1. Explain and distinguish the following terms (you may use examples):
(a) public/private sphere
(b) individual right/robust group right
(c) individual right of self-determination/robust group right of self-determination
(d) external protection/internal restriction (Kymlicka)
(e) liberationist view/liberal view/traditional view in sexual ethics (Lee & George)
(f) unidirectional/collective enforcement of human rights
(g) top-down vs. bottom-up moral reasoning
(h) top-down vs. bottom-up social processes of moral transformation
(i) political emancipation vs. human emancipation (Marx)
(j) moral realist/moral anti-realist
a) The public sphere is society, it is on display, and governed (outside the family). The private sphere is the opposite, it is social life where an individual enjoys some authority, separate from the government; the family, and home.
b) Individual rights are liberty or claim rights of individuals. they generate claims that can be made on behalf of particular individuals. Robust group rights are rights that are not merely the sum of the individual rights of the members of the group. Individual right = right to live. Group right = right against genocide.
c) A robust group right of self-determination is its(country) right to determine its own statehood and forms of allegiances, government , and use of natural resources. An individual right to self-determination is the ability for an individual to control their own life; their own religion etc.
d) External protections are claims of a group against the larger society. Internal restrictions are claims of a group against the individual liberty of its own members. Internal restriction are almost always "bad" while external ones are usually "good".
e) liberationist(innocent pleasure objection) = it requires that pleasure be related to the achievement of a separate good in order to be morally justifiable.
an opponent would just have to argue that pleasure is not wrong. ex. eating for pleasure
reply pleasure by itself is not good.
Liberal view (the other goods objection)= suppose that there is a distinctive kind of union that is a human good that is only achievable by heterosexual vaginal intercourse. why couldn't other kinds of sexual activity be permissible to achieve other human goods, especially other kinds of interpersonal unions.
reply= no real biological union. ex. sodomy and fornication.
Tradition view = sex that is potentially procreative is natural. unnatural acts are morally wrong. it is permissible to make illegal what is morally wrong. therefore, it is permissible to make unnatural sec illegal.
- f) one-sided or unidirectional enforcement is the U.S. as "beneficent world sovereign" this is the position favored by the U.S.
- collective enforcement of human rights is symmetrical enforcement in a hour of democracies. ex. the ICC
- g) in top-down reasoning, moral judgments about particular cases are derived from moral principles.
- in bottom-up moral reasoning, moral principles are justified by their ability to explain moral judgments about particular cases.
- h) social process of moral change:
- top-down: moral change comes from those in authority.
- Bottom-up: moral change comes from below, from ordinary citizens, who challenge the authorities.
- i) political emancipation is a right to non-interference in some realm(ex. non-interference in the practice of one's religion). Marx defines them as rights of man (as a separate individual).
- human emancipation is emancipation from one's individualistic, egoistic identity. involves becoming a non-egoistic member of a non-egoistic community.
j) A moral realist is someone who believes that some moral statements are true.
Humean moral ant-realist is someone who believes that no moral statements are true, because they are expressions of sentiment.
the issue is a metaphysical one. the moral realist need not think that moral truths are infallible.