WSET book studying

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WSET book studying
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  1. Preparation for tasting
    • Odour-free(tobacco, food or perfume)
    • natural light
    • white surfaces
    • tasting palate clean (chew a piece of bread)
    • No fever, colds or fatigue
    • WSET iso glass
  2. Wine glass, why is a tulip goblet?
    To concentrate aromas and the stem alows to gold the glass without warming wine
  3. Why study appearance?
    warn about faults, out of condition wines are dull in appearance, have a hint of brown(not all brown wines are faulty, exp: aged wines for long period) and haziness(exception, not filtered wines).
  4. Appearance and colour
    • Red wines:
    • purple indicates youth
    • orange, amber and brown indicate age(if they are dominant we are talking about tawny color)

    • White wines:
    • lemon(yellow + green) indicates youth
    • orange and brown indicate age

    • Rosé wines:
    • purply-pink indicates youth
    • orange and brown indicate age

    Color, despite wine and region, indicates age.

    NB: is impossibile t generalise about appearance
  5. Nose and sniffing wines
    Swirl th wine in the glass to release as many aromas as possible, than take a sniff, than take a note of nose conditions.

    Sniff the cork to discover if is faulty. At low levels this can strip the wine of its fresh, fruity aromas; at its worst it can add a pungent damp of cardboard or musty smell to the wine.
  6. Out of condition wines, how they smell?
    they smell of dull and stale, having an excessive oxidative aroma(toffee, caramel or sherry).

    NB: excessive of oxidative aromas not always indicate a fault, as Oloroso Sherry that is deliberately oxidized during production.

    NB2: When a wine has a minor faulty, just taking a sip could confirm the faulty
  7. Why use the systematic approach?
    because can explain with words known to everybody the smell and a taste of a wine, even to unexperienced wine drinkers. Using too generic terms or scientific terms, or from experiences(es: smell like my first birthday cake) could be more impressive, but doesn't communicate the effect on unexperienced people.
  8. Tastes are different, s why concentrate on palate?
    Because even if our sensitivities to sweetness acidity, tannins and certain aroma, all of us agree if a wine is more acid, sweet or tannic. From this is a short step to define if a wine has a medium, high or low levels of these components.

    NB: sweet on the tip of the tongue, acidity on sides and bitterness at the back

    NB2: wine breathing allows to wine to coats all parts of your mouth and the vapours are carried up the back of nose.
  9. Sweetness in wine what does it indicate?
    how much sugar a wine contains(except for very ripe grapes that give that taste but doesn't contain sugar)

    Almosto all red and white wines are dry => no sugar. White wines slightly sweet are define "off-dry"
  10. Acidity in wine what does it indicate?
    Acidity influence water in the mouth => wine is more vibrant and refreshing.

    In white wines acidity is usually higher that in reds; sauvignon blanc and riesling are wine example of really high acidity.

    Acidity is usually due to cool climates of production

    NB: acidity is very important for sweet wines; too low => wine is over-sweet and cloying(stucchevole)
  11. Tannin in wine what does it indicate?
    The amount of skin contact during winemaking.

    Tannin is what makes strong black tea taste bitter and astringent.

    Rosé wine s has a very little(if any) skin contact.

    Thick skinned varieties(cabernet sauvignon, Syrah) have higher tannin levels than thin-skinned ones(pinot noir, Grenache)

    High levels of soft ripe(maturi) tannins may indicate a hot climate wine.

    • NB: astringent tannins frm unripe grapes can cause a strong, mouth-drying sensation, even when
    • their levels are low.

    NB2: Soft, ripe tannins contribute to viscosity and body of the wine
  12. Body in wine what does it indicate?
    Sensation of richness, weight or viscosity and is a combination of effects of alcohol, tannins, sugar and flavour compounds(combinazioni) extracted form the skin. It's described as "mouth-feel".

    It's possibile for a wine (Beaujolais, for example), to be high in alcohol(13% abv), but still be light in body because of low tannins.
  13. How to detect flavour characteristics by mouth.
    In contrast to sweetness, acidity, tannins and body, the flavour characteristics are detected when aroma components evaporate of the tongue and rise up to the back of the nose. Slurp the wine by drawing air through lips helps this process.
  14. The finish in wine what does it indicate?
    refers to how long the desirable flavours linger in the mouth after the wines has been swallowed(or spat out). Long, complex finish = quality
  15. The conclusions in wine what does it indicate?
    It's a judgment about the wine, in spite of personal opinions. The question is "is this wine a good example of its type?"

    Many criteria can differentiate a poor wine from an accetable wine and a great wine. They are:

    Balance: A good wine => sweetness and fruitiness will be in balance with tannin and acidity, without cloying(2 sweet) or hard/unpleasant/austere taste.

    Finish: Quality => several seconds of pleasant finish. Poor quality => flavours disappear almost instantly with no lingering impression or linger may be unpleasant

    Intensity: dilutie flaours or too much strong flavour = poor wine. NB strong flavours if balance => quality

    Complexity: 1 or 2 simple flavours => poor quality. More flavours => more quality

    Expressiveness: Lesser wines taste with no character as if they could come from anywhere and be mde with any grape variety. Great wines => express charateristics of their grape variety and their region of production. In rare cases even the individual vineyard can be identified from wine flavours.
  16. How to select  and recommend a wine.
    • Consider:
    • Tastes
    • preferences
    • food
    • occasion( big events like a wedding can't have big bottles in order to really appreciate it, lesser are better, reserving the big bottle for a special occasion when you have time to enjoy it completely)
  17. Food and wine
    Food can affect wine and vice-versa

    NB: people have different sensitivities to various flavour and aroma components => take into account
  18. Food and mouth
    Food entail(comporta) for mouth to adapt, changing perception of flavours

    Sweet and umami => wine tastes "harder"(+ astringent, bitter, acid - sweet and fruity)

    Salt and acid => wine tastes "softer" ( + sweet and fruity - astringent, bitter, acid)
  19. Sweetness in food and effect on wine
    • + bitterness, acid and burning effect of alcohol
    • - body, sweetness and fruitiness

    Recommend: wine with high level of sweetness
  20. Umami in food and effect on wine
    • + bitterness, acidity and alcohol burn in wine
    • - body, sweetness and fruitiness

    NB: Umami is balanced by salt, otherwise the wine becomes more strong(hardening)
  21. Acidity in food and effect on wine
    • + body, sweetness and fruitiness
    • - acidity

    Recommend: wine high in acidity to balance
  22. Salt in food and effect on wine
    • + body
    • - bitterness and acidity
  23. Bitterness in food and effect on wine
    + bitterness in wine

    Recommend: wine bitter, but in a balanced range with food(too much could become unpleasant)
  24. Chilly heat in food and effect on wine
    Chilly has individual huge variations in how pleasant or unpleasant could be the wine.

    • Generically:
    • + bitterness, acidity and alcohol burn
    • - body, richness, sweetness and fruitiness

    NB: + alcohol level => + intensity of the reaction  and burning sensation due to chili
  25. Food, wine and Flavour Intensity
    The flavour intensity has to be balanced to the food, in order to not overpower it(and vice-versa)
  26. Food, wine and flavor combinations
    Fat => Acid; in the majority of the cases it cut through the richness of the food and clean up the palate

    Sweet => salty, even if it is subjective
  27. Applying food and wine combination principles
    1 - accept that guest bay not agreed with "theory pairings"

    2- divide food and wine in high and low risk categories.
  28. High risk foods
    Sugar => at least much sugar as food

    Umami => wines more fruity than tannic(umami enmphasise bitterness of tannins)

    Bitterness => white wines or low tannin reds(bitter food emphasise bitterness in wine)

    Chilli heat => white wines or low tannin red; two both with low alcohol and balanced with chili level in sugar and fruitiness
  29. Low risk foods
    High-acid foods => generally high acid wines(to not let appear the wine too soft and flabby)
  30. High risk wines
    Remember: + complexity in wine and food => more interactions

    • Most problematic wines are those with:
    • - High levels of bitterness from oak and skinn tannins
    • - High acidity and alcohol
    • - Complex flavor
  31. Low risk wines
    Simple, unoaked wines with little residual sugar => food and wine pairing is less interesting

    NB: when you reach successful combination, than sign why, and if you repeat with different food and wine with the same characteristics, is really probable that it will repeat.
  32. Wine taste main factors
    • Grape variety
    • Environment
    • The care with which the grapes are grown
    • The care with which the grapes are harvested
    • How the wine it's matured
  33. Vines and envirnment
    • To produce grapes a vine needs of
    • - carbon dioxie(CO2) => in the air
    • - sunlight => weather
    • - water => weather and soil
    • - warmth => weather, climate and soil
    • - nutrients => weather and soil
  34. Vines and climate
    • Climate for wine could be
    • - hot
    • - moderate
    • - cool

    • The climate could be determinate by
    • - latitude(distance from equator)
    • - altitude
    • - oceans

    Some grapes like Cabernet Sovignon need a lot of heat or they won't be fully ripened => too sour, astringent, bitter and lacking of flavour

    Some other grapes like Sauvignon Blanc or Pinot Noir, need a cood or moderate climate, otherwise grape get over ripen and lose their refreshing fruit character and acidity

    • Flavour of a wine give clues about climate:
    • - hot climate: + alcohol + body + tannins - acidity
    • - cool climate: + acidity - alcohol - body - tannins
  35. Vines and weather
    Usually weather changes from one year to the next => affects the style and quality of wines.

    Extreme weather => damage to grapes => easy rotting

    Areas like Bordeaux and Champagne are more affected by weather => different vintage => different quality.

    Modern winemaking techniques are anyway reducing the difference between vintages

    Anyway blending different varieties of grapes => easier keep the quality consistent from one year to the next.
  36. Vines and Sunlight
    Sun = energy that allows to combine CO2 and water in sugar, and sugar => alcohol

    In region far from equator a correct quantity of sunlight is reachable planting vines on slopes or next to river to reflect sunlight.
  37. Vines and Water
    • Sources of water:
    • - rain
    • - ground
    • - irrigation

    Too much water => bloated grapes => flavours and sugar became diluted and there's the risk of encouraging rot

    Areas where rainfall is high(Europe) => best vineyards are on slopes or soil as gravel(ghiaia) or chalk(gesso) that which drain water away quickly

    Areas where rainfall is low(New World) => irrigation

    Quality wine => fair amount of water

    Cheap productions => huge irrigation to increase the size of the crop
  38. Vines and Warmth
    production of sugar => fair amount of warmth, too cool or hot stops sugar production), that's why most of the world's vineyards are in temperate zone between 30° and 50° from equator.

    A vine can keep itself cool by evaporating water through its leaves.

