Human Body

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allanah
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298761
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Human Body
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2015-05-11 19:01:56
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biology human body
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CPIT CSHB301 2015
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  1. Define Anatomy and Physiology
    Anatomy: the study of the structures of the body and its systems

    Physiology: the study of the functions of the body and its systems
  2. What are the 6 levels of structural organisation?
    • Chemical
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • System
    • Organismal
  3. Name the 11 systems of the Human Body
    • Integumentary (skin)
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  4. Define nephron-
    Kidney
  5. Define hepato-
    Liver
  6. Define Cerebro-
    Brain
  7. Define histo-
    Tissue
  8. Define leuco-
    White
  9. Define neuro-
    Nerve
  10. Define phago-
    Eat
  11. Define heamo-
    Blood
  12. Define chondro-
    Cartilage
  13. Define cardio-
    Heart
  14. Define osteo-
    Bone
  15. Define arthro-
    joint
  16. Define myo-
    Muscle
  17. Define gastro-
    Stomach
  18. Define -aemia
    Blood
  19. Define -uria
    Urine
  20. Define -itis
    Inflammation
  21. Define -lysis
    dissolution of cell
  22. Define -ology
    Study
  23. Define -osis
    Condition of
  24. Define -cyte
    cell
  25. What plane divides the body in to superior and inferior parts?
    Transverse plane
  26. What plane divides the body in to equal left and right parts?
    midsagittal plane
  27. What plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts?
    Frontal plane
  28. What plane is also known as a coronal plane?
    Frontal plane
  29. What plane divides the body into unequal left and right sides?
    Parasagittal plane
  30. Name the five cavities
    • Cranial
    • Vertebral
    • Thoracic/chest
    • Abdominal
    • Pelvic
    • (abdominopelvic)
  31. List some organs found in the Thoracic Cavity
    • Lungs
    • Heart
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
    • Thymus
    • Aorta
  32. List some of the organs in the abdominal cavity
    • Small intestine
    • Stomach
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Gall bladder
    • Kidney
    • Parts of the large intestine
  33. List some of the organs in the pelvic cavity
    • Urinary bladder
    • Parts of the large intestine
    • Rectum
    • Internal organs of reproductive system
  34. What are the three cavities within the Thoracic cavity
    • Pericardial cavity
    • - fluid filled space surrounding the heart
    • Pleural cavity
    • - 2 fluid filled spaces surrounding each lung
    • Mediastinum
    • - central part between the lungs
    • - contains all thoracic organs except lungs
  35. Define a tissue
    A group of cells that function together to carry out specialised activities
  36. Name 4 main categories of tissues
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  37. State the major function of epithelial tissues
    • Covers body surface
    • Lines body cavities, hollow organs and ducts
    • Forms glands
  38. Describe Simple Squamous epithelium
    Give a location and function
    Single layer of flat cells, flattened nucleus, centrally located, round or oval shape.

    Lines heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, air sacs of lungs

    Filtration, diffusion and osmosis
  39. Describe Simple Cuboidal epithelium
    Give a location and function
    Single layer of cube shaped cells

    Kidney tubules, ovary surface.

    Secretion and absorption with some resistance to wear and tear
  40. Describe Simple Columnar epithelium
    Give a location and function
    single layer of column shaped cells. many contain microvilli or cilia, interspersed with goblet cells that secrete mucus

    • With microvilli - small intestine.
    • With Cilia - fallopian tubes.

    Secretion and absorption. microvilli increase absorption. Cilia beat to move mucus, also move egg thorough fallopian tube
  41. Describe Pseudostratified epithelium
    Give a location and function
    • Appears to have more than one layer, nuclei are at different levels. all cells attach to basement membrane but don't all reach apical surface
    • Ciliated lines upper respiratory tract. Non-ciliated lines larger ducts of glands, epididymis, male urethra

    Secretes and moves mucus. Non-ciliated absorption and protection
  42. Describe Stratified Squamous epithelium
    Give a location and function
    • Two or more layers. Basil cells continually divide, pushing other cells upwards. Cells flatten as they approach the apical surface due to lost blood supply, therefore they die.
    • Keratinised cells are tough and waterproof, eg skin. Non-keratinised remain wet and moist.

    Keratinised - skin. Non-keratinised - mouth, vagina.

