Ch 9 10 11 12

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nashleyrose
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298674
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Ch 9 10 11 12
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2015-04-02 16:42:15
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Science
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Oceanography,Exam 3
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  1. Adaptive Coloration is where an organism...
    color patter closely matches its background. Camouflage.
  2. Anadromous Fishes which travel...
    from salt water to fresh water or up rivers to spawn. Like Salmon! shad, sturgeon and striped bass.
  3. Bioaccumulation is the process where persistent materials...
    gradually become increasing concentrated in living tissue as one organism consumes another within the food web.
  4. Benthic zone is on of the two basic...
    subdivisions of the marine biome which includes the sea floor and bottom dwelling organisms.
  5. Bentos is a collective term...
    for marine organisms which live on or near the sea floor, or benthic zone.
  6. Bioluminescence is the production of...
    light by living organisms. Light is generally the product of a chemical reaction that takes place in specialized cells or organs.
  7. Consumer is an organism that...
    is unable to manufacture its food from nonliving materials but is dependent on the energy stored in other living things
  8. Coccolithophorids are single-cell photosynthesizing organisms...
    that are covered with tiny calcium carbonate plates. They are unusual because they appear in nutrient poor waters, and form in large blooms that turn surface waters greenish blue as viewed from space.
  9. Cellular respiration is the process where...
    food is broken down releasing energy for maintenance, growth, and reproduction, while releasing carbon dioxide, water and heat energy to the environment.
  10. Compensation depth is the ocean depth below...
    Where no primary production occurs, usually where the light level diminishes about 1% of what it is at the surface.
  11. Countershading is the protective...
    coloration found in fish when the (dorsal) back side is a dark color, making it difficult to see them form above and their (ventral) underbelly is a light color making it difficult to see them from below.
  12. Coral Bleaching is the...
    Whitening of coral colonies due to the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the tissues of coral polyps; may be triggered by a rise in seawater temperature.
  13. Coral Reef is a...
    calcareous reef in relatively shallow, tropical seas composed of a thin veneer of living coral growing on older layers of dead coral or volcanic rock.
  14. Catadromous fishes are fish that breed...
    In open ocean, but spend their adult lives in fresh water. An example is the american eel.
  15. Continental Drift is the...
    slow movement of landmasses as part of tectonic plates. The continents of today were once a single landmass (Pangaea) that broke apart with the various fragments moving over the surface of the planet.
  16. Diatoms are a diverse group of...
    minute shell-covered phytoplanktonic marine organisms having silica exoskeletons.
  17. Dinoflagellates class of single-cell...
    marine planktonic organisms having characteristic of both plants and animals.
  18. Decomposers are consumers that are...
    usually microscopic, that feed on dead organic matter, either on the ocean bottom or in the water column, thus aiding in recycling nutrients.
  19. Ecological efficiency is the fraction of the..
    total energy input of a system that is transformed into work or some other usable form of energy.
  20. El Nino is warming of..
    ocean surface water in the eastern tropical pacific; accompanied by suppression of upwelling off the coasts along the equator east of the international dateline. Typically last for 12-18 months and occurs every 3-7 years. Its accompanied by changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation plus weather extremes in various parts of the world.
  21. El Nino Souther Oscillations (ENSO) is the term for the..
    coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical pacific ocean characterized by episodes of anomalously high sea surface temps in the equatorial and tropical eastern pacific.
  22. Elasmobranchs (Cartilaginous fishes) include sharks, skates and rays. More primitive than bony fish, their skeletons..
    consist entirely of cartilage.
  23. Filter feeders are marine organisms that use tiny hairs, mucus-covered surfaces or other strategies to....
    capture food particles suspended in the water.
  24. Euphausiids are larger members of the..
    zooplankton community, including krill.
  25. Food chain is a sequence of feeding relationships among...
    organisms whereby energy and biomass is transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level.
  26. Food Web is a complex...
    feeding relationship consisting of food chains linked together in an ecosystem.
  27. Geologic time scale is a standard division of time on earth into...
    eons, eras, periods, and epochs based on occurrence of large-scale geological events; spans millions to billions of years in the past.
  28. Global Radiative Equilibrium is the balance net incoming of...
    solar radiation and infrared radiation emitted to space by the Earth-atmosphere system.
  29. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) a proliferation of a single species of...
    phytoplankton that can cause serious harm to the environment, demise of marine organisms, economic losses and human health problems, including illness and death; also known as red tides.
  30. High biomass blooms (hypoxia) is an excessive proliferation of phytoplankton that upon decomposition...
    greatly deplete the dissolved oxygen supply of the water
  31. HNLC regions, portions of the ocean featuring (High Nutrients and Low Chlorophyll) Biological production is...
    low even though surface waters have relatively high concentrations of nutrients.
  32. Holocene is the time interval since the end of the...
    pleistocene ice age (10,500 years ago): to the current interglacial.
  33. Intertidal Zone is the shore area between...
    high and low tides.
