell the difference between groups of examiners from those made by different sets of examiners
- r = the degree of relationship between 2 things
what does ICC allow someone to understand?
it meaningfully arranges data that might otherwise not have meaning. e.g. scores ranked as low, medium or high agreement
Can the ICC be higher than the PMC? and why?
- no. the PMC measures the relationship but not the level of agreement. e.g. 5 psycs rate 5 interns, they all rate the 'same way' e.g. intern 5 sucks, intern 1 is amazing, but they all score differently e.g. psy one scores 6 as a a high score, psyc 2 scores 10 as a high score.
- ICC measures the amount of agreement between the scores instead of the scores themselves which would not provide the information we were looking for.
what can ICC correct for?
test retest and inter rater scores expected on the basis of chance alone.
what are the 3 types of validity?
what is validity?
can a test be valid but not reliable?
can a test be reliable and not valid?
what is content valididty?
representativeness and relevance of the assessment instrument to the construct being measured.
what is the difference between content and face validity?
content validity is the represenativeness and relevance of the assessment instrument to what is being measured as assessed by experts, face validity is how it is viewed by laymen. e.g. mechanics will want questions about their expertise not business transactions.
how is content validity initially judged?
subjective judgement of test constructors
what is criterion validity?
the extent that the assessment instrument correlates with another independent criterion e.g. IQ and academic performance
what are the 2 types of criterion valididty?
predictive and concurrent
what is concurrent validity?
when the measure correlates with another measure taken at the same time e.g. test result and MRI scan both indicating brain damage
am I crazy now?
what is predictive validity?
when a test result matches another independent criterion later on. e.g.IQ predicting academic performance
will I be crazy later?
what is sensitivity?
what is specificity?
what is positive predictive power?
percentage of scores that are what they say they are.
what is the problem with using criterion validity?
because concepts are abstract and inferred e.g. intelligence there is some disagreement about adequate outside criteria.
what can the square of the correlation coefficient estimate?
the extent to which a test accounts for a trait being measured. e.g. IQ is a percentage of academic performance, motivation etc make up the rest.
what is construct validity?
the extent to which a test/instrument measures a construct or trait.
how is construct validity measured?
- data from content and criterion validity
- factor analysis
- internal validity.
- e.g a test for anxiety should correlate with physiological measures of anxiety. it should also negatively correlate with things dissimilar to it.
what is the problem if a test correlates too highly with another?
it may be unnessary duplication of a test unless it offers a specific advantage e.g. shortened format.
what is unacceptable internal consistency?
less than .7
what is excellent internal consistency?
more than .9
what is poor inter-scorer reliability?
less than .4
what is excellent inter scorer reliability?
more than .75
what is incremental validity?
- improving accuracy by increasing numbers of data sources e.g. interview but only if its worth the time. e.g. if the interview increases validity by 2% better to spend the time on treatment planning.
- most psyc tests have poor incremental valididty except MMPI and neuropsyc
what are the advantages or self assessment?
what are is formal assessment susceptible to?
- social desirability
- attributional errors
- self awareness of client
what are the advantages of an unstructured approach?
- focus on the unique individual
- ideographically rich
what are the disadvnatages of an unstructured approach?
- depends on rapport
- data may be inaccurate
does an unstructured approach depend on?
the skills ofperceiving of the interviewer e.g. culture, intelligence, interests.
are the characteristics of a good standardised test?
what are 5 possible sources of measurement error?
- and general characteristics of the individual
- but specific characteristics of the indvidual
- but general characteristics of the individual
- but specific characteristics of the individual
are 3 lasting and general characteristics of the individual that are
possible sources of measurement error?
level of ability on one or more general traits general skills in test taking techniques general ability to understand instrux
are 3 lasting but specific characteristics of the individual?
individual level of ability on traits required by a particular test knowledge and skills specific to particular test questions chance that the individual knows or doesn't know a particular fact
what are 8 temporary but general characteristics of the individual?
- emotional strain
- external conditions
- test wiseness
- understanding how tests work
what are 6 temporary but specifc characteritics of the individual?
- understanding of a specific test task
- techniques to cope with tests
- level of practice of skill required
- momentary 'set' for particular test
- fluctuations in memory
what can a psychometric test tell us?
- cognitive strengths and weaknesses
- self esteem, anxiety, social skills, motivation
- cognitive changes
what is fluid intelligence?
- innate/born with
- primarily non-verbal
- relates to problem solving
- dependent on brains efficiency and intactness
- culture and education free
- measured by ravens matrices and WAIS performance test
- increases till 14 and levels around 20, declines from there.
- related to WAIS 4 matrix reasoning and visual puzzles.
what is crystallised intelligence?
- interaction between fluid intelligence and environment. e.g. culture and education.
- less susceptible to brain damage e.g. days of the week
- accumulated knowledge
- grows till 40 then delicnes.
- WAIS 4 vocabulary and information
what are components of both short and long term memory?
auditory and visual
what is declarative/explicit memory?
conscious verbal report of facts events and experiences.
what is procedural/implicit memory?
what are the components of working memory?
attention, initiation, monitoring and evaluation.
what disabilities are memory complaints associated with?
- head injuries
- learning disabilities
- neurotoxic exposure
what are the typical age related memory complaints of children, adults and the elderly?