    Protection, resistance to wear and tear
  43. Describe Stratified Transitional epithelium
    Give a location and function
    In relaxed state looks like stratified Cuboidal, in stretched state looks like squamous.

    Lines bladder

    Allows tissue to stretch while providing protection for underlying structures
  44. What are the functions of connective tissue?
    • Bind other tissues together
    • Supports and strengthens other tissues
    • Protects internal organs
    • Transports substances around the body
    • Stores chemical energy
    • Insulates body
  45. Connective tissues comprise of _____ and _____
    Cells eg chondrocytes and fibrocytes

    • Matrix
    • - fibres eg collagen, elastine
    • - ground substance - minerals/gel
  46. State the blood and nerve supply of CT
    Highly vascular

    Well supplied with nerves

    except cartilage, ligaments and tendons. Little to no blood supply or nerves.
  47. Name the types of CT
    • Loose CT
    • - Areolar, Adipose
    • Dense CT
    • - Dense regular, elastic
    • Cartilage
    • -Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
    • Bone
    • - compact bone, spongy bone
    • Liquid CT
    • - Blood
  48. Describe Areolar Tissue
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Most widely distributed in the body

    Cells - Several types eg fibroblasts that produce collagen and other fibres

    Fibres - collagen for strength. Elastine for elasticity.

    Located under the skin and around structures

    Function - attaches skin to underlying structures.
  49. Describe Adipose Tissue
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Cells - Adipocytes that fill with fat

    Location - under skin, around many organs eg kidneys

    • Function - provides insulation from heat loss/gain
    • - chemical energy storage
    • - protection from knocks
  50. Describe Dense CT
    Cells, fibers, types
    Contains very few cells - fibroblasts that produce collagen fibres

    lots of thick dense fibres packed together

    Dense regular, elastic
  51. Describe Dense Regular
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Cells - very few fibroblasts

    fibres - collagen packed in parallel patterns for strength in one direction

    Location - tendons and ligaments

    Function - great strength in one direction
  52. Describe Elastic Connective Tissue
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Cells - few fibroblasts

    Fibres - many branching elastic fibres

    Location - Aorta - receives blood at high pressure from heart so needs to be able to be able to stretch

    function - strong. recoil to original shape after stretching
  53. Describe Cartilage CT
    Cells, Fibres, Types
    Few cells - chondrocytes

    Dense network of collagen and elastic fibres in ground substance - like jelly

    3 types - Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, Elastic
  54. Describe Hyaline Cartilage
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Cells - few chondrocytes

    lots of collagen fibres and ground substance

    covers the ends of long bones at joints

    reduces friction

    weakest type
  55. Describe Fibrocartilage
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Chondrocytes scattered among bundles of collagen fibres within matrix

    Location - intervertebral discs

    Function - absorb shock, hold bones together
  56. Describe Elastic Cartilage
    Cells, Fibres, Location, Function
    Chondrocytes in threadlike network of elastic fibers

    Location - external ear

    Function - maintains shape
  57. Describe Bone CT
    Cells, Matrix, type
    Cells - osteocytes

    Matrix - Collagen and ground substances - calcium and phosphate

    • Spongy bone
    • compact bone
  58. Describe Spongy Bone
    Discription, Location, Function
    • Bone arranged in irregular network
    • small spaces within it

    Located in the ends of long bones and in short bones

    function - filled with bone marrow that produce blood cells
  59. Describe Compact Bone
    Description, Location, Function
    Solid matrix of calcium and phosphate

    location - external layer of all bones

    function - resist compression and tension
  60. Describe Liquid connective tissue
    Cells, Matrix, Fibres, Location, Function
    • Cells - red and white blood cells
    • - platelets - cell fragments

    • Liquid matrix - fibres - dissolved fibrogen
    • - ground substance - plasma

    location - blood vesels

    function - red - carry O2. white - Immunity. Platelets - prevent blood loss. Plasma - Transports glucose
  61. Functions of the skeletal system
    • Support - attachment part for tendons
    • Protection - cranium protects brain
    • Assistance in movement - muscle pulls on bone
    • Mineral homeostasis - 99% of Ca in bone
    • Blood cell production - bone marrow
    • Energy storage - yellow bone marrow
  62. 5 types of bone
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
    • Sesamoid
  63. Describe Long bone and give example
    • Greater length than width
    • Slight curve for strength

    Humerus, femur, tibia, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges
  64. Describe Short bone and give example
    Cube shaped, nearly equal in length and width

    Carpal, Tarsal
  65. Describe flat bone and give example
    Thin. Two nearly parallel plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone

    Cranial, sternum, ribs, scapulae
  66. Describe Irregular bone and give example
    Complex shapes

    vertebrae, hip, some facial bones, calcaneus
  67. Describe Sesamoid bone and give example
    Developed in tendons. May be found in foot and palms.

