Chromosomes and Chromosome Anatomy
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How many chromosomes to humans have?
- 46 in each somatic (diploid) cell
- 23 in each gamete (haploid) cell
How many chromosomes in humans are autosomes?
How many chromosomes in humans are sex chromosomes?
What are kinetochores?
Additional proteins in the centromeric region that will bind to the spindle fibers
What are centrosomes?
- An area in the cell where microtubules are produced; also called the microtubule organizing centerContain a pair of small organelles, the centrioles, each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules
- Only animals have centrioles
- A single centrosome duplicates at the beginning of the "M" phase of the cell cycle
- Each defines a pole
What are the three types of microtubules?
What do astral microtubules do?
Position spindle in cell
What do polar microtubules do?
separates the two poles
What do the kinetochore microtubules do?
- Attach to kinetochore that is bound to centromeres
- This shortens, which pulls the chromosomes apart
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