Muscles and Movement
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What do smooth muscles do?
control the digestive system and other organs
What do skeletal/striated muscles do?
control movement of the body in relation to the environment
What are cardiac muscles?
heart muscles that have properties of skeletal and smooth muscles
What is a neuromuscular junction?
Synapse between a motor neuron axon and a muscle fiber
What causes the muscle to retract?
release of chemicals such as Ach
What are antagonistic muscles?
- Opposing sets of muscles
- Movement requires the alternating contraction of these muscles
What chemical always excites the skeletal muscles to contract?
What is a flexor muscle?
a muscle that flexes or raises an appendage
What is an extensor muscle?
One that extends an appendage or straightens it
Skeletal muscle types range from ___ to ___.
fast-twich to slow-twitch
What are fast-twitch muscles?
Muscles with fibers that produce fast contractions but fatigue rapidly
What are slow-twitch muscles?
Muscles with fibers that produce less vigorous contraction without fatigue
Why do fast-twitch muscle fibers fatigue?
They are anaerobic and use reactions that do not require oxygen, resulting in fatigue
Why do slow-twitch fibers not fatigue?
They are aerobic and require oxygen during movement and therefore do not fatigue
What is the fluidity of movement dependent on?
What are proprioceptors?
Receptors that detect the position or movement of a part of the body
What is the Golgi tendon organ?
- A type of proprioceptor that responds to increases in muscle tension
- Acts as a "brake" against excessively vigorous contraction by sending an impulse to the spinal cord where motor neurons are inhibited
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