- learning disabilities,
- neurotoxic exposure/brain injury
what are the typical ways of defining intelligence?
- ability to cope through learning
- judge, comprehend and reason
- understand people objects and symbols
- act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with the environment
what is g in IQ?
mechanical, arithmetical, logical and spacial verbal ability
what are the 7 types of intelligence by Gardner?
- body movement
- understand oneself
- understand others
how do you analyse the results of the WAIS and WMS IV?
- a. observe interaction with examiner
- b. study the content of the test item responses e.g. information, vocab, comprehension, and similarities which could reveal, impulsiveness, aggression, unusual association
- c. infer the meaning between the pattern of subtest scores. e.g. anxiety or suspiciousness
what can IQ scores be influences by?
- achievement orientation,
- understanding of English,
- following instructions.
what is not measured by the WAIS IV?
- common sense
- sternebergs cognitive
when can you use a supplemental subtest?
if a subtest is invalid or the tester is unable to administer.
what is the WAIS IV co -normed with
Wescheler Individual Achievement test (2) and WMS IV
what can calculating the difference between IQ and GAI (global ability index) tell us?
the degree to which brain and age sensitive subtests are lowering a persons overall level of functioning
under what circumstances does the IQ score and the GAI score become less meaningful?
if there is a high degree of difference (more than 23points) between 2 WAIS IV indexes
what subtests are considered relatively culture free?
perceptual reasoning and processing speed
what indexes are the most susceptible to brain damage, learning difficulties and mental retardation ?
- working memory
- processing speed
why might a desceprancy in a subtest not be clinically significant?
if a person has not used a particular skill much they may not score high on the subtest, e.g. a person who used rapid processing of information everyday and did poorly on perceptual reasoning and processing, may indicate a head injury. But if they were a craftsperson, it may not indicate anything at all.
for what disorders do you find the mean WMI working memory index scores lower than normal on the WAIS IV?
- reading related learning disabilities
- learning disabilities
- mathematical difficulties
sounds suspiciously like dyslexia and discalcula
similarities - when a person is presented with 2 words and describes how they are similar, is an indicator of what?
prognosis for psychotherapy. high scores indicate good ability for insight and introspection
what does similarities (present with 2 words and describe) indicate in terms of the brain
its sensitive to left hemisphere lesions, esp. left temporal and/or left frontal regions
e.g. planning, language and decision making area of the brain
people with mental health issues (clinical popns) who score high on vocabularly may do what?
use compulsive or intellectual defense mechanisms
which subtests are resistant to neurological and psychological disturbance?
information and vocabulary
probably because these are the crystallised forms of intelligence and these are less effected by brain injury or neurotoxicity
who may perform badly in arithmetic?
histrionic and antisocial personalities who don't accept outside direction or refuse to take responsibility for their behaviour.
histrionic and antisocial personalities who don't accept outside direction or refuse to take responsibility for their behaviour may do poorly in which subtest?
Block design can assess what?
- hand preference
- motor coordination
- speed of information processing
- frustration tolerance
- response to feedback
what can performance on block design indicate in terms of the brain?
damage to the right hemisphere esp. right parietal region
what disorder can block design be sensitive to?
which subtest can distinquish between alzhemers and depression?
if poor, more likely to be alzhemers
what do low scores on digit span, arithmetic and coding indicate?
ADHD and/or anxiety
anxiety and/or adhd can result in poor outcomes on which subtests?
coding, digit span and arithmetic
if a culture de-emphaisises rapid performance of tasks (e.g. pacific nations) which subtests should be demphasised?
- symbol search
- these have time limits
which subtests are an indicator of low motivation when combined with observations of the client?
- digit span
- symbol search
- letter/number sequencing
boring shit ones
adding cancellation to symbol search and coding can give further information about what?
client ability to process information rapidly
which subtests are sensitive to anxiety?
- digit span
- letter/number sequencing
which subtest are sensitive to cognitive deterioration anxiety and fatigue?
arithmetic, coding and block design
if sequencing was a problem which subtests would have low scores?
- digit span
- letter/number sequencing
differences in scores on digit span forward DSF and digit span back DSB or digit span sequencing suggests what?
- cog. deterioration related to
- poor attention
- visualising numbers
exposure to solvents an result in poor performance on what subtests?
poor performance on DSB and coding can be the result of what?
which subtests can shed light on why a subtest score was high or low?
what test is equivalent to a mental status exam?
WMS-IV brief cognitive screen
because of the memory components, WMS delayed memory index could be a measure of what?
a discrepancy between immediate memory index and delayed memory index could indicate what?
a decay of memory over time
what do differences between auditory memory index and visual memory index indicate?
- which is a strength and which is a weakness
- e.g. is auditory or visual index a strength or weakness
a score of less than 7 on WAIS IV GAI and WMS visual working memory index indicates what?
difficulty working with where visual information is located and the details of whats been seen.
a score of 13 or above between WAIS IV GAI and WMS visual working memory index indicates what?
holding and manipulating visual information both spatially and for details is a strength.
how did weschler define intelligence?
The ability to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment.
global ability index is made up of which subtest categories?
PRI and VCI
verbal comprehension index and perceptual reasoning.