GIS Modeling of the Urban Environment

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dtarasov
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298726
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GIS Modeling of the Urban Environment
Updated:
2015-04-24 22:50:22
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Midterm Exam Urban Modeling GEOG5520 Final
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Description:
Terms and concepts for the GIS Modeling of the Urban Environment (GEOG 5520) midterm and final exams.
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  1. What is the largest urban concept in terms of area?

    A. Metropolitan area
    B. Conurbation
    C. Major metropolitan statistical area
    D. Megalopolis
    A. Metropolitan area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Our textbook defines a "village" as having up to ______ inhabitants.

    A. 5,000
    B. 2,500
    C. 1,000
    D. 3,000
    C. 1,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Our textbook defines a "town" as having up to ______ inhabitants. 

    A. 3,000
    B. 1,000
    C. 5,000
    D. 2,500
    D. 2,500
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. A(n) ___________________ consists of a central city and its surrounding, thickly-settled area.

    A. Consistently defined metropolitan area
    B. Agglomeration
    C. Metropolitan area
    D. Urbanized area
    D. Urbanized area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A(n) __________________ consists of a region with a dominant city.

    A. Metropolitan area
    B. Consistently defined metropolitan area
    C. Agglomeration
    D. Urbanized area
    A. Metropolitan area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. _____________ have an area identity and locally-recognized boundaries, but are not legally incorporated.

    A. Villages
    B. Census-designated places
    C. Towns
    D. Census tracts
    B. Census-designated places
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. To be considered central to a metropolitan statistical area, an urbanized area must have at least __% of its population.

    A. 50
    B. 40
    C. 45
    D. 55
    A. 50
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. A county is considered outlying if at least __% of the county's working residents work in the central counties or at least __% of the employment in the county is accounted for by people who live in the central counties.

    A. 30; 40
    B. 50; 25
    C. 25; 50
    D. 25; 25
    D. 25; 25
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Census blocks have _-digit numbers.

    A. 4
    B. 3
    C. 6
    D. 5
    A. 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The first digit of a census block's number identifies the block's

    A. state.
    B. census tract.
    C. county.
    D. block group.
    D. block group.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Census block groups have between ____ and ____ residents. 

    A. 5,000 and 12,000
    B. 600 and 3,000
    C. 4,000 and 10,000
    D. 3,000 and 6,000
    B. 600 and 3,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. A census tract has between ______ and ______ people.

    A. 3,000 and 10,000
    B. 2,000 and 4,000
    C. 600 and 5,000
    D. 1,200 and 8,000
    D. 1,200 and 8,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A census tract's number is unique within

    A. the tract's county or equivalent.
    B. the tract's region.
    C. the tract's state.
    D. the United States.
    A. the tract's county or equivalent.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A census tract's number may consist of up to _ digits with an optional _-digit suffix (in case of tracts becoming split over time).

    A. 4; 3
    B. 4; 1
    C. 3; 1
    D. 4; 2
    D. 4; 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. True of false: until recently, all geographic information systems were based on the georelational model.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  16. With _________, spatial data are stored in .shp files and attribute information in .dbf files.

    A. CAD files
    B. shapefiles
    C. feature datasets
    D. coverages
    B. shapefiles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Although the georelational model has been around for a long time, recently the _______________ model has become more popular.

    A. autonomous
    B. discrete
    C. object-oriented
    D. field
    C. object-oriented
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. With the object-oriented model, there are generally _ types of attributes associated with a geographic feature: 

    A. 3 (spatial and non-spatial characteristics and image)
    B. 3 (spatial attributes, spatial relationships, and non-spatial characteristics)
    C. 2 (spatial and non-spatial characteristics)
    D. 3 (spatial and non-spatial characteristics and metadata)
    B. 3 (spatial attributes, spatial relationships, and non-spatial characteristics)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A tuple is largely a synonym for a 

    A. cell.
    B. table.
    C. column. 
    D. row.
    D. row.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The concentric zonal model was developed by the ______________ in the 1920s.

