Practical: Anatomy of the Heart Demonstration and Dissection
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Where is the apex of the heart within the thorax?
Towards the left of midline
Why doest the heart appear to sit to the left of midline in a dorsal ventral radiograph?
As the right lung is bigger than the left lung and so pushes the heart over to the left
Which chamber gives rise to the apex of the heart?
How does the thoracic cavity of a cat compare to that of a dog?
The thoracic cavity is longer and thinner in the cat than the dog.
List the contents of the umbilical chord at the umbilicus (foetal body wall) and give their function
- Umbilical vein - oxygenated blood from placenta to foetus
- Umbilical arteries (paired) - deoxygenated blood from foetus to placenta
- Urachus - the excretory fluid/waste from the developing bladder via umbilical chord to the allantoic sac where it is stored
Name the two vessels the ductus arteriosus links and state its functional significance?
Pulmonary trunk and aorta - shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta to bypass the lungs
What is the significance of the coronary groove? What side of the heart is the coronary groove continuous on?
- The coronary groove separates the atria and ventricles. It also carries the coronary arteries which supply the heart with blood.
- It is continuous on the right side.
What is the significance of the inter ventricular groove?
It highlights the position of the inter ventricular septum
List the main blood vessels which return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
Cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava, right azygous vein (sometimes left), coronary vein
Does the right side of the heart correspond to the cranial or caudal aspect of the heart?
The closure of which valves give rise to a) the first heart sound b) the second heart sound?
- a) Tricuspid and bicuspid/mitral valves
- b) pulmonary semilunar and aortic semilunar valves
What is the functional significance of papillary muscles and chordae tendinae in relation to closure of the tricuspid valve?
Chordae tendinae attach to the valve flaps. The papillary muscles take tension off the chordae tendinae to prevent the valve flaps reflecting back into the atria.
What is the functional significance of the moderator band?
The moderator band causes the papillary muscles to contract ahead of ventricular contraction sot why take up stretch on the chordae tendinae
Where precisely would you locate the SA and AV nodes?
- SA - at the terminal crest just ventral to where the cranial vena cava enters the right atrium
- AV - just cranial to the coronary sinus at the top of the inter ventricular septum
Why does the aortic semilunar valve not have chordae tendinae and papillary muscles?
If functionally closes in a different way - closes during ventricular diastole rather than systole
How many cusps does the mitral valve have in comparison to the tricuspid valve?
Mitral has two whereas the tricuspid has three
What important foetal structure does the ligamentum arteriosum represent and what was its functional role in the foetus?
The ductus arteriosus - it shunted blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta to bypass the lungs
With reference to the aortic semilunar valve where would you locate the entrance to the right and left coronary artery?
Right coronary artery is located in the aortic sinus of the right cups, and the left coronary artery is located in the aortic sinus of the left cusp
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