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Define Public Health
1. The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort (Winslow)
2. Fulfilling society's interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy (IOM report 1988)
What problem was John Snow known for solving in London in 1848? How did he resolve it?
1. John Snow linked Cholera to the well water supply
2. People were getting sick in mass numbers. John Snow investigated the local watering holes (wells) after interviewing people in London who happened to frequently use them. He then, took the handle off of the well, forcing people to use different wells.
What problem is Edward Jenner known for solving in ~1800? How did he solve it?
1. Created the vaccine for smallpox
2. Edward Jenner discovered that milk maids developed an immunity to the early form of smallpox due to the exposure to cattle that carried cowpox.
What was Edwin Chadwick known for in 1840?
1. Leader of the sanitary movement
2. Report on an inquiry into the sanitary conditions of the laboring population of Great Britain. Simply, he led a movement to improve conditions.
What time period were epidemics teated with avoidance and acceptance of the fate of disease due to there being no modern medicine to quell the spread of it?
When did sanitary reform come to the US and who was responsible for presenting it?
2. Edwin Chadwick presented his reform/report to the UK before it came to the US
What time period were gaps in healthcare addressed to get people healthcare, and why wasn't this issue addressed prior to this date?
2. Prior to 1950, people didn't live as long to develop chronic disease
What year and place was the first health department created in the US, and why?
2. Baltimore Maryland. Sailors came in with disease and needed to be quarantined, as a routine.
What time period, an which state developed the first State Board of Health?
Define a public health system.
A network of entities with differing roles, relationships, and interactions.
All entities that contribute to the health and well-being of the community are included.
What entities are included in the public health care system?
The standards and assessment instrument are biased to examine which health system, collectively and why?
1. the public health system
2. no one organization can carry the ENTIRE system so it has to be examined collectively
When does an investigation take place in public health?
1. When the number of people affected with a given condition is large or small, but growing quickly
2. When there are unusual or severe symptoms of a condition.
3. When an obvious explanation for the symptoms or condition is lacking.
4. When there is a need to implement controls, given the extent of the illness
5. When there is a certain level of public concern about the health problem.
6. The result of the investigation would contribute to medical knowledge.
In regards to public health, when does the response to protect the health of the general public become necessary?
When a larger problem is suspected (ex. epidemic).
When are patients studied during an outbreak?
1. Patients who are directly involved in the outbreak
2. Patients who are not exhibiting symptoms but may have been exposed.