    Any soil vary its ability to absorb or reflect warmth; example for dry and stony soils are warmer than clay soils.
  39. Vines and Nutrients
    Vines need of tiny amounts of nutrients taken by the soil.

    Generally poorer soils, with sufficient nutrients => better quality grapes
  40. Grape growing
    • grape growing influence the quality of wine due to:
    • - degree of care during growing
    • - control of the yields
    • - harvesting techniques
  41. Vineyard activities
    • 1- Careful pruning(potatura)
    • 2- Controlling the number of bunches(gruppi) of grapes on each vine
    • 3- Vine leaves positioning to increase/decrease of the grape bunches

    This is translated in expensive labour or mechanization(only on flat vineyards)
  42. Control of yields
    The control of Yields have an effect on quality.

    Lower yields => concentrated flavour => more expensive

    Higher yields => diluted flavor => cheaper.

    Most of the wines are between this 2 cases.

    • In addition there are pest and diseases that affect the final product.
    • - Animal pest
    • - Attacks of fungal diseases
    • - Long-term diseases that inhibiting ripening and eventually lead to vine death.
  43. Harvesting techniques
    • 1 - use machines which shake the grapes off their stems(steli)
    • 2 - hand-harvest (used when is cheaper than machines, on slopes and when the whole bunches of grapes are needed)
  44. Winemaking
    The pillar of this process is fermentation by yeasts => yeasts feed of sugar and produce alcohol, CO2 and heat => wine is done.

    • The color of wine is due to:
    • - soaking the coloured skins in the fermenting juice
    • - contact amount of time

    NB: white and rose wine can be done with black grapes, but red wine can be done JUST with black grapes.
  45. White wine winemaking
    1- grapes are crushed and pressed to separate juice from skin

    2- yeasts are added

    3- result is transferred in fermentation vessel(stainless steel tank or oak barrels or open-topped concrete or wooden fermenters)

    4- fermentation of white wines happends at low temperatures(12-22 °C) to preserve fruit aromas. Fermentation lasts 2-4 weeks

    NB: sweetness in white wines is caused by unfermented sugar
  46. Wine and yeasts
    Usually a commercial yeast culture is used to count on predictable results, but some producers use just natural yeasts => different results(sometimes even more interesting)
  47. Red wine winemaking
    1- grapes are crushed, keeping juice and skins

    2- yeasts are added

    3- result is transferred in fermentation vessel(stainless steel tank or oak barrels or open-topped concrete or wooden fermenters)

    4- fermentation of red wines happends at higher temperatures (20-32 °C) and is an active process where floating wine skins can be punched down, or pumped over

    5- color and tannins depend on how long the wine is kept in contact with the skin, it could go from 5 days for light wines( as Beaujolais) to 2 weeks as richly flavoured wines(as Bordeaux). Color and tannins depend even from the skin itself.

    6- when enough color and tannin have been extracted wine is drawn off and the skins are pressed to extract further quantity of wine(called pressed wine). The pressed wine contains higher levels of tannin and may be blended with free run wine to produce the style required
  48. Rosé wine winemaking
    Similar to red, but fermentation is at lower temeprature (12-22°), and the grapeskin contact is 12-36 hours.
  49. Winemaking - oak
    Many wines receive oak contact often in staves(assi) or chips(schegge) added to a vat.

    The cheapest method of adding oak flavours i to use oak essence.

    The best way to ferment or age wine is by oak barrels/vats but is more expensive, especially if the oak is new.

    French or European oak is more expensive than American oak, but give more subtle(sottile), toast and nutty flavours and smoother tannins.

    American oak gives sweet coconut and vanilla but harsher tannins

    A further premium is paid where the highest-quality air-dried staves and expert cooperage is sought(richiesto)
  50. Winemaking - maturation
    • Maturation takes place in
    • - barrels
    • - or large neutral wooden or stainless steel vats
    • - bottle after bottling

    Maturation could be with oxygen or without
  51. Winemaking - maturation with oxygen
    Vessel is porous and allows small amounts of oxygen to dissolve in the wine => softer tannins a smoother taste. It adds even flavour such as toffee, nut, coffee to develop
  52. Winemaking - maturation without oxygen
    Bottles, cement and stainless steel vat => no added flavours and different chemical reactions to those in oak, because in the steel vat the wine stays almost unchanged, the changes occur faster in bottles because they are smaller.

    In bottles aromas change into cooked fruit, vegetal and animal notes.

    Few wines improve in bottles, usually they lost fruity aromas and get unpleasant animal and vegetal aromas. Some special wine instead gets better developing complex aromas and these wines are complex to produce and expensive to buy
  53. Winemaking cost factors
    • 1- in the vineyard
    •   -cost of vineyard
    •   -degree of vineyard mechanised work
    •   -cost and availability of labour and/or equipment
    •   -yield size and degree of selection of grape material

    • 2 - In the Winery
    •   -Winery equipment and use efficiency
    •   -Cost of barrels or other forms of oak flavouring
    •   -Ageing => expensive storage facilities

    • 3 - Packaging, distribution and Sale
    •   -Exchange rates
    •   -Packaging and cartons for distribution
    •   -Transport costs(small part of selling price indeed)
    •   -Efficiency of the distributor and retailer, and the profit margin they expect.

    4 - Taxes

    • 5 - How much the consumer is willing to pay
    • Extremely high price wine => people prepared to pay high prices for those levels of quality. If the market disappear => prices would fall or those wines would no longer be made.
  54. Label, most prominent informations
    • Brand or producer
    • Country or region
    • Variety of grape(if not named can be deduced from the region, like Chablis or Chardonnay)
  55. Label - Producers and brand
    On the label you can find the producer and/or the distributor

    Some brand reflet the producer like chàteu or estate names and large-scale brands. Others are created by distributors or retailers.

    NB: Port, Sherry and sparkling wine are dominated by a small number of large brands.
  56. Label - Vintage
    Vintage report the year in which the grapes were harvested.

    Most wines are best consumed while they are young and should not be aged(2007 bordeux is worse than 2009 due to 2007 bad weather)

    Seasons in northern and southern hemisphere are inverted.

    • Northern => February, March or April harvesting
    • Southern => August, September or October. In fact southern hemisphere wines will be half year older than northern form same vintage.

    Roses wines or fruity unoaked whites have to be consumed young and fresh
  57. Label - Geographical Indications(GI)
    The area where grapes are grown define style, quality and flavour of the wine.

    GI is a designated vineyard area within a country. They could be large areas till an entire region, or very small fill cover a single vineyard

    • GI is tightly controlled. Wine can be divided in 2 macro-categories:
    • 1- wines with a GI
    • 2- wines without a GI
  58. Label - EU Geographical Indications
    EU has 2 quality GI.

    • 1- PDO - Protected Designation of Oridin
    • 2- PGI - Protected Geographical Indication

    Althought these terms are rarely used by producers that continue to use long-established traditional labelling terms.

    Broadly PDOs are smaller areas with tightly regulations and PGI are lager with fewer reglations.

    • EU GI define
    • - geographical area
    • - permitted vinegrowing 
    • - permitted winemaking techiniques
    • - permitted grape varieties

    In theory PDO has a unique flavour that cannot be copied, in addition PDO rarely state the grape variety

    NB: Some producers prefer to make wines in the PGI category because it allows the use of non-traditional varieties in the blend => Large quantities of inexpensive wines from international grape varieties such as Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah

    NB2: The grape varieties not mentioned => lesser known grape varieties have been used
  59. Label - EU Geographical Indications(France)
    • PDO - Appellation d'Origine Contròlée(AC o AOC)
    • PGI - Vin de Pays(VdP)

    Some producers prefer to use french PGI - Indication Gèographique Protégée(IGP).

    Wines without GI => Vin dè France
  60. Label - EU Geographical Indications(Italy)
    • PDO - Denominazione d'origine Controllata e Garantita(DOCG)
    • PDO - Denominazione d'origine Controllata(DOC)
    • PGI - Indicazione Geografica Tipica(IGT)
  61. Label - EU Geographical Indications(Spain)
    There are several traditional labelling; the 2 most used are

    • PDO - Denominaciòn de Origen Calificada(DOCa)
    • PDO - Denominaciòn de Origen(DO)
    • PGI - Vino della Tierra(VdlT)
  62. Label - EU Geographical Indications(Germany)
    In Germany GI doesn't represent a standard of quality, but the labelling terms of 13

    • PDO - Qualitatswein(la a con la umlaut)
    • PDO - Pradikatswein (la a con la umlaut)

    • Pradikatswein wines are splited in 6 sub-categories that indicates the legally quality indication, but for Germans it follows sugar level; from the lower:
    • Kabinett
    • Spatlese
    • Auslese
    • BA(Beernauslese)
    • Einwein
    • TBA(Trockenbeernaulese)

    PGI - Landwein
  63. Label - New World GI
    Each country has its on laws and its on way of dividing GI; Usually legal categories are not shown on the label.
  64. Legally defined quality indications(France)
    Appellation are subdivided into quality hierarchy; the most prestigious cover the smallest areas with the strictest regulations.

    • There are many different labeling terms including
    • - Premier Cru
    • - Grand Cru
  65. Legally defined quality indications(Italy)
    2 important labelling terms

    • 1- Classico
    • 2- Riserva
  66. Legally defined quality indications(Spain)
    Spain define ageing criteria for spanish wines; but these criteria vary between regions => producers often exceeded legal terms. Quality indications are:

    • 1- Joven => year following the vintage, no oak
    • 2- Crianza
    • 3- Reserva
    • 4- Gran Reserva => just execptional vintages

    NB: every wine is aged in oak(except joven)
  67. Reading the label; things to check
    • 1- Oak
    • 2- Geographical indication
    • 3- Single Varietals or Blends
    • 4- Appellation or Varietal Labelling
  68. Label - Outside PDO wine production what happen?
    Outside PDO there are always regulations but they are more flexible, due to countries own legislation.

    In addition wines that are imported in EU have to satisfy EU lawn about wine-production techniques.
  69. Label - Style and production - countries terms
  70. Label - Style and production
    Barrel/Barrique-fermented(white wines only)

    Barrel/barrique-aged

    Oaked => oak vessel, chips, staves

    Unfined/unfiltered => wine not filtered to not loose wine character

    Botrytis cinerea/Noble rot; it's a fungus tat attacks grape berries and is used in production of sweet wines

    Organic => no synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides

    Biodynamics => organic with grape growind and winemaking linked to moon, planets and star positions.