    A. University of Virginia
    B. University of New Hampshire
    C. London School of Economics
    D. Chicago School of Sociology
    D. Chicago School of Sociology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. True or false: the concentric zonal model is the earliest land use model.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  22. Under the concentric zonal model, which zone is the next going outward from the Zone of Transition?

    A. the CBD
    B. Residential zone
    C. Zone of workingmen's homes
    D. Commuters' zone
    C. Zone of workingmen's homes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Under the concentric zonal model, homes in the _________ are often rented, whereas homes in the _________ are more typically owned.

    A. residential zone; zone of transition
    B. residential zone; commuters' zone
    C. zone of transition; zone of workingmen's homes
    D. zone of workingmen's homes; commuters' zone
    C. zone of transition; zone of workingmen's homes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The sector model was developed by __________ in the _____.

    A. the London School of Economics; 1920s
    B. Homer Hoyt; 1930s
    C. Homer Hoyt; 1920s
    D. Columbia University; 1930s
    B. Homer Hoyt; 1930s
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Under the sector model, what is usually located in the center of the city and opposite the high-rent areas?

    A. zones of transition
    B. medium-rent areas
    C. industry
    D. low-rent areas
    D. low-rent areas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Under the multiple-nuclei model, development is clustered around several centers of economic activity. This model is also known as

    A. the concentric zonal model.
    B. the Hoyt model.
    C. the Harris and Ullman model.
    D. the wedge model.
    C. the Harris and Ullman model.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Under this model, high-income households drive the growth of the built-up area as they seek locations near amenities.

    A. The concentric zonal model
    B. Both A and B
    C. The Harris and Ullman model
    D. The sector model
    D. The sector model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Under this model, land use is determined by the location where the buyer's bid rent curve crosses the seller's asking-price curve.

    A. The sector model
    B. The concentric zonal model
    C. The multiple-nuclei model
    D. The Von Thunen model
    D. The Von Thunen model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. True or false: commercial activities usually fill up land left over after housing needs have been satisfied.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  30. True or false: commercial activities, due to the amount of rent that they generate, typically outbid all other land users.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  31. Population density is often modeled using the function
    Dx = D0e-bx, where Dx is population density at distance x from the city center, D0 is the population density at the center, and b is

    A. The age of the city
    B. The area of the city
    C. The perimeter of the built-up area
    D. The density gradient
    D. The density gradient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. When a spatial join is performed, the ID field(s) of _____________ become(s) the foreign key(s) for the new layer.

    A. the target layer
    B. both layers
    C. the source layer
    D. neither layer
    B. both layers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. True or false: a polygon overlay is not necessarily a data disaggregation operation.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  34. All features in the input theme and only the overlapping features in the _________ theme form the output of the __________ operation.

    A. intersecting; union
    B. union; Identity
    C. union; intersect
    D. identity; Identity
    D. identity; identity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The file that relates a census tract to tract(s) covering the same territory in previous censuses is known as the 

    A. relationship file
    B. comparability file
    C. extent file
    D. either A or B, depending on the census year
    D. either A or B, depending on the census year
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A place that provides goods or services to a surrounding hinterland population is called a _________ place.

    A. central
    B. first-order
    C. primary
    D. civilizing
    A. central
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. True or false: Low-order products are purchased infrequently and require a large population threshold.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  38. The distance necessary to encompass a threshold market is called the _________________.

    A. ideal outer range
    B. real outer range
    C. inner range
    D. range
    C. inner range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The distance people are willing to travel to purchase a good or service is called the _______.

    A. inner range
    B. real outer range
    C. range
    D. ideal outer range
    C. range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The maximum distance an individual is willing to travel to purchase a good or service is called the _________.

    A. real outer range
    B. inner range
    C. range
    D. ideal outer range
    D. ideal outer range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The maximum actual distance that a consumer has to travel to purchase a good or service is called the ___________.