    Patella
  68. Name the two principal divisions on the skeleton
    Axial Skeleton

    Appendicular Skeleton
  69. Name the regions of vertebral column
    • Cervical - 7
    • Thoracic - 12
    • Lumbar - 5
    • Sacral - 5
  70. Name the knee cap
    Patella
  71. Name the heel
    Calcaneus
  72. Name the shoulder blade
    Scapula
  73. Describe Muscle Tissue

    Name three types
    Cells - Myocytes, aka muscle fibers

    use ATP to generate force therefore muscle cells contain mitochondria

    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  74. Skeletal Muscle. Other names, description, location, function.
    Striated muscle, voluntary muscle

    • Long cells (fibres) of alternating actin and myosin giving a striped (striated) appearance.
    • Contraction in voluntary.

    Attached to bones of skeleton by tendons.

    To produce body movement and maintain posture. Protection and support of internal organs. Produce heat.
  75. Cardiac Muscle. Other names, description, location, function.
    • Cells - short and branched, containing alternating bands of actin and myosin (contractile proteins) which give a striated appearance. Can conduct impulses therefore many cells can contract at once.
    • Contraction is involuntary.

    Heart wall

    pumps blood around body
  76. Smooth Muscle. Other names, description, location, function.
    Visceral, Involuntary

    • short oval shaped cells, irregularly arranged contractile proteins - appears smooth
    • Contraction is involuntary

    Walls of hollow internal structures, eg blood vessels

    moves substances through internal organs
  77. Name the tree main types of joint, what they are held together by, state the amount of movement and give an example of each.
    • Fibrous Joint
    • - collagen fibres
    • - almost no movement
    • - skull bones, teeth in jaw

    • Cartilaginous
    • - cartilage
    • - slightly moveable
    • - pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

    • Synovial Joint
    • - Ligaments
    • - freely movable
    • - knee, shoulder, fingers
  78. 1. Synovial fluid - lubricates, absorbs shock, supplies O2 and nutrients, removes CO2 and metabolic waste from the end of long bones.

    2. Articular cartilage

    3. Articular capsule - encloses synovial cavity

    4. Synovial membrane
  79. Name two types of synovial joint.
    Give an example of both.
    Ball and Socket, eg hip and shoulder

    Hinge, eg knee and elbow
  80. Describe flexion and extension
    Flexion - Decreasing angle between articulating bones

    Extension - increasing angle between articulating bones
  81. Describe abduction and adduction
    Abduction - movement of a bone away from the midline

    Adduction - movement of a bone toward the midline
  82. Describe circumduction and rotation
    Circumduction - movement of a body part in a circle

    Rotation - a bone revolves about its own longitudinal axis
  83. Name the muscle that rotates and flexes the head
    Sternocleidomastoid
  84. Name the muscle that provides dorsiflexion at ankle or foot
    Tibialis anterior
  85. Name the calf muscle and describe its movement of the foot
    • Gastrocnemius
    • - Plantarflexion
  86. Name the muscle that extends the head
    Trapezius
  87. Which muscle provides abduction of the arm?
    Deltoids
  88. Which muscle provides adduction of the arm?
    Latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major
  89. Name the agonist and antagonist in elbow flexion
    Agonist - biceps brachii

    Antagonists - Triceps brachii
  90. Name the agonists and antagonists in knee extension
    Agonists - Quadriceps

    Antagonists - Hamstring
  91. What gland secretes growth hormone and what is the action/response to this hormone?
    Pituitary gland - enhances growth
  92. What gland secretes calcitonin and what is the action/response to this hormone?
    Thyroid gland - lowers calcium levels in the blood
  93. What gland secretes Cortisol and what is the action/response to this hormone?
    Adrenal gland - helps in healing and injury recovery
  94. What gland secretes glucagon and what is the action/response to this hormone?
    Pancreas - increases blood glucose levels
  95. What hormone does the Ovaries secrete and what is it's action/response?
    oestrogen - Essential for egg maturation and development of female secondary sexual characteristics
  96. What hormone does the Parathyroid gland secrete and what is it's action/response?
    Parathyroid hormone - elevates calcium levels in the blood
  97. What hormone does the Adrenal gland secrete and what is it's action/response?
    Adrenalin - increases heart rate / fight or flight