    Cuvée => specific blend or selection of different varieties, regions, vintages or even barrels or vats; all from the same estate or vineyard. Is often accompanied with a particular name. There's no legal control on this term

    Old vines/vieilles vignes => tipically give lower yields of higher-quality - Not legal term

    Estate(chateu, domaine) => grapes have grown on its own land

    Merchant(négociant) => the merchant blends together wines and/or grapes bought from winemakers. This term seldom appears on the bottle

    Co-operative cellar(cave coopérative, cantina sciale) => winemaking facility whose ownership is shared by a number of grape farmers
  71. What, alcohol legislation cover?
    4 areas

    1- legal drinking/purchasing age(LDA)

    2- Maximum blood alcohol concentration(BAC) for drivers and operators of dangerous machinery

    3- Guidelines for sensible drinking

    4- Restrictions on marketing, packaging and sale of alcohol
  72. legal drinking/purchasing age(LDA)
    There's a fixed term to purchase and drink alcohol. Most drinking-age legislation doesn't cover drinking in the home with parental permission and supervision
  73. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) limits
    BAC = milligrams of ethanol per millilitre of blood.

    Usually bac limit is between 0.0 mg/ml to 0.8
  74. Sensible Drinking Guidelines
    Are just recommendations on drinking levels considering minimum risk for men and women

    NB: drink unit is between 8-14 g of ethanol, depending from country
  75. Responsible Marketing of alcohol
    Many laws (but even voluntary and individual company codes), ensure that alcohol is producted, marketed and sold in socially responsible manner
  76. Are there any health benefits to moderate drinking?
    No. It's not recommended to start drinking for health reasons
  77. When not drink?
    When:

    • - Pregnant
    • - Using certain medications
    • - If there's a history of mental illness or addiction
  78. Alcohol and metabolism
    Alcohol is absorbed by stomach and small intestines; food slows down the rate.

    Anyway body can't store alcohol, so the liver has to break it, on a rate of 10g per hour(one standard drink)

    NB: liver damage are silent and show symptoms just when is too late
  79. If you drink you become tolerant of alcohol?
    Yes, but is still harmful
  80. Eating food with alcohol minimizes the effect n the body
    No, it does not less the quantity of alcohol to be broken down, and it stays longer in your system
  81. Drinking water before going to bed dilute the damaging effects?
    No, it just rehydrate from dehydration caused by alcohol.
  82. Can you drive safely after just a couple of drinks?
    Maybe, because it's impossibile to gauge a safe level to rink before being over the BAC. Anyway is not a good idea
  83. After a good night's sleep, will you sleep off the effects of alcohol?
    Depends on alcohol amount. 5 glasses of wine(20g of alcohol a glass) takes 10 hours to be broken down. So on the morning you could be still over the limit.
  84. Antioxidants in the wine grant you health?
    The ability of human body to absorb antioxidants is still uncertain. Just men and women over 40, where the risk of heart attack and stroke are increased, could take advantage because alcohol thins the blood helping avoid clots, and stimulate the liver to expel LDL cholesterol
  85. Storage and service of wine
    Wine has to be store correctly at the correct temperature.

    Long-term storage => temperature constant between 10-15 °C . Extreme cold and heat can damage wine(no in the kitchen then) or lose the fizz(sparkling)

    Store wine has to be sealed on its side with cork in contact with the wine; otherwise air can pass through the cork => oxidation. Screwcap no have problems.

    Wines has to stay away from strong light of any kind otherwise => wine stale and old before its time or develop unpleasant flavour

    At last, keep wine away from vibrations
  86. Service temperatures for wine
    Medium/full bodied oaked white => 10-13 °C (lightly chilled)

    Lightly/medium bodied white => 7-10 °C (Chilled)

    Sweet wines => 6-8 °C (Well chilled)

    Sparkling wines => 6-10 °C (well chilled

    Light bodied red => 13 °C (lightly chilled)

    Medium/full bodied red => 15-18 °C (Room temperature)

    NB: Ice buckets or wine cooler have to be filled 3/4 capacity with ice and water => water transfer the heat from the bottle to melt the ice. Otherwise it take more time to chill the bottle(ice has to melt)
  87. Glassware
    Red wines => larger-sized glasses to allow to air to come into contact with large wine surface and develop the aromas and flavours

    White and rosé wines => medium-sized glasses to direct fresh, fruit characteristics to the top of the glass

    Sparkling wines => flute to enhances and maintain the bubbles 

    Fortified wines => small glasses to emphasise the fruit characteristics rather than alcohol

    NB: Even the slightest taint can ruin the flavour f the wine => clean glasses, even from salt residue from glass washer, by polishing right before the use with a linen(the best one) cloth
  88. How to open a bottle of still wine
    1- remove the top of the capsule

    2- wipe the neck of the bottle with a clean cloth

    3- drawn the cork

    4- give the neck of the bottle a final clean inside and out

    5- pour a sample into a glass to check condition
  89. How to open a bottle of sparkling wine
    1- remove the foil and keep the wire cage, to avoid unwanted explosions

    2- Till the bottle at and angle of 30° gipping the corck and turning the bottle not the cork

    3- Release the gas pressure with a quiet 'phut'

    4- give the neck of the bottle a final clean inside and out

    5- pour a sample into a glass to check condition
  90. How to decant wine
    1- Hold the bottle carefully making sure the deposit is not agitated

    2- gently remove the to of the capsule and clean the shoulder and neck of the bottle. Remove the cork

    3- Holding the bottle in front of the light, pour the wine carefully into the decanter until the deposit can be seen near the neck. At this point stop pouring

    NB: Wines with heavy deposit need to be decanted; even young wines can benefit from aeration occurred by decanting. Anyway open a bottle of wine and leave it open is not good at all. Not enough wine is in contact with air.
  91. 1 bottle of 75 cl how many glasses can pour?
    6x125 ml glasses

    4x175 ml glasses

    3x250 ml glasses
  92. Methods used to preserve wine
    1- replace the closure and store in a fridge => extension the life wine by a few days

    2- Vacuum systems(not for sparkling) => oxygen is removed from the bottle and the bottle is sealed

    3- Blanket systems => blanket the wine with a gas heavier than oxygen to form a protective layer between the wine and air

    NB: last 2 extend wine life for a lot of time
  93. Chardonnay Characteristics(general)
    • Not aromatic
    • Delicacy
    • expressing oak and yeast-derived flavours
    • From certain areas can produce steely or minerally wines
  94. Chardonnay - characteristics and flavours
    Chardonnay Characteristics:

    • - full-bodied wine
    • - weighty, creamy texture
    • - grape can grow in varying climates

    - cool (Chablis) => green fruit(pear, apple) and citrus notes, vegetables(cucumber); many have smoky, flinty, mineral, typical of Premier Cru or Grand Cru

    - moderate(Burgundy, new world regions) => citrus, white stone, melon, spice and savoury notes

    - hot (new world parts, as California) => tropical fruit ( peach, banana and pineapple, mango, figs)

    NB: Style depend from region, flavours come from winemaking techniques not from grape variety
  95. Chardonnay - winemaking and flavours
    When dairy(butter, cream) flavours appear => due to malolactic fermentation to soft the harsh acid.

    Lees (dead yeast cells) => stirred to wine to add creamy texture and savoury(saporito) flavour

    Toast, vanilla and coconut => oak treatment

    Best chardonnay => age well developing a honeyed, nutty, savoury complexity
  96. Chardonnay - oak
    Not all premium chardonnays taste of oak.

    Chardonnay => delicate flavour can be obliterated(distrutto) by excess oak; example is Chablis

    Chardonnay with sufficient fruity quality => oaked new small oak barrels for fermentation-aging
  97. Premium chardonnay regions
    • 1- White Burgundy
    • 2- Australia and New Zealand
    • 3- USA
    • 4- South America and South Africa
  98. Premium chardonnay regions - France
    Best expression = White Burgundy - Eastern France

    The word chardonnay rarely appears => labelling according to the region, district, village or vineyard.

    The usual label used in Burgundy is Bourgogne

    • 1- Chablis - north burgundy
    • 2- Còte d'or - east burgundy
    •   - Mersault
    •   - Puligny - Montrachet
    • 3- Màconnais
    •   - Pouilly - Fuissé
  99. Premium chardonnay regions - France 2 - details
    • Chablis is a town with cool climate.
    • Wines:
    • - high acidity
    • - austere
    • - aromas: green fruit and citrus notes; many have smoky, flinty, mineral, typical of Premier Cru or Grand Cru
    • - Oak not detectable, with few exceptions.

    • Còte d'Or, heart of Burgundy, moderate climate
    • - high quality chardonnay come from the southern half called Còte de Beaune, and sold under the name of the village as
    •   - Mersault
    •   - Puligny-Montrachet => finest dry white wines in the world
    • - Characteristics:
    • - full body
    • - aromas: citrus, white stone, melon spice and savoury, oak

    NB: Complexity and body => fermenting in small oak and ageing with the yeast left from fermentation

    • Màconnais southerly major region of white burgundy
    • - large volumes of medium price, fruity(melon, citrus) and light wines
    • - many unoaked chardonnay are sold as Màcon
    • - Pouilly-Fuissé => south Màconnais slopes
    • + full bodied
    • + aromas: oak, tropical fruit(pineapple, melon)
  100. Premium chardonnay regions - Australia and New Zealand
    • In Australia, Chardonnay is widely planted. Regions are:
    • - Cooler regions of Victoria
    •  + Yarra Valley and Adelaide Hills in the South
    •  + Margaret River

    Aromas: Citrus, Melon and Oak flavours

    • In New Zealand is too small => high priced Chardonnay. The most important area for premium chardonnay is Marlborough with
    • - high acidity
    • - citrus, tropical fruit, mineral notes, oak
  101. Premium chardonnay regions - Usa
    • California
    • - regions cooled Pacific Ocean => slow ripening => intense, complex flavours
    • - label as California, sometimes with specific locations as Russian River, Sonoma or Carneros
    • - Some premium producers follow the burgundian model bottling wines in small quantities according to the individual vineyard

    • -Full-bodied
    • - Aromas: citrus, peach - sometimes savoury(còte d'or style)
    • - heavily oaked
  102. Premium chardonnay regions - South America and South Africa
    • Chile in:
    •  - Central valley
    •  - Casablanca valley

    Cool Sea + morning flog = slow ripening => flavour builded up with acids retained

    • - Aromas: banana, melon
    • - Oaked

    • Argentina
    • - Province of Mendoza => Altitude + cool nights => intense fruit flavours and oak notes

    • South Africa  in cooler coastal parts
    • - Walker bay
  103. Bulk production regions for Chardonnay
    Usually blend

    • Single variety from:
    • - South Eastern Australia
    • - Western Cape
    • - California
    • - Central Valley(chile)
    • - Pays d'Oc IGP(south france)
    • - Vin de France
    • - Southern Italy
    • - Argentina

    NB: Stainless steel vats used to ferment, blend. Oak flavours => staves, chips or barrel fermentation and ageing
  104. Chardonnay in Blends
    Chardonnay => best unblended.