    A. ideal outer range
    B. range
    C. inner range
    D. real outer range
    D. real outer range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. True or false: under the central places theory, a bigger town is likely to be a higher-order place.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  43. According to ______________, the retail attractiveness of place i equals its population (Pi) divided by Di2 (the distance to it).

    A. the central place theory
    B. the Von Thunen model
    C. Reilly's law
    D. Loesch's theory
    C. Reilly's law
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. BA = DAC / (1+√(PC/PA)) is the formula for calculating 

    A. the retail attractiveness of place A with respect to place C.
    B. the intersection of bid rent price and asking price.
    C. the market breakpoint distance between places A and C.
    D. ideal outer range.
    C. the market breakpoint distance between places A and C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. True or false: Huff's competing destinations model has the drawback that it can only consider two destinations at a time.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  46. In Huff's competing destinations model, Aγj is the

    A. the accessibility level between the ith origin and the jth retail facility.
    B. the population of the origin, i.
    C. friction-of-accessibility coefficient.
    D. attractiveness index of jth retail facility.
    D. attractiveness index of jth retail facility.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. In Huff's competing destinations model, Dij is the

    A. the accessibility level between the ith origin and the jth retail facility.
    B. attractiveness index of jth retail facility.
    C. the population of the origin, i.
    D. friction-of-accessibility coefficient.
    A. the accessibility level between the ith origin and the jth retail facility.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. In Huff's competing destinations model, λ is the

    A. attractiveness index of jth retail facility.
    B. the accessibility level between the ith origin and the jth retail facility.
    C. friction-of-accessibility coefficient.
    D. the population of the origin, i.
    C. friction-of-accessibility coefficient.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Pycnophylatic means

    A. able to be reaggregated over and over again, indefinitely
    B. volume-preserving
    C. universally applicable
    D. having only smooth gradients and no abrupt edges
    B. volume-preserving
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. True or false: point interpolation inherently preserves the volume of the resulting density surface.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  51. True or false: areal weighting assigns attribute values based on what proportion of the area is in the original source polygon.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  52. A(n) ___________ map is like a(n) __________ map except that the isolines can intersect each other.

    A. dasymetric; isoplethic
    B. isorhythmic; choroplethic
    C. choroplethic; dasymetric
    D. isoplethic; choroplethic
    A. dasymetric; isoplethic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. In the hierarchy of data measurement, __________ data are on the lowest scale.

    A. ordinal
    B. categorical
    C. interval
    D. nominal
    D. nominal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. In the chi-square formula, χ2 = Σ (oi - ei)2/ei, oi stands for

    A. the mean value for a category
    B. the expected value for a category
    C. the category's significance coefficient
    D. the observed value for a category
    D. the observed value for a category
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. In the chi-square formula, χ2 = Σ (oi - ei)2/ei, ei stands for

    A. the category's significance coefficient
    B. the expected value for a category
    C. the observed value for a category
    D. the mean value for a category
    B. the expected value for a category
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The chi-square statistic requires knowing the degree of freedom, calculated as (R-1)(C-1), where R and C stand for

    A. the observed and the expected value
    B. the friction coefficient and the standard deviation
    C. the number of rows and the number of columns
    D. the standard deviation and the scaling factor
    C. the number of rows and the number of columns
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. True or false: the chi-square method can be used with a contingency table of any size, whereas odds ratios can be used only with 2X2 tables.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  58. "For 2 groups, the odds that members of a group will experience an event is calculated as a number in the group who experience the event divided by the number in the group who do not experience the event)" describes

    A. Markov chains
    B. the Von Thunen model
    C. odds ratios
    D. the chi-square test
    C. odds ratios
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. With address matching, a failure rate of __% is considered good.

    A. 10
    B. 20
    C. 17
    D. 15
    A. 10
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. For address matching, one needs a set of addresses, a table of street segments, and

    A. The longitude and latitude of the centroid of each block
    B. Address ranges for both sides of the street for all street segments
    C. Both B and C
    D. Longitude and latitude of street nodes
    C. Both B and C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. TIGER line files are organized by _______.