    Cortisol - helps in healing and injury recovery
  98. What hormone does the Thyroid gland secrete and what is it's action/response?
    Thyroxin - increases basal metabolic rate

    Calcitonin - lowers Ca levels in the blood
  99. What hormone does the testes secrete and what is it's action/response?
    Testosterone - essential for sperm production and development of male secondary sexual characteristics
  100. What hormone does the pancreas secrete and what is it's action/response?
    Glucagon - increase blood glucose levels

    Insulin - decrease blood glucose levels
  101. Although the ____________ controls may other glands, it itself is controlled by the  ____________. It is an important link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
    Pituitary gland

    Hypothalamus
  102. If calcium was eliminated from the diet, the body would secrete more _______________ to release the calcium stored in the bones, thereby raising the blood calcium levels in the blood.
    Parathyroid hormone
  103. Name this tissue


    Areolar tissue
  104. Name this Tissue

    Dense Regular
  105. Name this tissue:

    Hyaline Cartilage
  106. State the main functions of the nervous system
    Along with the endocrine system, makes sure the parts of the body act together in a coordinate way and respond to stimuli appropriately.

    1. Detect changes in the environment.

    2. process the information.

    3. Respond to changes by altering muscle or gland activity
  107. The CNS consists of
    Central Nervous System

    Brain

    Spinal cord
  108. The PNS consists of
    Peripheral nervous system

    Cranial nerves

    Spinal nerves
  109. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
    12
  110. How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
    31
  111. A - Axon

    B - Dendrites

    C - Cell body

    D - Myelin Sheath

    E - Axon Terminal
  112. Nervous tissue has two main cell types. What are they?
    Neurons (nerve cells)

    Neuroglia
  113. Name the three types of neurons and state their function
    Sensory neurons (afferent) – conduct impulses from receptors to the CNS

    Interneurons – process and integrate information, store memories, and direct responses. They are found only in the CNS

    Motor neurons (efferent) – conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to muscles (to control their contraction) and to glands (to control their secretions)
  114. State the location and function of neuroglia
    • Location
    • - Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
    • - Peripheral nervous system (cranial nerves and spinal nerves)

    • Functions
    • - Support, nurture, protect neurons
    • - Form an insulating cover (myelin) around many neurons which helps to increase the speed of nerve impulse conduction
  115. What are the 5 structures of a general model of the nervous system.
    - Sensory Receptors

    - Sensory neurons

    - CNS (integrating centre)

    - Motor neurons

    - Effectors (muscle or gland)
    • 1. Sensory Receptors
    • 2. Sensory neurons
    • 3. CNS (integrating centre)
    • 4. Motor neurons
    • 5. Effectors (muscle or gland)
    • A. Somatic n.s
    • - Conscious/voluntary

    • B. Autonomic n.s
    • - Subconscious/involuntary
  116. The effector for the somatic nervous system is
    Skeletal muscle
  117. The effectors for the autonomic nervous system are
    Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
  118. The somatic nervous  system is under _______ control
    Voluntary
  119. State the major function of nervous tissue
    Conduct nerve impulses

    to exhibit sensitivity to stimuli convert stimuli to nerve impulses conduct impulses and to protect the cells that carry out these functions.
  120. A nerve in a bundle of many______
    neurons
  121. What is a reflex?
    • A quick automatic response involving neurons only in the spinal nerves and spinal cord.
    • - Does not involve conscious thought

    a rapid response to a stimulus which does not involve conscious thought
  122. Two branches of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) are
    Sympathetic NS