    Low price => other grape to lower price and stretch the chardonnay components; example: Semillon-Chardonay from Australia

    • In south Africa and California:
    • - Colombard-Chardonnay
    • - Chardonnay-Chenin Blanc

    European regions: blend with local grape varieties

    • France: Chardonnay-Viognier =>
    • - full-body
    • - oily texture
    • - extra peachy, floral
  105. Savignon Blanc - general characteristics
    • - clean
    • - crisp
    • - refreshing
    • - unoaked
    • - good reputation
  106. Savignon blanc - flavours, characteristics, climate, oaking and aging.
    • - Medium-body
    • - dry (almost always)
    • - High-acidity
    • Aromas: green fruit, vegetables (goose berry, elderflower, green bell pepper, asparagus)
    • - usually unoaked due to fruitiness

    SB needs a cool climate = moderate climate => less intense and complex

    Usually oaked SB => grape of moderate regions => toast and spice(vanilla, liquorice)

    Usually SB is not bottle aged because it loses its attractive freshness and rapidly become stale.

    High SB acidity => suitable for sweet wines, particularly in Sauternes
  107. Sauvignon Blanc, premium regions
    • 1- Loire Central Vineyard
    • 2- Bordeaux
    • 3- Australia and New Zealand
    • 4- USA
    • 5- South America and South Africa
  108. Sauvignon Blanc, Loire Central Vineyard
    Loire Valley produces SB:

    • 1- Val de loire IGP
    • 2- Sancerre
    • 3- Pouilly-Fumé

    • Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé =>  villages with cool climate.
    • - medium body
    • - high acidity
    • - aromas: green fruit, herbaceus(gooseberry, grass, blackcurrant leaf, nettle), steely
  109. Sauvignon Blanc, Bordeaux
    Bordeaux produces SB:

    • 1- Graves
    • 2- Sauternes
    • 3- sweet wines

    Most premium bordeaux = blend Semillon-Sauvignon Blanc.

    • - medium-full body
    • - dry
    • - medium-high acidity
    • - sometimes oak flavour

    • SB alone:
    • - Aromas: fruity, herbaceus, grassy and elderflower aromas
    • - unsuited to ageing, adding a Semillon part => + fruit character => complexity developed in the bottle

    • Semillon alone:
    • - bland and neutral in youth
    • - adding a proportion of Sauvignon Blanc =>
    • + fruity
    • + refreshing acidity

    • The best wines are:
    • - those from Cru Classé chateaux in the Pessac-Lèognan AC
    • - best white Graves AC

    2 Both well aged develop honeyed toasty complex flavours in the bottle
  110. Sauvignon Blanc, Australia and New Zealand
    Australia => Adelaide Hills region => intense fruity and clean in style

    • New Zealand => Cool-climate Marlborough in South Island,produces wines:
    • - dry
    • - high-acidity
    • - no oak
    • - medium-bodied
    • - intense, pungent, clean, varietal flavours(passion fruit, gooseberry, green pepper, blackcurrant leaf)

    These wines are best consumed youthful and fresh, some enjoy the vegetable flavours developed in the bottle.
  111. Sauvignon Blanc, USA
    California => too warm

    • Exceptions:
    • Napa valley => Fumé Blanc, and style may be
    • - from unoaked to highly oaked
    • -The oaked are little less full-bodied and higher in acidity
    • - Herbaceus flavours(Grass, asparagus) that if oaked develop a spicy, oaky flavours( toast, liquorice, vanilla)
  112. Sauvignon Blanc, South America and South Africa
    • Chile => premium sauvignon blanc with
    • - High aromatic
    • - fruity(citrus, gren apple and grassy notes)

    This comes from cooler regions as Casablanca and San Antonio

    • South Africa => 2 styles of SB
    • 1-  pungent and fruity, lighter in body and less intense and complex than those from New Zealand
    • 2- oaked, less pungent, bug with toasty complexity

    Two both follow boardeaux model, with more intense, herbaceous character

    Even Costantia(cooling from sea) and Elgin(cooling from altiude) produce late-ripening grapes of intense, fresh sauvignon blancs
  113. Sauvignon Blanc, Bulk Production
    - France produce large volumes of inexpensive SB, some with AC

    - Always in France produce Bordeaux AC (SB-Semillon blend)

    - Val de Loire and Pays d'OC IGPs are inexpensive

    - Chile, California and South Africa produce inexpensive varietal Sauvignons
  114. Sauvignon Blanc in blends
    • Most important blends:
    • - dry white Bordeaux
    • - Sauterness
    • - Australian, American, and Chilean SB are demanded but every year with lower rates
  115. Riesling - general characteristics
    • Riesling is a white grape and it has
    • - pronunced fruity varietal
    • - expressiveness (express single vineyard taste)
    • - can be dry/medium/sweet
    • - often are labeled with the name of the single vineyard
  116. Riesling - flavours and grape characteristics
    • Usual flavours:
    • - fruity
    • - floral

    • If harvasted when ripe
    • - fruit flavours (green apple, grape)
    • - floral notes
    • - citrus fruit(lemon and lime)

    In moderate regions citrus and stone fruit notes become dominant( fresh lime or white peach)

    • It's a variety with
    • - slow sugar build-up
    • - retains its acidity
    • - suitable for late-harvesting in region with stable, dry, sunny autumn

    Stone and tropical fruit notes can be developed(peach, apricot, pineapple, mango) in lat-harvest styles, that can be dry, medium or sweet.

    Riesling is very susceptible to noble rot => concentrated sugar, acidity and perfect for sweet wines

    High acidity and intense fruit => help in ageing where they develop honey and toast flavours(sometimes smoky-petrole), even if new oak is almost never used.
  117. Riesling, premium regions
    • - Germany
    •  + Mosel
    •  + Rheingau
    •  + Pflaz
    • - France
    •  + Alsace
    • - Austria
    • - Australia and New Zealand
  118. Riesling, premium regions, Germany
    • Home of Riesling and they are classified as:
    • - Many as Qualitatswein => light body, dry, fruity and refreshing
    • - Pradikatswein => sugar categorization

    • Categories
    • - Kabinett => light body, high acidity and green fruit notes(apple, grape) with medium sweetness and light alcohol or dry with medium alcohol

    - Spatlese(late-harvest) have bit more body, with notes of citrus and exotic fruit(lemon, pineapple)

    - Auslese have more body and exotic fruit notes(pineapple, mango), is the highest category to appear as dry wine(even if produced as medium or sweet)

    - Beernauslese and Trockenbeernauslese are sweet wines made from noble rot.

    - Eiswein is sweet wine made from frozen grapes

    Mosel produces germany's lightest bodied Rieslings. The Kabinett and Spatlese wines are almost always made with medium sweetness balanced by high acidity. The most prestigious vineyards are on steep slopes in Piesport and Bernkastel

    Rheingau produces Kabinett, Spatlese and Auslese Riesling wines, usually drier and medium-bodied

    Pfalz, close to Alsace and produces a off-dry and medium bodied wine. Vineyards are around Forst and Deidesheim. The largest area under vines is Rheinhessen located to the north of Pfalz

    NB: Best vineyard are located on th west bank of the Rhine => fullestbodied german rieslings
  119. Riesling, premium regions, France
    Main region is Alsace, next to Vosges Mountains in Northern France.

    Vines are planted on the eastern foothills, benefiting from the morning sun.

    The ideal conditions for medium bodied Riesling are meet by long, dry warm autumns => citrus, green and stone fruit notes.

    Even Fuller-bodied, late-harvest wines are made with more intese flavour, sometimes with a hint of sweetness.

    Alsase has a complicate geology => wide range of soil types => different riesling characteristics and winemaking techniques

    Best wines benefit from bottle age and can last for decades, developing smoky, hoyed complexity, ofteten with petrol-like aromas.

    Alcace usually appears on the label with Alsace AC and Alsace Grand Cru AC
  120. Riesling, premium regions, Austria
    • Austria produces rieslings with
    • - medium and full-bodied dry
    • - citrus stone fruit flavours
    • - medium or high acidity.

    From some vineyard can have smoky mineral aromas
  121. Riesling, premium regions, Australia and New Zealand
    • Australia outstanding Rieslings are from regions of
    • - Clare Valley
    • - Eden Valley

    • These produce a wine
    • - dry
    • - medium-bodied
    • - high acidity
    • - citrus notes(lime,lemon)

    These wines age well developing honey and toast notes. Some with smoky aromas.

    Even Sweet wines are made.

    New Zealand produces some very good quality Rieslings, mainly in the south Island => dry or off-dry with high acidity and intense green fruit, citrus fruit flavours(apple, grape, lime).

    Best consumed young, but some develop attractive honey flavours with age.
  122. Riesling, Labelling in Germany
    Pradikatswein =>

    • - Kabinett
    • - Spatlese
    • - Auslese
    • - Beernauslese
    • - Trokenbeernauslese
    • - Einswein

    German label frequently include the name of the village and vineyard area. Vineyard area can sometimes refer to a group of vineyard from a large area that includes many lesser-quality sites.

    There's no easy way to distinguish form the label whether the named site is a premium single vineyard or a large group of sites with lower-quality potential

    Grosses Gewachs (Erstes Gewachs) indicates a high-quality dry wine made form riper grapes(equivalent to Spatlese though these are classified as qualitatswein). The grapes must come from one of the best individual named vineyards.

    Red wines are made from Riesling.

    Grosses Gewachs is a private labeling system by the best german producers for their own use to indicate what they, and most independent observers, consider to be their top vineyard site.
  123. Riesling - Bulk production regions
    Riesling is not cheap.

    German medium-sweet wines are not made from riesling

    • Anyway Australian brands include small volume of Riesling from
    • - Eden valley
    • - Claire valley
  124. Riesling - Blends
    Almost never blended; blend used to inexpensive medium-sweet german wines.

    Australia blends with aromatic Gewurztraminer, to make fruity, off-dry whites
  125. Riesling - Varietal labelling
    Almost all riesling are varietally labelled; some have similar names, most commonly:

    • - Werlschrieslig
    • - Laski Rizling
    • - Olaszrizling

    This is an unrelated variety, grown in:

    • - Central Eurpe
    • - Eastern Europe

    • Characteristics:
    • - Crisp
    • - Light-bodied
    • - Dry whites
    • - Sweet wines
  126. Other white grape varieties and white wines
    • - Pinot Gris / Pinot Grigi
    • - Verdicchio and Trebbiano
    • - Italian named wines
    • - Chenin Blanc
    • - Melon Blanc
    • - Viognier
    • - Albarino (con la egne)
    • - Semillon
    • - Gewurztraminer
    • - Torrontés
  127. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Pinot Gris/ Pinot Grigio
    2 names, same grape variety (french/italian)

    • Pinot gris
    • Classic region = France  - Alsace

    • Characteristics:
    • - full bodied
    • - dry to sweet
    • - aromas: tropical fruit(gingr, banana, melon), hint of honey

    New zealand Pinot Gris follow this model.