    A. county
    B. census block group
    C. census tract
    D. state
    A. county
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. True or false: ADDMATCH locates an address on a street segment by interpolating its coordinates between those of the segment's ending and starting nodes.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  63. Which of the following geocoding methods are used by Mapquest?

    A. address interpolation
    B. intersection matching
    C. ZIP+2, ZIP+4, or 5-digit ZIP centroids
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  64. True or false: address-matched geocoding is the least-accurate type.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  65. The U.S. Census Bureau defines migration as change in a person's residence from _ year(s) earlier and across a county boundary.

    A. 3
    B. 1
    C. 5
    D. 4
    C. 5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. True or false: residential mobility, unlike migration, does not involve crossing political or administrative boundaries.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  67. The number of potential migrants or movers at the origin and the potential attractiveness of a destination are known together as 

    A. complementarity
    B. transferability
    C. intervening opportunity
    D. residential mobility
    A. complementarity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Under the concept of __________, for an individual, the costs of movement must be outweighed by the benefits of it, and for a group, more movement is likely if the costs of movement (e.g., distance) are lower.

    A. complementarity
    B. transferability
    C. intervening opportunity
    D. residential mobility
    B. transferability
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Which of the following concepts forms the foundation for any kind of movement? 

    A. complementarity
    B. transferability
    C. intervening opportunity
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  70. The _______________ model assumes that the amount of interaction with a given place is a function of distance from that place to population sites.

    A. market potential
    B. sector
    C. concentric zonal
    D. Von Thunen
    A. market potential
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. True or false: Normally, the market potential model is computed from the perspective of potential destinations.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  72. True or false: Riley's Law, Huff's model, and the market potential model are all based on Newton's law of universal gravitation.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  73. In Newton's law of universal gravitation (F=(GM1M2)/D122), G is

    A. the force with which each mass pulls the other
    B. the distance separating the objects
    C. a universal constant
    D. the average of the masses of the two objects
    C. a universal constant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. When estimating the amount of migration (Mij = KOiDjdij), β is

    A. the size of the origin
    B. the friction-of-distance coefficient
    C. a proportionality constant
    D. the size of the destination
    B. the friction-of-distance coefficient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. When estimating the amount of migration (Mij = KOiDjdij-β), K is

    A. a proportionality constant
    B. the size of the origin
    C. the size of the destination
    D. the friction-of-distance coefficient
    A. a proportionality constant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Huff's model is a(n) _______________ model, whereas the market potential model and the original version of Riley's law is a(n) ________________ one.

    A. entropy-maximizing; unconstrained
    B. singly-constrained; doubly-constrained
    C. singly-constrained; unconstrained
    D. doubly-constrained; unconstrained
    C. singly-constrained; unconstrained
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. __________ models overcome the internal consistency problem by means of a balancing factor.

    A. entropy-maximizing
    B. doubly-constrained
    C. singly-constrained
    D. unconstrained
    C. singly-constrained
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. With the log-linear model for a two-dimensional table, origin values greater than _ are associated with less attractive origins, while destination values greater than _ mean more attractive destinations.

    A. -1; -1
    B. -1; 1
    C. 1; 1
    D. 0; 0
    C. 1; 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. With the log-linear model for a two-dimensional table, the average effect with respect to rows, columns, or first order is always equal to _; any figure below this means less-than-average effect, and any figure higher than this is higher than average.

    A. 0
    B. 1
    C. 0.5
    D. 1.5
    B. 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. According to Massey and Denton, the 5 measures of residential segregation are evenness, __________, concentration, centralization, and clustering.

    A. endogeneity
    B. exposure
    C. isolation
    D. alienation
    B. exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Which measure of segregation refers to a demographic group being overrepresented in some areas and underrepresented in others?

    A. centralization
    B. clustering
    C. evenness
    D. concentration
    C. evenness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. The measure of segregation that refers to groups seldom sharing a neighborhood is called

    A. exposure
    B. evenness
    C. clustering
    D. concentration
    A. exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Which measure of segregation refers to a minority physically occupying a very small space?

