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what is memory? (2)
- the ability to store and retrieve information over time
- memories are constructed, not recorded
List the 3 key functions of memory
the process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
what is semantic encoding? what regions of the brain have increased activity?
- the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory
- increases activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the temporal lobe
list the 4 types of encoding.
- semantic encoding
- visual imagery encoding
- organizational encoding
- survival encoding
List and describe the 3 types of judgements when participants were presented with a series of words.
- semantic judgement: required participants to think about the meaning of the words
- rhyme judgement: required participants to think about the sound of the words
- visual judgements: required participants to think about the appearance of the words
define visual imagery encoding. what regions of the brain have increased activity?
- the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures
- encoding activates visual processing regions in the occipital lobe
what is organizational encoding? what regions of the brain have increased activity?
- the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
- activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe
survival encoding? (2)
- memory mechanism that help us to survive and reproduce should be preserved by natural selection
- resulted in higher levels of recall than several other non-survival encoding tasks
list the 3 major kinds of memory storage
- sensory storage
- short term storage
- long term storage
define sensory storage.
type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Describe the 2 types of sensory memory.
- Iconic memory: a fast-decaying storage of visual information (1 sec or less)
- Echoic memory: a fast-decaying storage of auditory information ( about 5 sec)
what is short-term memory? (3)
- holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less then a minute (15-20 sec)
- needs attention in order to form
- rehearsal must be maintained or info will be lost
what is rehearsal?
the process of keeping information in sort-term memory by mentally repeating it
define chunking. example?
- involves combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short term memory
- waitresses who use organizational encoding
what is working memory? what regions of the brain have increased activity?
- refers to active maintenance of info in short term storage
- regions within the frontal lobe
define long term memory. (4)
- is a type of storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks or years
- has no known capacity limits
- needs encoding in order to form and retrieval in order to remain
- hippocampal region important
what is anterograde amnesia?
the inability to transfer new info from the short term storage to the long term storage (after surgery/injury)
what is retrograde amnesia?
the inability to retrieve info that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or surgery.
the process by which memories become stable in the brain (short term becomes long term)
memories become vulnerable to disruption when they are retrieved, thus requiring them to be consolidated again
how does memory storage and synapse relate. (3)
- sending a neurotransmitter across a synapse changes the synapse
- it strengthens the connection between the two neurons, making it easier for them to transmit to each other next time
- this provides neurological basis for long term memory
define long term potentiation (LTP).
a process whereby communication across a synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier.
what are the 3 properties of LTP that indicate that it plays a role in long term memory?
- occurs in several pathways within the hippocampus
- can be induced rapidly
- can last for a long time
what is a retrieval cue?
external info that is associated with the stored info and helps bring it to mind
what does the encoding specificity principle state? example?
- states that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which info was initially encoded
- EX. sitting on the same desk in class everyday and taking the test in that same desk
define state dependent retrieval. example?
- the tendency for info to be better recalled when the person in in the same state during encoding and retrieval
- when your in a sad mood, its more likelt you'll retrieve sad episodes
define transfer-appropriate processing.
the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situations matches
what is retrieval-induced forgetting?
a process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
how is brain activity different when trying to recall vs. successfully recalling?
- regions in the frontal lobe show heightened activity when people try to retrieve info
- successfully remembering tends to be accompanied by activity in the hippocampal region and sensory features of an experience
what is explicit memory?
when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences
what is implicit memory?
- when past experiences influence later behaviour and performance, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
- does not require hippocampus
what is procedural memory?
- kind of implicit memory
- the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
define priming (2) what is an example?
- kind of implicit memory
- an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent of recent exposure to the stimulus
- EX. fill-in-the-blanks
compare perceptual priming and conceptual priming.
- perceptual priming: which reflects implicit for the sensory features of an item; depends primarily on regions toward the back of the brain such as visual cortex
- conceptual priming: which reflects implicit memory for the meaning of the word or how you would use the object; depends more on regions toward frontal lobe
define semantic memory.
a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
define episodic memory.
- the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
- allows us to think about the future
forgetting what occurs with passage of time
define retroactive interference.
- situations in which later learning impairs memory for info acquired earlier.
- ex. cant remember what happened on Monday by end of the week
define proactive interference.
situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for info acquired later ex. same car parking spot
define absentmindedness. what regions in the brain are effected?
- a lapse in attention that results in memory failure
- less activity in lower left frontal lobe when attention divided
what's prospective memory?
- remembering to do things in the future
- major source of absentmindedness
define blocking. example?
- a failure to retrieve info that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
- usually occurs for the names of people and places
- EX. tip of the tongue experience
define memory misattribution.
- assigning a recollection or idea to the wrong source
- primary cause of eyewitness misidentification
- damage to frontal lobes are especially prone
what is source memory?
recall of how, when, and where info was acquired
define false recognition.
- a feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
- probably involves disruption to the temporal lobe
define suggestibility. (2)
- the tendency to incorporate misleading info from external sources into personal recollections
- can develop false memories
the distorting influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences
describe the 3 types of bias.
- consistency bias: exaggerates the similarity between past and present
- change bias: exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past
- egocentric bias: to exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make ourselves look good in retrospect.
the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
what are flashbulb memories?
detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events.