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What is the main function associated with the occipital lobe?
- Receive and process visual information
- Have visual association area above visual cortex
What are the main functions associated with the temporal lobe?
- Audition - auditory association area just behind auditory cortex(info from cochlea)
- Taste - gustatory cortex
- Smell - Olfactory cortex
- Learning and memory
What are the main functions associated with the parietal lobe?
- Main centre - haptic or tactile stimuli processed in postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe (somatosensory cortex - ralyed from thalamus)
- Sensory association area behind primary somatosensory cortex
- Language processing
- Spatial awareness
What are the main functions of the frontal lobe?
- Precentral gyrus contains primary motor cortex - motor association in front of primary motor cortex (voluntary skeletal muscle movements)
- Frontal lobe contains most dopamine-sensitive neurons - reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning and motivation
- Prefrontal association area: co-ordinates info from other association areas
- Problem solving
What are some of the tests used to test frontal lobe function?
- Finger tapping
- Wisconsin Card sorting test
What diagram is used to show the relative space human body parts occupy in the somatosensory and primary motor cortex?
- Somatosensory cortex) - S1 sensory homunculus
- Primary motor cortex - M1 motor homunculus
Spatial loci where primary auditory and visual info is processed in the brain are represented according to ...
Different auditory ___ are arranged in the ___ ___ ___ according to a ___ map, which segregates initially at the level of the __.
- primary auditory cortex
- tonotonic map
Different areas of __ are represented according to a ___ map in the primary visual cortex (aka __/__ __). With __ region occupying disproportionally large area of V1 - this is known as __ ___.
- Or V1 or striate cortex
- cortical magnification (so a lot of cortical surface taken up for a small visual angle, compared to peripheral representation in V1)
Many processes recruit several brain lobes simulateneously. Describe how this is so for vision.
- Visual information from the retina, through optic nerve, cross over at the optic chiasm.
- It then goes to the thalamus (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus - LGN)
- Then into primary visual cortex
- 24 other visual areas in parietal and temporal lobes for processing various aspects of visual world.
- Parietal lobe: dorsal 'where' visual stream
- Temporal lobe: ventral 'what' visual stream
1. What is the most basic important region in the brain when it comes to motivation? Give me the mechanism of a simple motivation like drive to eat.
2. However, what can't this explain? What structure do we need to consider for this?
- Hypothalamus (a multi-nucleate structure lying beneath the thalamus)
- Homeostatic mechanism, where there is hormonal or neural input to the hypothalamus mostly from viscera (eg stomach etc for hunger)
- 2. This simple homeostatic mechanism cannot explain more complex motivation like that to win a race and seek job promotion
- Involves forebrain regions like nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
Give an example of a sub-nucleus in the hypothalamus and what acts on it.
- Arcuate nucleus
- The satiety (for feeling sated - fulfilled) hormone leptin acts here
Describe the structures needed for basic motivation and more complex ones.
- Various sub-nuclei of hypothalamus control and regulate basic motivational states and co-ordinates various consummatory behaviours (those that lead directly to satisfaction of innate drive like eating and copulation)
- Forebrain structures (eg OFC) required for appetitive activities that increase likelihood of satisfying specific needs (eg. decision-making, anticipatory responses, foraging for food).
Historically, emotion were viewed as solely the product of activity in the __ __, a collection of structures linking what? What structure is still probably critical in both aversive and appetitive emotional processing?
- Limbic system
- linking amygdala, hippocampus and olfactory system
What circuit is involved in control of emotion, and what structures?
- The Papez circuit
- Hypothalamus, amygdala, septum and prefrontal cortex
What is language impairment called and why has it been important?
- Aphasia (esp following injury)
- Important for our initial understanding of relationship between brain mechanisms and language
- Eg. observations by Broca
What are the two main important structures for language, describe where they are and what are their funcitons?
- Broca's area:
- Language production
- Left inferior frontal region
- Wernicke's area:
- Language comprehension
- Superior temporal gyrus
Even though __ hemisphere is specialised for language, imaging studies show spoken language activates extensive __ network. However __ language primarily appears to engage the __ hemisphere.
What are the two types of long-term memory? Which brain structures seem to be important for them? Which did HM suffer from?
- Explicit: (conscious recollection)
- Requires amygdala (esp for emotional memories)
- Other include much of temporal lobe such as hippocampus, and also prefrntal cortex, as well as thalamus, which connects temporal and frontal cortex.
- HM suffered from this after surgical removal of amygdala and hippocampus.
- Implicit: (unconscious memory like skills and habits)
- Requires striatum (a component of the basal ganglia), motor cortex and cerebellum.
Anterior portion of frontal cortex, known as __ __, is critical for ___ ___, which refers to high level of control over other __ functions. This includes what?
- prefrontal cortex
- executive functioning (aka attentional supervisory system)
- working memory, planning, sequencing, monitoring and problem solving.
What two sub-regions can the prefrontal cortex be divided into?
- Dorsolateral region
- Orbitofrontal region - esp decision-making
- (also ventrolateral - maybe, kinda synonymous)
Imagine the brain regions for dorsolateral and orbitofrontal regions.
What is the process of olfaction?
- Chemicals bind to receptors on sensory epithelium cells in nasal cavity
- Transduction impulse travel along olfactory nerves to the olfactory bulb, just below frontal lobes.
- Bulb then projects info to olfactory cortex and other areas such as the piriform cortex, which projects to amygdala, thalamus (then projects to OFC) and hippocampus.
Name the structures generally involved in memory and their functions. (6)
- Hippocampus: explicit memory (episodic and semantic)
- Amygdala: emotional memory
- Prefrontal cortex: working memory
- Striatum: procudural memory
- Neocortex: perceptual, semantic, priming
- Cerebellum: conditioning
Imagine the layout of structures of the limbic system.
What is the name of this type of MRI/imaging?
- Diffusion tensor imaging tractography
- Imaging of water and its movement