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2015-03-30 16:14:04

intro to health
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  1. Innate immunity
    defenses against any pathogen that we have at birth or soon after
  2. Adaptive immunity
    induced resistance to a pathogen
  3. Dual Nature of adaptive Immunity
  4. Humoral Immunity
    • B cells mature in bone marrow
    • Antibodies circulating in the blood
    • Active against free antigens
  5. cellular immuity
    • t cells mature in thymus
    • mobilize cells- phagocytes and t cells
    • active against bound antigens- inside of cell
  6. Antigen (Ag)
    a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells
  7. Antibodies (Ab)
    interact with epitodes or antigenic determinants
  8. Antigens
  9. Protective mechanism of binding antibodies to antigens: Aggulatination
    Reduces number of infectious units to be dealt with
  10. Protective mechanism of binding antibodies to antigens: Activation of complement
    Causes inflammation and cell lysis
  11. Protective mechanism of binding antibodies to antigens: Opsonization
    Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis
  12. Protective mechanism of binding antibodies to antigens: Neutralization
    Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa, and blocks attachment of toxin
  13. Protective mechanism of binding antibodies to antigens: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    Antibodies attached to target cell cause destruction by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells
  14. Haptens
    Mistaken identity
  15. Serology
    the study of reactions between antibodies and antigens
  16. Antiserum
    generic term for serum because it contains antibodies
  17. Immunoglobulins
  18. Gamma globulin
    serum fraction containing antibodies
  19. Antibodies= _____ proteins called _____
    globular proteins called immunoglobulins
  20. IgG Antibodies: (6)
    • Monomer
    • 80% of serums antibodies 
    • Fix complement
    • In blood, lymph, and intestine
    • Cross placenta
    • Enhance phagocytosis; neutralize toxins and viruses; protects fetus and newborn
  21. IgM (mega) Antibodies: (5)
    • Pentamer
    • 5-10% of serums antibodies
    • Fix complement
    • In blood, lymph, and on B cells
    • Agglutinates microbes; first antibody produced in response to infection. Causes clumps, first responder to infection
  22. IgA Antibodies (4)
    • Dimer
    • 10-15% of serum Antibodies
    • In secretions 
    • Mucosal protection
  23. IgD Antibodies (4)
    • Monomer
    • .2% of serums antibodies
    • In blood, lymph, and on B cells
    • On B cells, initiate immune response other antibodies production.
  24. IgE Antibodies (4)
    • Monomer
    • 0.002% of serum Antibodies
    • On mast cells, on basophils and in blood
    • Allergic reactions; lysis if parasitic worms
    • Antibodies doing remediation (helping assist process along)
  25. Antibody titer
    amount of antibody in the serum
  26. Primary response
    occurs after initial contact with antigen
  27. Secondary (memory or anamnestic) response
    occurs after second exposure
  28. Immune response to an antigen
  29. Naturally acquired active immunity
    Resulting from infection, everyday life
  30. Active
    get antigen, make own memory cells, life long immunity
  31. Passive
    get antibody given too, die off later, no antigens no memory cells
  32. Natural acquired passive immunity
    transplacental or via colostrum
  33. Artificially acquired active immunity
    injection of antigen (vaccination)
  34. Artificially acquired passive immunity
    injection of antigen, ex: snake bite toxin
  35. Major histocompatability complex (MHC)
    expressed on mammalian cells
  36. T dependent antigens
    • Antigens presented with (self) MHC to the Th cell
    • Th cell produces cytokines that activate the B cells
  37. T independent antigens
    Stimulate the B cell to make Antibodies
  38. Activation of B cells
  39. B cells differentiate into
    • Antibody producing plasma cells
    • memory cells
  40. Colonal deletion
    eliminates harmful B cells
  41. Apoptosis
    one or several cells of a living organism are infected with a virus, leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.
  42. Types of antigen presenting cells
    • A dendritic cell
    • Activated macrophages
  43. Natural Killer (NK) cells
    • Granular leukocytes destroy cells that do not express MHC1 on surface
    • Kill virus infected and tumor cells
    • Attack parasites
  44. Cells communicate via
  45. Interleukin is ______
  46. Different length of time depend on type of _________
    Vaccines (ex: boosters needed when vaccine length ends)
  47. Most vaccines are administered
    • intermuscularly
    • intradermaly
  48. Nasal and Oral Vaccines
    • Available for only a few diseases
    • Stimulates IgA protection of mucous membrane
    • easier to give than injections
    • more readily accepted and well tolerated
  49. Adjuvant
    • special binding substance required by some vaccines
    •      -enhances immunogenicity
    •      -prolongs antigen retention at the injection        site
    •      -most common adjuvant: alum (aluminum        hydroxide salts)
    • Carrier molecule so that it gives a strong enough response
  50. Common reactions of vaccine side effects
    • local reactions at the injection site
    • fever
    • allergies
  51. Rare reactions of vaccine side effects
    • Panencephalitis (measles vaccine)
    • Back mutation to a virulent strain (polio vaccine)
    • Disease due to contamination with dangerous virus/chemicals
    • Neurological effects of unknown cause (pertussis and swine flu vaccines)
    • Allergic reactions to the medium rather than vaccine antigens (eggs or tissue culture)