    • Pinot grigio
    • Classic region = Italy  -  Throughout the country

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium to full bodied
    • - medium acidity
    • - dry 
    • - aromas: neutral character
  128. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Verdicchio and Trebbiano
    Verdicchio

    Classic region = Italy  - Marche and Verdicchio dei Castelli

    • Characteristics
    • - Medium-bodied
    • - High acidity
    • - Aromas: Lemon, fennel and bitter almond

    Trebbiano

    Classic Region: Italy - the most widely planted white grape variety

    • Characteristics:
    • - high acidity
    • - used for inexpensive neutral white wines
    • - sometimes appears as varietal wine
  129. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Italian Named Wines
    - Soave and soave classico DOC

    Classic Region =  Italy - Veneto

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium-body
    • - Made from Garganega
    • - Late ripening variety
    • - aromas: floral (chamomile), green fruit (pear, red apple) and white pepper
    • - unoaked

    • - Gavi DOCG
    • Classic Region = Italy - Piemonte

    • Characteristics:
    • - light-body
    • - high-acid
    • - Made from Cortese
    • - aromas: green apple and citrus
  130. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Chenin Blanc
    Classic Region =  France - Touraine, Loire valley

    • Characteristics:
    • - usually medium-body
    • - dry-medium-sweet
    • - high acidity
    • - susceptible to noble rot
    • - aromas: citrus(lemon), green(apple) and tropical fruit(pineapple), herbaceous(green leaf)
    • - unoaked
    • - appelleation for CB is Vouvray AC

    • NB: grown in South Africa for inexpensive white wines with even:
    • - medium acidity
    • - off-dry variety
    • - oaked

    Blends: CB-chardonnay => high volumes, low price, acidity and citrus fruit to blend
  131. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Melon Blanc
    Classic Region =  France -  Loire valley

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium-body
    • - dry
    • - medium-high acidity
    • - aromas: neutral fruit
    • - unoaked
    • - appelleation for MB is Muscadet AC, with Muscadet Sèvre et Maine AC a sb region with superior wines

    NB: sur lie on label = bottled from fermentation vessel contining lees => + body, + complexity
  132. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Viognier
    Classic Region =  France -  Northern Rhone and Southern France

    • Characteristics:
    • - full-body
    • - low acidity
    • - high alcohol
    • - aromas: fruit(peach, pear, apricot), floral (violet)
    • - unoaked

    NB: planted even in Chile, Argentina, Australia and California
  133. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Albarino
    Classic Region =  Spain -  Rìas Baixas

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium-body
    • - high acidity
    • - aromas: green fruit(apple, pear), citrus (grapefruit)
    • - unoaked
  134. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Semillon
    Classic Region =  France -  Bordeaux for Blend . But most planted in Australia as single variety

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium-body
    • - aromas: Citrus, vegetal, pungent
  135. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Gewurztraminer
    Classic Region =  France -  Alsace

    • Characteristics:
    • - full-body
    • - dry to medium
    • - low acidity
    • - high alcohol
    • - aromas: Tropical(lychee), Stone(peach, grape), floar (rose, orange blossom), sweet spice(ginger)

    NB: best consumed young, and increasing reputation in New Zealand
  136. Other white grape varieties and white wines - Torrontés
    Classic Region =  Argentinian -  Best example from Cafayate in Salta province

    • Characteristics:
    • - medium-body
    • - dry
    • - medium acidity
    • - high alcohol
    • - aromas: stone(grapes, peach) and floral(perfume)

    NB: best consumed young, and increasing reputation in New Zealand
  137. Pinot Noir - General characteristics
    • PN is:
    • - hard variety to grow
    • - easy to drink
    • - soft, light tannins
    • - no bottling to evolve flavours
    • - good fresh as aged
  138. Pinot Noir - characteristics
    • - black grape
    • - thin skin
    • - light in color
    • - low-medium tannins
    • - cool-moderate climate
    • - red fruit (strawberry, raspberry, cherry), vegetal and animal (wet, leaves, mushrooms, gamey-meaty)

    NB: wrong climate = no ripening and excessive vegetal flavours or jammy flavours
  139. Pinot Noir - premium regions
    • - Red burgundy
    • + Cote de Nuits
    • + Cote de Beaune
    • - Germany
    • + Pfaz
    • + Bader
    • - Australia and New zealand
    • - Usa
    • - South America and South Africa
  140. Pinot Noir - France
    Red burgundy, with slightly different aspects compared with different villages => every village has its own appellation.

    • Main villages:
    • - Cote de Nuits
    • + Gevrey-Chambertin
    • + Nuits-st-georges
    • - Cote de beune
    • + Beaune
    • + Pommard

    • A Bourgogne AC =>
    • - medium-bodied red
    • - red-fruit and savoury
    • - light tannins
    • - medium-high acidity

    Premium and grand cru => most powerful long-lived and complex => high price
  141. Pinot Noir - Germany
    Pinot Noir = Spatburgnder

    • Main regions:
    • - Pfalz
    • - Baden

    • Characteristics
    • - cool climate
    • - light bodied
    • - light tannins
    • - red berry fruit

    Barrel-Ageing => fuller body
  142. Pinot Noir - Burgundy labelling
    Clear quality hierarchy

    • From the lowest:
    • - Bourgogne AC
    • - Beaune, Gevrey-Chambertin and Nuits-Saint-Geroges
    • - single vineyards' appellations

    • Each commune with Premier Cru vineyards has a separate AC
    • Each individual Grand cru vineyard has its own ac

    Word domaine = producer make wine exclusively from grapes grown in their own vineyards

    In these cases negociant and merchant terms are rarely seen on the label
  143. Pinot Noir - Australia and New Zealand
    • NZ
    • - Central Ontago
    • - Marlbrough => lighter style

    • Australia
    • - Yarra valley
    • - Mornington Peninsula

    • - Full-bodied
    • - lower acidity than Burgundy
    • - more intense fruity than Burgundy
    • - spicy notes
  144. Pinot Noir - USA
    • California => too warm, but good examples come from
    • - carnenos
    • - sonoma
    • - santa barbara
    • - oregon => high quality

    • characteristics
    • - full-body
    • - intense red fruit
    • - some with intense animal and vegetal
  145. Pinot Noir - South America and South Africa
    • Chile:
    • - Casablanca
    • - San Antonio

    South Africa => small production in walker bay
  146. Pinot Noir - Bulk Production
    • - California(central valley)
    • - Australia (murray-darling)
    • - Pays d'oc

    Anyway, places are too warm => bad quality
  147. Pinot Noir - Blends
    Usually unblended, except for:

    • - sparkling wines
    • - Gamay variety from burgundy

    NB: a red burgundy must be 100% pinot noir
  148. Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot - General Characteristics
    Often they are grown and blended together

    Merlot on CB => easily to drink suppling softness and body

    CB on Merlot => add tannin, acidity and aromatic fruit
  149. Cabernet Sauvignon - characteristics
    • - deep color
    • - high tannins
    • - high acidity
    • - strong aromas: black fruits(blackcurrant, black cherry) and herbaceous notes (bell pepper, mint)
  150. Cabernet Sauvignon - oak
    • soft tannins
    • oaky flavours (smoke, vanilla, coffee, cedar)

    High acidity and tannins => well ageing
  151. Cabernet Sauvignon - climate
    moderate or hot, otherwise => wine under-ripe = hard and astringent herbaceus flavours

    • Hot climates =>
    • - fuller body
    • - softer tannins
    • - more black cherry and less herbaceous
  152. Merlot - characteristics
    • confronting with cabernet sauvignon
    • - less aromatic
    • - less intense flavours
    • - less tannins
    • - less acidity
    • - more body
    • - higher alcohol

    • flavour split in 2 groups
    • - hot climates
    • + black fruit(blackberry, black plum, black cherry)
    • + if super-ripe => fruit cake and chocolate
    • + full body
    • + medium-low acidity
    • + high alcohol
    • + medium-low tannins

    • - medium-cool regions
    • + more elegant style
    • + red fruit (strawberry, redberry, plum) , herbal(mint)
    • + more tannin
    • + more acidity
  153. Merlot - oak
    often aged in oak gaining oaky flavour(vanilla, coffee)
  154. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions
    • France
    • - bordeaux
    •  + Medoc
    •  + Haut-Medoc
    •    *Margaux
    •    *Pauillac
    •  + Pomerol
    •  + Saint-Emillon
    •  + Graves
    •   * Pessac-Leognan

    • Australia and New Zealand
    • USA
    • South America and South Africa
  155. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions France
    • Bordeaux as the Ideal Climate for CB and Merlot
    • - moderate
    • - maritime
    • - long warm autumns

    The region is around the Gironde estaury in soutweast france.