    A. clustering
    B. centralization
    C. evenness
    D. concentration
    D. concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Areas of minority settlement forming one large continuous enclave or scattered widely throughout the urban area are known as 

    A. centralization
    B. exposure
    C. clustering
    D. concentration
    C. clustering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. The index of dissimilarity measures

    A. evenness
    B. concentration
    C. centralization
    D. clustering
    A. evenness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. The index of dissimilarity ranges from _ to _, and theoretically represents the proportion of minorities who would have to move to achieve a perfectly even distribution.

    A. 0; 0.5
    B. 0; 1
    C. 0.5; 1
    D. -1; 1
    B. 0; 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. The _________________ models the cumulative proportion of minority group X versus the cumulative proportion of majority group Y across all aerial units, which are arranged from smallest to largest in terms of minority proportion.

    A. dissimilarity index
    B. entropy (or information) index
    C. Lorenz curve
    D. Gini coefficient
    C. Lorenz curve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. The __________ represents the area between the Lorenz curve and the diagonal of evenness, expressed as a proportion of the total area under the diagonal.

    A. entropy (or information) index
    B. dissimilarity index
    C. Gini coefficient
    D. Lorenz curve
    C. Gini coefficient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. The Gini coefficient and the entropy index both range from _ (when all areas have the same composition) to _ (each area contains one group only).

    A. 0; 0.5
    B. 0; 1
    C. 0.5; 1
    D. -1; 1
    B. 0; 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. True or false: the dissimilarity index is sensitive to transfers of population between all areal units, not just between those of minority over- or underrepresentation.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  91. True or false: the Gini coefficient is sensitive to transfers of population between all areal units, not just between those of minority over- or underrepresentation.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  92. The "checkerboard" problem means that, even when all other measures of segregation are equal, _________ can vary dramatically.

    A. exposure
    B. concentration
    C. clustering
    D. evenness
    C. clustering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. True of false: the Index of Dissimilarity is sensitive to the proportion of minorities in a city as a whole, making cross-city comparisons hard if not impossible.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  94. If two demographic groups inhabited a city in a checkerboard-like pattern or if each group had one side of the "board" exclusively to itself, the Dissimilarity index would, in both cases, be

    A. -1
    B. 1
    C. 0.5
    D. 0
    B. 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. True or false: the Dissimilarity Index is aspatial.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  96. A. The __________ was put forward by Duncan and Duncan in 1955. 

    A. Dissimilarity index
    B. concept of exposure
    C. entropy index
    D. information index
    A. Dissimilarity index
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. The ______________ is calculated as
    1/2 Σ |wi/W-bi/B|, where bi and wi are black and white population counts in areal unit i, and B and W are these population counts in the entire study area.

    A. Gini coefficient
    B. Entropy index
    C. Dissimilarity index
    D. Information index
    C. Dissimilarity index
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. True or false: with the Moran's I statistic, the null hypothesis is that the variable is spatially autocorrelated.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  99. Which of the following analyses methods are local?
    A. Moran's I
    B. nearest neighbor
    C. k-function
    D. none of the above
    D. none of the above
  100. True or false: The Getis-Ord statistic is a global analysis method.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  101. The __________ index is a local segregation index in that it does not reduce segregation to one figure for the whole study area.

    A. entropy 
    B. contiguity
    C. Gini
    D. none of the above
    A. entropy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. The 2010 Census considers _ racial categories.

    A. 6
    B. 4
    C. 5
    D. 7
    A. 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Poverty is defined by comparing annual income to a set of dollar values called
    thresholds that vary by family size, number of children, and ________.