  34. Infauna marine organisms that..
    burrow into and live within marine sediments on the ocean floor.
  35. Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a narrow discontinuous belt of convective clouds and thunderstorms paralleling the...
    equator and marking the convergence of the trade winds of the two hemispheres; this zone shifts north and south seasonally.
  36. Krill are...
    shrimp like crustaceans that are the major food source for whales and other organisms in the southern ocean.
  37. Law of the minimum: the growth and well being of an...
    organism is limited by the essential resource that is in lowest supply relative to what is required by the organism.
  38. Eustasy is the condition of worldwide sea level and its fluctuation which may be caused by...
    changes in the global water cycles
  39. Mixotrophs are marine organisms having characteristics of both...
    plants (autotrophs) and animals (heterotrophs)
  40. Mud flats are nearly level area of fine silt near the shore and are...
    intertidal habitat for submerged aquatic vegetation and benthic animals.
  41. Mangrove swamp is a marshy coastal wetland area with...
    dense growth of mangroves and other tropical plant species which tolerate salt water flooding.
  42. Medieval Warm Period is relatively...
    mild climatic episode during the Holocene from and CE 950 to 1250
  43. Milankovitch cycles are systematic variations in the precession and tilt of the Earth's rotational axis and the eccentricity of its orbit around the sun; affects the...
    seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar radiation and influences climate fluctuations operating over tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years.
  44. Net Production is the amount of organic matter produced during...
    photosynthesis that exceeds the amount consumed in the process of cellular respiration.
  45. Net Primary Production is the amount of organic matter produced by..
    Living organisms within a given volume or area in a given time, minus that which is consumed through cellular respiration by the organisms
  46. Nekton are pelagic animals that are...
    free swimmers such as fish, adult squid, turtles, and marine mammals
  47. Neritic zone the area seaward from the shore to the....
    continental shelf break a depth of about 200m (includes the intertidal zone)
  48. North atlantic oscillation (NAO) a seesaw variation in...
    Air pressure between Iceland and the Azores; influences the climate of eastern north america and much of Europe and North Africa over periods up to decades.
  49. Oxygen isotope analysis is a technique used to identify climate fluctuations of the past by examining the ratio of...
    light and have y isotopes of oxygen found, in shells extracted from deep sea sediment cores.
  50. Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) a long lived variation in climate over the North Pacific ocean and North america in which sea surface temps fluctuation between the...
    north central pacific and the west coast of north america linked to changes in strength of the aleutian low.
  51. Polar Amplification is an increase in the...
    magnitude of a climate change with increasing latitude
  52. Produces are simple marine...
    organisms also called autotrophs that manufacture the food they need from the physical environment
  53. Primary Production is the amount of organic matter synthesised by...
    simple organisms from inorganic substances.
  54. Phytoplankton are microscopic unicellular algae and photosynthetic bacterial living in the ocean and are responsible...
    for considerable biological production.
  55. Particulate organic carbon (POC): The carbon contained in organic particles that sink out of the oceans surface layer and is then...
    consumed by zooplankton or decomposed by bacteria and converted back to dissolved inorganic carbon
  56. Red tide is a discoloration of surface ocean waters unusual in coastal zone cause by a high concentration of...
    microscopic organisms; also known as a harmful algal bloom (HAB)
  57. Plankton is plant and animal life found...
    floating in the ocean and used as food by nearly all marine animals.
  58. Pelagic Zone the open ocean environment,
    divided into the neritic zone and the oceanic zone.
  59. Spring Blooms is a dramatic increase in...
    phytoplankton populations in the ocean which occurs as a consequence of more sunlight and abundant nutrients.
  60. Symbiotic relationship is a mutually beneficial...
    association between organisms
  61. Regenerated Production is primary production using..
    recycled nutrients.
  62. Salt Marsh is a coastal wetland consisting of...
    salt tolerant grasses regularly covered with seawater.
  63. Schooling; the characteristic behavior of many fishes species to...
    swim together in organized groups ot avoid predation.
  64. Sunspot is a dark blotch on the face of the sun, typically develops where an intense...
    magnetic field suppresses the flow of gasses transporting heat from the suns interior
  65. Sulfurous aerosols; the tiny droplets of sulfuric acid and sulfate particles which form in the..
    stratosphere wen sulfur dioxide combines with moisture.
  66. Secondary productions; the organic material produced in the..
    growth of consumers (heterotrophs)
  67. Twilight zone; the intermediate zone of the ocean, below the photic zone, and above the..
    greater depths where there is less biologic activity.
  68. Vertical Migration; the daily migration of zooplankton from...
    deep waters to the surface zone to feed on phytoplankton.
  69. Zooplankton are single celled and multicellular...
    animals that drift passively with ocean currents.
  70. Tide pool is a volume of water...
    left behind in a rock basin or other intertidal depression by an ebbing tide.
  71. Teleost are bony fishes which have
    skeletons and scales.
  72. Teleconnection is a linkage between..
    weather changes occurring in widely separated regions of the globe.

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