    • 2 important zones
    • - Left Bank (west and south of the Gironde and Garonne)
    • - Right Bank (east and north of the Gironde and Dordogne)


    NB: Many premium-quality bordeaux are made outside of most prestigious appellations, labelled simply as Bordeaux AC or Bordeaux Superieur AC(+ alcohol)
  156. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions France Left Bank
    • Main appelleation:
    • - Medoc
    • - Haut-Medoc(including Pauillac and Margaux)
    • - Graves(including Pessac-Leognan)

    CB is the dominant variety, the best sites are on gravel mounds(drain water, and retain heat to help ripening)

    • Wines are :
    • medium-full body
    • high tannins
    • high acidity
    • medium alcohol
    • long lenght
    • black fruit flavours(black currant, black cherry)

    These are very tough as young, ageing => softer tannins toasty, oak, vegetal, tobacco and cedar

    Best wines = Cru Classé chateux
  157. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions France Right Bank
    • Main appelleation:
    • - Saint-Emilion AC (best Saint-Emilion Grand Cru AC)
    • - Pomerol AC

    Merlot is dominant; wines are softer than left bank

    • Wines are :
    • medium tannins
    • medium acidity
    • red fruit flavours(plum, red berry)
    • ageing => tobacco and cedar
  158. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions France simple label
    • - medium body
    • - medium acidity
    • - medium tannins
    • - red and black fruit flavours
    • - best consumed young(some aged)
  159. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions Australia and New Zealand
    • Australia, 2 regions:
    • - Coonwarra => Cabernet Sauvignon: cassis, mint and eucalyptus, black fruit and oak flavours
    • - Margaret River => CB and Merlot: higher tannins, black fruit and herbs flavours(blackcurrant)

    • New Zealand => Hawke's Bay in north NZ
    • - medium-high acidity
    • - medium-high tannins
    • - herb aromas(cedar, blackcurrant leaf)
  160. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions USA
    • CB in California is the most planted black grape.
    • - Napa Valley
    • - Rutherford
    • - Oakville
    • - Alexander Valley
    • - Columbia Valley (Washington State)
    • Black fruit, fruitcake and oak
  161. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - premium regions South America and South Africa
    • Chile
    • - Maipo Valley
    • - Colchagua
    • - Cachapoal
    • - aromas: black fruit, herbal

    NB: sometimes labelled as Merlot even if is in fac Carmenère => spiced black fruit flavour

    • Argentina (often blended with Malbec)
    • - Mendosa
    • - oaked
    • - aromas: meaty, leathery

    • South Africa
    • - Stellenbosch
    • - high tannin
    • - high acidity
    • - aromas: less intense fruit and more herb
  162. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - Bulk Production
    • - Central Valley(chile)
    • - Pays d'oc
    • - Western Cape(South Africa)
    • - South Eastern Australia
    • - California
    • - Mendoza(Arentina)
    • - North Italy

    Usually, soft, light-medium body and Merlot-based
  163. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon - Blends
    • CB-Shiraz (Australia) => softness and richness
    • Merlot-Malbec (Argentina)
    • 2both-Carmenère (Chile)

    Anyway CB is use in many regions to improve wines.
  164. Labelling in Bordeaux
    Bordeaux => many labelling terms to indicate quality, but they don't follow a system(unlike Burgundy)

    • In theory follow a quality hierarcy(not neat)
    • - Gran Cru Classé
    • - Cru Bourgeois (to confirm every year)
    • - Bordeaux AC (or superior ac)

    • In addition:
    • - Grand vin = wine made by the chateu
    • - Chateau => wine made from grapes grown on a producer's own land
    • - merchant name for large-volume inexpensive wines

    • NB: Gran cru in Saint-Emilion is linked to Appellation
    • in addition chateaux can sell or buy land = exact plot of a chateau name can change.
  165. Syrah and Grenanche - General characteristics
    - 3th most widely planted black grape
  166. Syrah and Grenanche - Syrah Characteristics
    • split in 2 variety
    • - syrah in France
    • - shiraz in Australia

    Syrah grapes are small, thick and darkly

    • wines are
    • - deeply coloured
    • - medium-high tannins
    • - medium acidity
    • - full body
    • - aromas: black fruit and dark chocolate
    • - oaked: smoke, toast, vanilla and coconut

    in moderate regions: herbaceous, smoked meat and spice

    in hot regions: liquorice

    ageing => animal and vegetal

    cool climate => no ripening
  167. Syrah and Grenanche - Grenanche Characteristics
    In Spain is known as Garnacha, in other regios is Grenache

    • It needs of a hot climate
    • - large grape
    • - thin shin => easy rosé
    • - high sugar
    • - low acidity
    • - deep color
    • - very full-bodied
    • - aromas: red fruit and spicy
    • - ageing => tofee and leather

    Best consumed fresh; if oaked => orange hue dulling the fruit but adding savoury complexity
  168. Syrah and Grenanche - Syrah and Grenanche together
    • Greanche to Syrah:
    • + alcohol
    • - tannin
    • - acidity
    • red fruit and extra spice

    • Syrah to Grenanche:
    • + color
    • + tannin
    • + acidity
    • dark fruit

    Syrah Grenanche blended with other varieties(like Mataro) are known as GSMs
  169. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions
    • France:
    • - Northern Rhone
    •  + cote rotie
    •  + crozes-hermitage
    •  + hermitage
    • - Southern Rhone
    •  + cotes du rhone(+ villages)
    •  + chateuneuf-du-pape
    • - Pays d'oc IGP
    •  + Languedoc
    •  + minervois

    • Spain
    • - Priorat
    • - Navarra
    • - Rioja
  170. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions Nothern Rhone
    • Classic region for Syrah
    • -best grapes on steep
    • -best appelleations are Cote Rotie and Hermitage
    • -larger appellation is Crozes-Hermitage on flatter sites
    • -aromas: black pepper
  171. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions Southern Rhone
    • classic for grenache
    • - stony plains(no steeps)
    • - hotter and drier then nothern rhone
    • - main appellation is cotes du rhone
    • - best is cote du rhone villages
    • - most famous appellation is chateauneuf-du-pape
    • - 13 grape varieties permitted
    • - style varies considerably
    • - aromas: red fruit and peppery-spice

    NB: chateauneuf-du-pape is low acid, medium tannins, red fruit, spice and animal notes
  172. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions South of France
    • Minervois appellation done with:
    • - Grenanche
    • - Carignan
    • - Syrah sometimes
    • - Mourvedre sometimes
  173. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions Spain
    Garnacha is the most widely planted variety in spain.

    • - best expression in Priorat => deep color, full-body
    • - Rioja => garnacha + tempranillo
    • - Navarra
  174. Labelling in the rhone valley
    • South rhone labelling:
    • - cotes du rhone AC(rare on north)
    • - Cote du rhone villages ac (superiorr sub-region) - exclusive of a handful of villages
    •  - crus : Crozes-hermitage, Germitage, cote rotie

    • North rhone labelling:
    • - crus : Chateauneuf-du-pape

    NB: crus are the top quality

    NB: Crus: such
  175. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions Australia
    Different style of shyraz; better known => Hunter valley, McLare Vale, Barossa Valley, Victoria( Grampians and Heatcote

    • - black fruit(blackberry, plum), sweet spices, dark chocolate
    • - can be oaked => smoke, vanilla, coconut
    • - from barossa => powerful

    Genanche, used in Barossa and McLare Vale(less common)
  176. Syrah and Grenanche - Premium regions Other regions
    • - South africa : dried fruit, smoke, oak and meat
    • - California and Washington: dark fruited
    • - New zealand in Hawke's Bay
    • - Chile in san antonio
  177. Syrah and Grenanche - Bulk production
    • - Cotes du rhone
    • - Pays d'oc IGP
    • - Languedoc AC ( in south france)
    • - Spain ( grenache)
    • - Australia (riverland, murray-darling and Riverina) => labelled as south eastern australia
  178. Syrah and Grenanche - Blends
    Shiraz-viognier => add white grape to fermentation of Syrah, tradition of nother rhone.
  179. Other red grape varieties and red wines
    • Gamay
    • Tempranillo
    • Douro
    • Nebbiolo and Barbera (grape)
    • Sangiovese
    • Valpolicella
    • Amarone
    • Montepulciano d'abruzzo
    • Primitivo(grape)
    • Aglianico(grape)
    • Zinfadel
    • Pinotage
    • Carmenère
    • Malbec
  180. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Beujolais labelling terms
    • Hierarchy:
    • - Beaujolais AC
    • - Beaujolais nouveau AC (lighter stile released in the November following the harvest)
    • - Beaujolais villages AC => superior quality from the granite hills (north region, a quarter of total production, just 10 villages make best wines all with specific appellation)


    • NB: appellation for granite hills villages are the Beaujolais Crus, seen as:
    • - Gleurie AC
    • - Brouilly AC
    • - Morgon AC
    • - Moulin-a-Vent AC
  181. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Gamay
    Gamay is a grape variety in beaujolais region.

    • Moderate climate
    • light-medium body
    • medium-high acidity
    • low tannin
    • unoaked
    • aromas: red fruit, spice

    sometimes are aged(just best wines)
  182. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Tempranillo
    • - Rioja is the most important region => Rioja DOCa
    • - Ribera del duero DO
    • - Navarra DO
    • - Catalunya in general

    • Rioja:
    • moderate climate
    • full-medium body
    • medium acidity
    • medium tannins
    • aromas: red fruit
    • agein is suggested to soften tannins => vanilla and coconut, animal and vegetal, especially for gran reservas

    often blended with Crenache => dominant inexpensive Riojas

    • Ribera del Duero DO
    • Aromas: black fruit, toasty and oak

    Navarra DO Tempranillo is blended with international grape varieties

    Many region try to imitate Rioja, but the hot growin conditions => wines less intense
  183. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Douro
    Best reputation of Portuguese wines,

    • produced by Port grape
    • dry
    • usually blended (Touriga-nacional is the best)
    • deep color
    • high acid
    • high tannins
    • aromas: dark berry fruit and spices
    • aged in oak

    NB: this region produces even sweet, fortified Port
  184. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Nebbiolo and Barbera
    • Nebbiolo grape:
    • Best piemonte red wines are:
    • - Barolo DOCG
    • - Barbaresco DOCG

    • full-body
    • high acidity
    • high tannins
    • high alcohol
    • aromas: red fruit, floral, earthy, tobacco, tar, mushroom

    Barbera grape:

    • light-medium tanins
    • high acidity
    • aromas: red fruit and black pepper
    • often oaked to soft tannins and add toast, vanilla and sweet spice
  185. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Sangiovese
    Tuscany Region

    • Most famous wines made with sangiovese:
    • - Chianti DOCG
    • - Chianti Classico DOCG
    • - Chianti Classico Riserva DOCG => has achieved a higher minimum level of alcohol and has been matureted for at least a minimum number of months before relese (es Riserva 2007)

    Chianti is inexpensive, but better wines coming from the fines sub regions

    • - Brunello di Montalcino DOCG => 100% sangiovese
    • medium-full body
    • high tannins
    • high acidity
    • aromas: plum, earth, red cherries and herbal(green tea)

    NB: not all producers in chianti region produce a Chianti
  186. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Other italian varieties
    • North-east Italy
    • - Valpolicella and Valpolicella Classico DOC => sour red cherry
    • - Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG => very comlex and highest alcohol levels in Italy,
    • - Montepulciano d'Abruzzo => east-central region(abruzzo per l'appunto ;) ) from montepulciano grape, black fruits


    • Southern Italy
    • - Primitivo and Negroamaro => Puglia, black fruit and liquorice
    • - Aglianico => Campania and Basilicata, complex and dark-fruit
    • Taurasi DOCG => 100% Aglianico
  187. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Zindandel
    • California
    • - off-dry roses; but best in red dru wines
    • full-body
    • high alcohol
    • aromas: black fruit, fried fruit and sweet spices

    NB: best wines from old wines( the oldest are over 100 year old)
  188. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Pinotage
    South Africa