    Parasympathetic NS
  123. The Sympathetic NS is?
    • Fight or flight
    • Increases respiratory rate
    • Increases heart rate
    • smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
  124. The Parasympathetic NS is?
    • Rest/slowing down
    • Decreases respiratory rate
    • Decreases heart rate
    • smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
  125. State the functions of the Endocrine system.
    Along with the nervous system, makes sure parts of the body act together in a coordinated way and respond appropriately to a stimulus.
  126. Name 7 main glands in the endocrine system
    • (Hypothalamus)
    • Pituitary
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Adrenal
    • Pancreas
    • Ovary
    • Testes
  127. The pituitary glad is controlled by the?
    Hypothalamus
  128. Define Homeostasis
    A relatively stable internal environment the body maintains even though there are internal and external changes happening all the time.
  129. Name the components of a feedback system
    • Stimulus
    • Receptors
    • Control Center
    • Effectors
    • Negative Feedback
  130. Name the two main systems that work together to maintain homeostasis
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
  131. Name the two layers of the skin and the layer beneath them
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous layer
  132. What tissue type is the epidermis made up of?
    Keratinised stratified squamous epithelial
  133. What is the main tissue type in the dermis
    connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibres
  134. What is the subcutaneous layer made of
    • Areolar
    • Adipose
  135. What are 6 functions of the skin
    • Protect underlying tissue against entry of microbes, abrasion, chemical damage, water loss or entry, UV damage
    • sensations - touch, pressure, vibration, tickle, heat, cold, pain receptors located in the skin
    • excretion of H2O, CO2, small amount of salt, ammonia, urea
    • synthesis of Vit. D needed for healthy bones
    • Blood reservoir rries 8-10% of total blood flow
    • Regulation of body temp sweat blood receptors sense cold -> shivering
  136. Name the 4 structures

    • 1. Sebaceous gland
    • 2. Arrector Pili Muscle
    • 3. Hair Follicle
    • 4. Sweat Gland
  137. Describe the function of the Sweat gland
    • lowers body temp through the evaporation of sweat produced by the gland when stimulated by the brain.
    • Eliminates waste
  138. Describe the function of the sebaceous glands
    Produce Sebum (oil) which moistens hair, waterproofs and softens hair, is acidic so inhibits fungi and bacteria
  139. Describe the function of the sensory receptors
    different receptors detect touch, pressure, vibration, tickle, heat, cold, pain.
  140. Describe the function of the Arrector Pili Muscle
    Smooth muscle in dermis contracts with cold and fear, forms goosbumps. create a layer of air for insulation
  141. Describe the function of the Dermal Arterioles
    Temp regulation. constricts when cold to conserve heat. Dilate to help release heat when warm.
  142. Name the structures:

    • 1. Superior vena cava
    • 2. Right pulmonary artery
    • 3. Right pulmonary veins
    • 4. Right atrium
    • 5. Tricuspid valve
    • 6. Right ventricle
    • 7. Inferior vena cava
    • 8. Arch of aorta
    • 9. Pulmonary trunk
    • 10. Left atrium
    • 11. Pulmonary semilunar valve
    • 12. Aortic semilunar valve
    • 13. Bicuspid valve
    • 14. Left ventricle
    • 15. Descending aorta
  143. What are the functions of Blood?
    • Transportation - gasses, nutrients, hormones, waste products and heat
    • Regulation - Body temp, osmotic pressure, pH, H2O levels
    • Protection/body defence - clotting, fight infection
  144. Name the blood vessels in the order blood flows frim the heart. State a function.
    • Arteries - Carry blood away from heart, store pressure
    • Arterioles - vasoconstriction, vasodilation, direct flow of blood
    • Capillaries - allow very rapid exchange of materials between blood and cell
    • Venules - emerge from capillaries, merge to form veins
    • Veins - carry blood to the heart, contain valves to prevent backflow
  145. Name the components of blood
    • Plasma
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • platelets
  146. What is plasma, what % of blood is it
    • Ground substance. Mainly water, some solutes; proteins - fibrogen, antibodies; electrolytes, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gasses, waste products.
    • 55%
  147. Name the cells in blood and give their function.
    • Red blood cells - transport O2 and some CO2
    • White blood cells - fight infection
    • Platelets (cell fragments) - play important role in blood clotting
  148. Name blood components that play a role in blood clotting
    • platelets
    • plasma proteins
  149. Name the function of the heart
    Pumps blood in to the arteries
  150. Name the artery that carries deoxygenated blood
    Pulmonary artery
  151. Name the vein that carries oxygenated blood
    Pulmonary vein
  152. What are the functions of the lymphatic system
    • Drains excess interstitial fluid - returns it to blood
    • Transports lipids and lipid-soluble vit. to blood from small intestine
    • carries out immune responses - destroys microbes and abnormal and foreign cells
  153. What is lymph?
    Blood plasma that filters from blood capillary walls to form interstitial fluid, then flows into lymph capillaries where it is called lymph.
  154. Outline the circulation of lymph.
    5. Blood vessels

