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  1. Defects in the immune system can range from
    hay fever to dermatitis
  2. Abnormal or undesirable immune functions can result in
    • Asthma
    • anaphylaxis
    • diabetes
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • graft rejection
  3. Immunopathology
    study of disease associated with the overactivity of under activity of the immune response
  4. Hypersensitivity
    allergy and autoimmunity
  5. Hypersensitivity or Immunodeficiency
    immune system is incompletely developed, suppressed or destroyed
  6. Hypersensitivity four types: Type 1
    anaphylaxis, allergies such as hay fever, asthma
  7. Hypersensitivity four types: Type 2
    Blood group incompatibility, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis
  8. Hypersensitivity four types: Type 3
    systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness, rheumatic fever. (immune complex reaction)
  9. Hypersensitivity four types: Type 4
    infection reaction, contact dermatitis, graft rejection- usually delayed reactions
  10. Allergy
    exaggerated immune response manifested by inflammation (quickly)
  11. Hypersensitivity
    delayed reactions
  12. Allergens
    innocuous substance that induce allergy in sensitive individuals
  13. Atopy
    Chronic local allergy such as hay fever or asthma
  14. Anaphylaxis
    systemic, sometimes fatal reaction that involves airway obstruction and circulatory collapse
  15. Type 1 allergies
    • usually relatively mild
    • some last for lifetime, some "outgrown", others develop later in life
  16. Generalized _______ to allergens is inherited, not the allergy to a specific substance
  17. Genetic basis for atopy
    • Increased IgE production- stimulates response, immune system jacked up to respond to actual substance (hypersensitivity)  
    • Increased reactivity of mast cells
  18. Inhalant
    airborne environmental allergens such as pollen, house dust, dander, or fungal spores (dust mites, pollen)
  19. Ingestants
    allergens that enter by mouth that cause food allergies (red dye, peanuts, shrimp, strawberries, shrimp)
  20. Injectant
    allergies triggered by drugs vaccines or hymenopterans (bee) venom (penicillin)
  21. Contactants
    • allergies that enter through the skin
    • many are type 4 (delayed) hypersensitivity (lotion, detergent, latex glove)
  22. Corticosteriods
    inhibit the activity of lymphocytes and reduce the production of IgE, have dangerous side effects and should not be taken for long periods
  23. Antihistamines
    most widely used medications for preventing symptoms of atopic allergy
  24. Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    reverse constriction of airways and slows the release of allergic mediators
  25. Type 2 hypersensitivities: Reactions that lyse foreign cells
    • complement assisted destruction (lysis) of cells by antibodies directed against those cells' surface antigens 
    • -transfusion reactions
    • -some types of autoimmunities
  26. RhoGAM antiserum Type 2: (3)
    • Passive immunization for Rh- mother with an Rh+ fetus 
    • Injected at 28-32 weeks and again immediately after delivery
    • Sequesters fetal RBCs that have escaped into maternal circulation and preventing sensitization (against red blood cells)
  27. Type 3 Hypersensitivities: Immune complex reactions 
    Soluble antigen reacts with antibody and forms large ____
  28. Type 3 Hypersensitivities: Immune complex reactions 
    Complexes are deposited in various _____ in the body
  29. Type 3 Hypersensitivities: Immune complex reactions 
    Neutrophils release lysosomal granules that digest tissues and cause a destructive _______ condition
  30. Type 4 Hypersensitivities: Cell Mediated (Delayed) Reactions
    Results when T cells respond to antigen displayed on self tissues or ________ ______ ______
    transplanted foreign cells
  31. Type 4 Hypersensitivities: Cell Mediated (Delayed) Reactions
    Symptoms arise from one to several days following the second contact with an antigen (2)
    • Tuberculin reaction
    • Contact dermatitis
  32. Autoimmune disease
    individuals actually develop hypersensitivity to themselves
  33. Autoantibodies
    begin to attack self
  34. Autoantibodies, T cells, or both
    mount an abnormal attack against self antigens
  35. Systemic
    involves several major organs
  36. Organ specific
    involves only one organ or tissue
  37. Primary immunodeficiencies
    present at birth (congenital), usually stemming from genetic errors
  38. Secondary immunodeficiencies
    acquired after birth and caused by natural or artificial agents. Ex: HIV
  39. Most serious form of immunodeficiency
    involves dysfunction in both lymphocyte systems
  40. SCID children require rigorous ________ techniques to protect them from opportunistic infections
  41. David Vetter
    Lived life in a sterile plastic bubble
Card Set:
2015-03-30 20:13:37

intro to health
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