    • full-body
    • medium tannins
    • Aromas: red fruit, vegetal, animal
  189. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Carmenère
    Chile, Centarl Valley and Aconcagua

    • deep color
    • medium or full-body
    • medium-high acidity
    • medium-high alcohol
    • -high tannins
    • aromas: dark fruit and peppery
    • aromas unripen grape: green bell pepper and green bean
  190. Other red grape varieties and red wines - Malbec
    Argentina, Mendoza

    • full-body
    • medium-high tannins
    • aromas: dark fruit, spicy
    • age-able in oak => best wines
    • often blended with cabernet sauvignon or merlot
  191. Sparkling wines - General characteristics
    • - made with 2 methods
    • - carbon dioxie is dissolved inside
    • - adding carbon dioxie is a third method
    • - no longer carbonation = low quality wine
    • - autolytic flavours
  192. Sparkling wines - Production regions
    • - France
    • + champagne
    • + Loire

    • - Spain
    • + Catalunya

    • - New Zealand and Australia
    • - New World
    • - South Africa
  193. Sparkling wines - carbonation methods
    • 1 - Bottle-fermented
    • 2 - Tank method
    • 3 - add carbon dioxide directly
  194. Sparkling wines - bottle-fermentation methods
    Perceived as better method => labelling as tradiitional method, methode traditionelle, bottle fermented

    • 1- still dry base wine
    • 2- blending with other wines
    • 3- sugar + yeats added
    • 4- second fermentation
    •   + more alcohol
    •   + carbon dioxie can'tescape from sealed bottle => sparkle is made
    •   + lees are generated
    • 5- ageing => lees releases flavour by the yeast autolysis ( self-digestion)
    • 6- disgorge (removing yeasts, to remove haziness)
    •   + traditional method
    •   + transfer method

    nb: ageing could last months/years
  195. Sparkling wines - disgorge methods
    • 1- traditional method
    • - bottle is tipped and jiggled to side yeasts in the neck of the bottle
    •   + by hand (riddling)
    •   + mechanically (gyropalettes)
    • - plug of yeasts are frozen and removed by preassure
    • - bottle is topped with with wine and sugar
    • - brut means little sugar added, and so on (demi-sec, etc.)


    • 2- transfer method
    • - empty the bottle in a tank under preassure
    • - yeasts are filtered
    • - filtered wine is dosaged and re-bottled

    NB: transfer method is not allowed for champagne and cava, but is common in Australia and new zealand.
  196. Sparkling wines - bottle-fermentation sparkling wines
    • - champagne => ac region in nothern france
    • - cava => spanish term for traditional-method wines
  197. Sparkling wines - champagne characteristics
    • . champagne region
    • - blended with Pinot Noir, Meunier and Chardonnay
    • - cool climate => vintage could vary a lot the ripening
    • - chalky soils
    • - non vintage => blends of several vintages in order to maintain quality and consistency
    • - vintage wines are exceptional harvastes
    • - never cheap
    • - brands ranging
    •   + Buyer-own-brands
    •   + co-operative-owned brands
    •   + famous houses = Grandes Marques
  198. Sparkling wines - cheap champagne characteristics
    • - minimum legal period of yeast autolysis(12 months)
    • - use of least-ripe grapes
    • - simple
    • - high acidity
    • - green apple flavour
  199. Sparkling wines - better champagne characteristics
    • - longer period of ageing
    • - dry
    • - high acidity
    • - complex flavours
    • - apple, lemon, biscuit, bread, toast
    • - vintage champanges => vegetal, nutty, honeyed
  200. Sparkling wines - fermented-bottles, other regions
    • - major region =  Loire, Saumur Particularly
    • + rarely are complex are champagnes

    • - Catalunya => cava term for traditional-method in spain
    • + neutral flavour
    • + medium acidity
    • + little of autolytic
    • + some houses use chardonnay for blend
    • + cava => best consumed on release
    •  
    • NB: Cremant label term = traditional method
  201. Sparkling wines - Australia and new zealand
    • - traditional method less than tank method
    • - brands are extremely important as Cava and Champagne
    • - champagne blend
    • - can be very intense and complex

    • NB: sparkling red are a speciality and they are made
    • - with shiraz
    • - full bodied
    • - medium acidity
    • - black and red berry flavours
    • - dry to off dry
    • - age => leather
  202. Sparkling wines - South Africa
    Methode Cap Classique = sparling by traditional method
  203. Sparkling wines - Tank method
    Ideal for fresh, fruity stiles as Prosecco and Sekt

    • - first fermentation
    • - wine transferred in pressurised tank
    • - sugar and yeasts added
    • - second fermentation in sealed tank
    • - filtration and bottling under preassure

    Widely used in New World

    NB: less bottle contact => little or no autolytic character
  204. Sparkling wines - Tank method variation
    ideal for low alcohol wines, as Asti

    • - just one fermentation
    • - initially carbon dioxide is allowed to escape and trapped on the ending
    • - reached right level of alcohol => wine is chilled
    • - filtration and bottling under preassure
  205. Sparkling wines - Tank method wines
    • - Prosecco
    • - Asti DOCG
    • - Sekt
  206. Sparkling wines - Prosecco
    • - North-east italy
    • - tank method usually
    • - Glera Grape
    • - medium body
    • - dry-off dry
    • - stone fruit flavour

    • 2 variations
    • - Spumante => fully sparkling
    • - Frizzante => lightly sparkling
  207. Sparkling wines - Asti DOCG
    • - North-west italy, Piemonte
    • - sweet
    • - fruity = peach, grape, rose
    • - light body
    • - Muscat grape

    Usually is fully sparkling but the Moscato d'asti = lightly sparkling, lower in alcohol and sweeter
  208. Sparkling wines - Sket
    • - Germany and Austria
    • - bottle-fermented and tank
    • - dry-medium
    • - light body
    • - flavours: floral and fruity

    Deutscher sket => made just from German base wines
  209. Sweet wines - General Characteristics
    • To make sweet wines there are 3 methods:
    • 1 - remove yeasts by fine filter at right moment
    • 2 - Interrupting the fermentation by poisoning yeasts by adding sulfur dioxide, alcohol or sugar component
    • 3 - after fermentation stops naturally, sugar remains anyway because of exceptional sugar quantity in particular grapes
  210. Sweet wines - fortified wines
    wines with added alcohol (as port) (wine + spirit)
  211. Sweet wines - sweet fortified muscats
    made around Mediterranean(greece-portugal):

    • Unaged
    • fruity
    • medium-full body
    • sweet wine
    • high alcohol
    • medium-low acidity

    • Fine samples:
    • - Vins Doux Naturels
    •  + muscat de beaumes de venise
    •  + muscat de Rivesaltes
    • two both from south France
    • - Rutherglen Muscats, from australia
  212. Sweet wines - add a sweet component
    • - no added sugar permitted
    • - unfermented grape juice(sussreserve)
    • - samples
    •  + Pedro Ximenez
    •  + Sherry (Fino, Amontillado and Oloroso

    Sherry add grape juice to make Medium, Cream and Pale Cream sherries
  213. Sweet wines - concentration of sugars in the grapes
    Yeasts die when alcohol level reaches 15% abv

    Sugar not yeasted => remain in the finished win

    Normally 15% abv sugar are not found in ripen wines => ways to concentrate sugar level in grape
  214. Sweet wines - ways to concentrate sugar level in grape
    • - Dry the grapes => shrivel during late-harvesting or ventilation in dry conditions
    •  + Recioto and Pedro Ximenez
    • - noble rot => bacteria that attacks grapes => speeding up evaporation => shrivel and adding character
    •  + Sauterness
    •  + Tokaji
    •  + Austrian and German Auslese, BA and TBA
    •  + sweet wine from Loire
    • - freeze the grapes => harvest during winter, ice crystal removed => high sugary grape syrup. Not produced every year
  215. Sweet wines - noble rot
    bacteria that attacks grapes => speeding up evaporation => shrivel and adding character

    Usually this => a period of fully ripening before encourage noble rot

    • pre-condition:
    • - fully ripe
    • - damp, misty mornings => encourage noble rot
    • - warm dry afternoons => encourage drying out

    noble rot => hand-vinegaring for selection

    • Sauterness AC:
    • - South of Graves AC in Bordeaux
    • - Semillon(main) + Sauvignon blanc
    • - high sugar and acidity
    • - full body
    • - high alcohol
    • - citrus, stone, oak ; honey(if aged)

    • Tokaji
    • - north-eastern Hungary
    • - most famous is Tokaji Aszù with puttonyos classification (3 to 6) to indicate level of sweetness (they are all sweet anyway)
    • - long ageing in oak => amber colour
    • - full body
    • - medium alcohol
    • - high acidiy
    • - dried fruits and sweet spicies ; nut, coffee, caramel and honey if aged
  216. Sweet wines - other noble rot wines affected
    • - Coteaux du Layon AC
    • - Vouvray ac from Chenin Blanc
    • - Alsace AC from Riesling, Gewuztraminer, Pinot Gris aor Muscat
    • - Australian wines from Semillon or Riesling(grapes)
  217. Sherry and Port - General Characteristics
    • - fortified wines
    • - sherry is dry to sweet(not off-dry anyway)
    • - sherry comes from southern Spain - Jerez de la Frontera
    • - Sherry comes out as white wine => special ageing can amber or brown the colour
    • - Port is sweet
    • - Port comes from upper Douro in Portugal
    • - Port is purple, ruby or tawny depending on ageing(exists even white port)
  218. Sherry and Port - Sherry production
    • - starting as neutral, dry and low acid wine from Palomino grape
    • - fermentation in stainless steel tanks
    • - alcohol is added
    • - solera system maturation => maturation in old casks(butts) that doesn't give any oak flavours. This is due to blends of younger and older wines continually as they age => consistent style of mature wine
    • - sweetened after ageing
  219. Sherry and Port - Sherry styles
    • - Fino and Manzanilla
    • - Amontillado
    • - Oloroso
    • - PX (Pedro Ximenez)
  220. Sherry and Port - Sherry styles - Fino and Manzanilla
    • - pale colour
    • - dry
    • - medium body
    • - yeast used is flor => protects the wine from air floating on the surface . Can grown only in abv around 15%
  221. Sherry and Port - Sherry styles - Amontillado
    • - take a fino or manzanilla and add more spirit => + alcohol and death of flor
    • - deep amber colour
    • - nutty flavours

    NB: bottle labeled simply as Amontillados are dry wines otherwise => labelled as Medium
  222. Sherry and Port - Sherry styles - Oloroso
    • - fermentation to 18% abv => flor death => wine oxidation
    • - kernel and animal flavours
    • - deep brown color
    • - full body
    • - high alcohol
    • - always dry - otherwise labelled as Cream sherries
  223. Sherry and Port - Sherry styles - PX
    • - dried pPedro Ximenez grapes
    • - black and dried fruit
    • - full-body
    • - syrupy texture
  224. Sherry and Port - Port Production
    • - Ruby Ports
    • - Vintage Ports
    • - Tawny Ports