    4. right lymphatic and thoracic duct

    3. Lymph nodes

    2. lymphatic vessels

    1. lymphatic capillaries
  155. Describe the location of the heart.
    The heart is situated between the lungs in the mediastinum with about two-thirds of its mass to the left of the midline. it is Posterior to the sternum.
  156. Name the 4 chambers of the heart.
    • Left and right atria
    • Left and right ventricles
  157. What are the two types of blood circulation?
    • Pulmonary circulation
    • Systemic circulation
  158. What are the functions of the respiratory system?
    • Transport air to and from the lungs
    • Gas exchange between alveoli and blood
    • sense of smell receptors
    • voice production
    • regulate blood pH
    • Aids in venous and lymph return
  159. Name the structures of the upper respiratory system
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Larynx
  160. Name the structures of the lower respiratory system
    • Trachea
    • Primary bronchus
    • Secondary bronchus
    • Tertiary bronchus
    • Bronchiole
    • Lungs
    • Diaphragm
  161. What is external respiration?
    Exchange of gases between alveoli and blood
  162. What is internal respiration?
    Exchange of gases between capillaries around the body and nearby tissue cells
  163. Name the three accessory glands
    • Salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • 1. Pharynx
    • 2. Gallbladder
    • 3. Duodenum
    • 4. Jejunum
    • 5. Caecum
    • 6. Ileum
    • 7. Sigmoid Colon
    • 8. Rectum
  164. Name the components of the GI tract
    mouth, most of pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  165. Name the accessory organs
    salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
  166. Describe ingestion
    the process of taking foods and liquids into the mouth
  167. Describe secretion
    of water, acid, enzymes, into the digestive tract (lumen)
  168. Describe mixing and propulsion
    contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the walls of the digestive system to mix food and secretions, and to propel material towards the anus
  169. Describe digestion
    mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into molecules small enough to be absorbed
  170. Describe mechanical digestion
    teeth cut and grind food before it is swallowed, then the smooth muscle of the stomach and the small intestines churns the food.
  171. Describe chemical digestion
    large carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid molecules are broken down by enzymes.
  172. Describe absorption
    small molecules broken down by digestion are passed into blood or lymph capillaries through the wall of the digestive tract
  173. Describe defecation
    wastes, indigestible substances, bacteria and  cells leave the body through the anus. Eliminated material is called faeces
  174. What is the main function of the gallbladder?
    Store and concentrate bile
  175. What is chyme?
    mix of gastric juices and the bolus of food
  176. What is the main function of the pancreas?
    Produces and enzyme-rich secretion
  177. List in order the structures through which food passes from the mouth to the anus
    Mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus.
  178. Name the secretion/enzyme, substrate and product of the salivary glands
    • Salivary amylase
    • Starch
    • Maltose
  179. Name the secretion/enzyme, substrate and product of the Stomach
    • Gastric juice - pepsin
    • Proteins
    • Peptides
  180. Name the secretion/enzyme, substrate and product of the Pancreas
    • Pancreatic amylase
    • starch
    • maltose

    • Trypsin/Proteases
    • Proteins
    • Peptides

    • Lipase
    • Lipids
    • Monoglycerides & fatty acid
  181. Name the secretion/enzyme, substrate and product of the liver
    • Produces bile
    • lipids
    • emulsified fats
  182. Name the secretion/enzyme, substrate and product of the small intestine
    • intestinal juices
    • maltose / peptides
    • Glucose. Amino acids
    • 1. Inferior vena cava
    • 2. Kidny
    • 3. Renal Artery
    • 4. Renal vein
    • 5. Abdominal aorta
    • 6. ureter
    • 7. urinary bladder
    • 8. urethra
  183. What are the functions of the urinary system?
    • Regulate composition and volume of blood by filtering it and removing wastes and H ions (pH)
    • To produce hormones - calcitriol and erythropoietin
    • to regulate BP via regulation of blood volume
  184. What are the 8 functions of the kidneys?
    • Regulation of blood ionic composition
    • Regulation of blood pH
    • Regulation of blood volume
    • Regulation of BP
    • Regulation of blood glucose level
    • Maintenance of blood osmolarity
    • Production of hormones - calcitriol and erythropoietin
    • Excretion of wastes from metabolic reactions and foreign substances (drugs or toxins)

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