    A. both a and c
    B. area cost of living
    C. average age in the family
    D. age of householder
    D. age of householder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. True or false: as homogeneity increases, the dissimilarity index D decreases.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  105. NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) replaced the SIC system in 1997 and has 102 categories; it differs from SIC in that it 

    A. Both A and B
    B. Has more entries for service-based industries
    C. Introduces new definitions of sectors
    D. Is harmonized with similar systems in Canada and Mexico because of NAFTA
    A. Both A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. _______'s theory is based on minimization of transport costs to determine location.

    A. Hudspeth
    B. Weber
    C. Cristaller
    D. Laval
    B. Weber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. Weber's theory assumes transportation costs to be a linear function of weight and ________.

    A. raw materials price
    B. distance
    C. labor costs
    D. none of the above
    B. distance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. True or false: raw material sites, under Weber's theory, were favored for industrial locations if there was considerable loss of weight of raw materials ("processing-type activities").

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  109. True or false: fabrication-type activities involve little loss of weigh in inputs.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  110. True or false: fabrication-type activities, under Weber's theory, tend to favor raw-material sites. 

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  111. In the product life cycle, the highest sales are usually during the stage of

    A. growth
    B. development
    C. decline
    D. maturity
    D. maturity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. Urban locations for production are favored during the _____________ stage.

    A. development
    B. maturity
    C. decline
    D. growth
    A. development
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. True or false: the development stage, but not the growth stage, of a product life cycle favors urban locations.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  114. Management skills, not just engineering, become important during the _________ stage.

    A. Maturity
    B. Development
    C. Decline
    D. Growth
    D. Growth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. During this stage of a product life cycle, labor inputs become deskilled.

    A. growth
    B. decline
    C. maturity
    D. development
    C. maturity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. The location quotient measures a spatial unit's measure of _________.

    A. economic attractiveness
    B. transport costs
    C. labor costs
    D. economic specialization
    D. economic specialization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. The __________ is measured as ratio of activity i in unit j to all activity in same unit to the ratio of these two things in the whole study area.

    A. Getis-Ord G statistic
    B. Weber's index
    C. location quotient
    D. market potential
    C. location quotient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. True or false: the G* statistic and the location quotient both operate on the neighborhood level.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
  119. (sum of data values within distance d of the ith location) / (total sum of data values) describes

    A. D index
    B. G*
    C. location quotient
    D. Gini coefficient
    C. location quotient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. With the G* statistic, "hot spots" have a value higher than 

    A. 0
    B. 100
    C. -1
    D. 1
    D. 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Under the ________, location is more important than quality of land in determining land prices.

    A. The Von Thunen model
    B. Hart's bow wave theory
    C. The Ullman model
    D. The concentric zonal model
    A. The Von Thunen model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. An edge city must have at least _ million square feet of leasable office space and ___________ square feet of leasable retail space. 

    A. 5; 600,000
    B. 6; 500,000
    C. 4; 500,000
    D. 5; 400,000
    A. 5; 600,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. With kernel density functions, _ is the distance between observation i and location (u, v).

    A. di
    B. W
    C. h
    D. n
    A. di
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. In kernel density functions, _______ (h) controls the rate at which the fall-off in the weighting value occurs.

    A. kurtosis
    B. Lorenz curve
    C. Gaussian curve
    D. bandwidth
    D. bandwidth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. In kernel density functions, the sum of observation values is standardized by _, the sum of the weights.

    A. di
    B. n
    C. h
    D. Wi
    B. n
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. Kernel density functions are for creating geographically weighted statistics for location (u,v) and are thus 

    A. global. 
    B. local. 
    C. either of the above
    D. neither of the above
    B. local.
  127. Spatially extensive data are _____, whereas spatially intensive data are ________ rates within a spatial unit.

    A. percentages; absolute numbers
    B. averages; medians
    C. medians; modes
    D. counts; rates
    D. counts; rates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. A ______ neighbor shares a boundary with the aerial unit in question.

    A. Contiguous
    B. Prime
    C. First-order
    D. Absolute
    C. First-order
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. A __________ neighbor shares a first-order neighbor with the unit in question.

    A. suboptimal
    B. second-order
    C. tertiary
    D. derivative
    B. second-order
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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