    Usually served at room temperature
  225. Sherry and Port - Ruby Ports
    • - fruity
    • - deep colour
    • - short period in oak (not more than 3 years)

    The Reserve Ruby-port => more complex and aged until 5 years

    • tThe Late Botteled Vintage similar to reserve but
    • - single harvest
    • - not need to be decanted unless unfiltered
    • -  red and black fruit
  226. Sherry and Port - Vintage Ports
    • - long lived wines
    • - only produced in good years
    • - short period in oak
    • - spicy red and black fruit ; aged => cooked fruits, animal and vegetal
    • - large deposit => decanted
  227. Sherry and Port - Tawny Ports
    • - lighter style of Port
    • - toffee and caramel
    • - paler than rubys
    • - very best are tawy with indication of age
    • - no decanted
    • - chilled served
  228. Tasting and evaluating spirits
    • - ISO Glass is good - 25ml
    • - add same amount of water to evaluate spirit for nose and palate
  229. Tasting and evaluating spirits - Appearance
    • - cloudy, haziness => faulty
    • - colour => style and age
    • - "white spirits" are usually unaged; if aged they are filtrated by charcoal
    • - "golden or brown" spirits are aged i oak or colored by caramel
  230. Tasting and evaluating spirits - Nose
    • - undiluation => nose dehydrated => lose sese of smell
    • - use of same quantity of mineral water at room temperature to help release aromas avoid dehydration
    • - no need to swirl => release just more alcohol
    • - short sniffs
    • - cork tain is rare
  231. Tasting and evaluating spirits - Palate
    • - swirl spirit around mouth
    • - may are dry
    • - sweetness from wood used for ageing or by added sugars
    • - high in alcohol
    • - viscosity reached even by alcohol and wood used
    • - nose generally reflects mouth
    • - big differences in finishes

    Conclusions as the same of the wine (5 criterias)
  232. Distillation Process - general characteristics
    • - Born to produce medicines
    • - distillation => increase the alcohol
  233. Distillation Process - process
    • - fermentation to obtai an alcoholic liquid
    • - boils of the liquid at more than 78° to evaporate alcohol and retain water and other compounds
    • - collection of alcohol cooling it down
    • - obtained an alcoholic liquid with higher alcohol strength
  234. Distillation Process - Equipment
    Still => container used for distillation

    • 2 different stills:
    • - Column Still
    • - Pot still
  235. Distillation Process - Pot still
    • - oldest method
    • - batch process => one distillation than cleaning and refilling
    • - pot-shaped still, usually of copper
    • - alcohol liquid vapours rise up the neck of the still
    • - vapours flow into a condenser cooled down by water
    • - new liquid contains a higher level f alcohol

    NB: pot still can rise the alcohol level by small amount => 2 or more distillation in row
  236. Distillation Process - Pot still - components of a distillation
    • - heads = volatile components that boils for first
    • - heart(spirit) = second in boiling; higher % of ethanol and low % of impurities
    • - tails = boil off last

    Tails and heads are redistilled to extract ethanol

    NB: even after a lot of distillations, the spirit is far from been pure and retain character and flavour
  237. Distillation Process - Column still
    • - tall, vertical column
    • - divided in plates(levels)
    • - every plate has holes to allow vapours to easily move up and down the still, retaining water and imputiries at lower levels
    • - a sufficient amount of distillation => almost pure ethanol can be produced
    • - smooth and light character
    • - column stills can be run continuously (continuous still)
  238. Distillation Process - different styles of distillations. Effects
    lower alcoholic strength distillation(pot-still) => + impurities + character + base material(agave for example)

    viceversa for higher alcoholic spirits

    Reduced the spirit to 40% sbv => bottling and consuming without maturation

    NB: impurities => spirit taste harsher

    NB2: is the distillation strength to determine the most effect on the spirit, not the still
  239. Distillation Process - post-distillation
    • spirits can be:
    • - unaged => stainless steel tanks til bottling
    • - aged => oak vessel to change spirit color, flavour(vanilla, sweet spice, + complexity) and soft harsh alcohol

    NB: spirit = sugar => bone-dry when come off the still => any sweetness in the spirit is added or reached by ageing (oak sugar)

    Tannins and acids are solid components => no in the final spirit
  240. Distillation Process - post-distillation 2
    spirit after distillation => water-white color

    • Any colour is due to:
    • - ageing
    • - added colouring such as caramel

    All spirits are usually reduced in alcohol level with de-minaralised water until they reach 40% abv

    NB: caramel is used even to reach the right spirit consistency
  241. Spirit categories and styles - general characteristics
    • Style depends by producer decisions about:
    • - raw material
    • - type of distillation process (high-low-characterful)
    • - maturation
  242. Spirit categories and styles - complete list of spirits
    • - Brandy
    •  + Cognac
    •  + Armagnac

    • - Whiskies
    •  + scotch whisky
    •   * single malt scotch whisky => malt whisky
    •   * Blended scotch whisky => grain whisky
    •  + Irish whiskey
    •  + American whiskey
    •   * Bourbon
    •   * Tennessee whiskey
    •  + canadian whisky

    • - Rum
    •  + white rum
    •  + golden and Spiced rum
    •  + dark rum

    • - Tequila
    •  + Blanco/silver
    •  + joven/oro/gold
    •  + reposado
    •  + anejo

    • - Vodka
    •  + flavoured vodka

    - Gin

    - Liqueurs
  243. Spirit categories and styles - Brandy
    • Made by
    • - fermenting grapes
    • - aged in oak or coloured with caramel
    • - brown or amber colour
    • - VS, VSOP or XO are terms to indicate the ageing period
  244. Spirit categories and styles - Brandy - cognac
    • - From north of Bordeaux
    • - double distilled in copper pot still
    • - fruity-floral aromas
    • - medium-light body
    • - smooth alcohol
  245. Spirit categories and styles - Brandy - armagnac
    • - From south of Bordeaux
    • - particoular column still that retains character with low strength spirit
    • - dried fruit aromas
    • - medium-full body
  246. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies
    • - made from grains (barley[orzo], corn[mais] and rye[segale])
    • - grains contains starch rather than sugar => conversion process(mixing with hot water) to turn them into fermentable sugars

    NB: in conversion is encouraged to germinate and at the right moment heated using a kiln[fornace]. Peat is sometimes used as fuel => smoky flavour. Result of this process is called malted barley
  247. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies - scotch
    • - distilled and aged in oak cask in Scotland for at least three years
    • - age statement indicates the age of youngest component
    • - distillation in pot stil

    NB: malt whisky is made using only malted barley
  248. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies - single malt scotch
    • - comes out from just one distillery
    • - peat, cask and maturation => impossibile to generalise about syles
    • - floral, honey, fruity, dried fruit, nutty, medicinal, spicy, cereal and woody aromas

    regions: highland, islay, campbeltown, speyside and lowland
  249. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies - Grain whisky
    • - scotch made from a mixture of grains(corn, wheat, malted barley)
    • - column still
    • - smoother and lighter than single malt
    • - usually used to blended scotch whiskey => quality depends by blending
  250. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies - Irish Whiskey
    • - mix of malted and unmalted barely with other grains
    • - unpeated
    • - pot or column
    • - smoother and lighter than scotch
    • - fruit, honey, flower and oak aromas
  251. Spirit categories and styles - Whiskies - North american whiskies
    • Bourbon
    • - majority from kentucky
    • - mixture of grains (51% at least of corn) => sweeter whisky
    • - ageing in american oak barrels => coconut, vanilla, toffee and spice aromas


    • Tennessee whiskey
    • - from Tennessee state
    • - simiar to bourbon
    • - filtered through sugar maple charcoal before barreled
    • - smooth spirit
  252. Spirit categories and styles - Rum
    • - made from sugar cane(molasses most common)
    • - toffee and ripe tropical fruit aromas
    • - molasses must be diluted with water before fermentation and distillation
    • - pot or column
    • - sometimes oaked => spice, dried fruit, coconut and toffee
    • - colour adjusted by caramel
  253. Spirit categories and styles - Rum - white rum
    • - distilled at high strength
    • - dry
    • - neutral character(like vodka)
    • - light intensity
    • - little notes from raw material
  254. Spirit categories and styles - Rum - golden and spiced rum
    • - dry or off dry
    • - smooth spirit due to oak ageing
    • - banana, coconut, toffee aromas
    • - spiced = golden rums + spices flavouring added
  255. Spirit categories and styles - Rum - Dark rums
    • - full-body
    • - sweet
    • - dried fruit and sweet spice aromas
    • - colour due to added caramel
    • - best are aged for several years in oak
  256. Spirit categories and styles - Tequila
    • - Blanco/silver => dry, vegetable and spicy flavour
    • - joven/oro/gold => unaged cwith caramel added
    • - reposado => aged in oak for short time
    • - anejo => aged for longer
  257. Spirit categories and styles - Vodka
    • - produced anywhere
    • - grains or grapes and potato
    • - 95-96 % abv at least during distillation
    • - column still
    • - little character of base material remains
    • - charcoal to remove any undesirable flavours or impuritie
    • - added water to reduce strength to 40% abv
    • - unaged
    • - neutral as possibile
  258. Spirit categories and styles - Vodka - styles
    • - average
    • - polish and russian => more character
    • - flavoured vodka => vodka + vanilla, fruit, toffee, herbs or spices before bottling by maceration or essences
  259. Spirit categories and styles - flavoured spirits
    • by
    • - maceration (soaking the flavouring ingredients in the spirit)
    • - redistillation ( with the flavour ingredient)
    • - essences (artificial flavours)
  260. Spirit categories and styles - gin
    • is flavoured with botanicals
    • - juniper is the one that can't be missed
    • - others botanicals are coriander, angelica root and citrus peel(most common)
    • - unaged

    • NB:
    • - London dry gin botanicals during redistillation with no other flavouring added later
    • - distilled gins are london dry gin with flavouring added after re-distillation

    inexpensive gins => use of essences
  261. Spirit categories and styles - liqueurs
    • - distilled spirit flavoured and sweetened
    • - neutral base spirit usually
    • - flavouring added => different style of liqueur
    • - sugar added before bottling
    • - liqueur => minimum sweetness level
    • - water to reach the abv % requierd

    • flavouring ingredients:
    • - dairy
    • - herb
    • - fruit
    • - seed/nut
    • - artificial or natural (huge difference in tasting)

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