Branching of the Aorta
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Where are the origins of the coronary sinuses located?
Behind the aortic semilunar valves
Describe branching of the aorta as it comes out of the heart in a) dogs, cats & rabbits b) horses & cows c) pigs
- a) the aorta branches into two: the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery. The brachiocephalic trunk further divides into the two common carotids and right subclavian artery.
- b) the aorta branches into the brachiocephalic trunk, which then further branches into the two common carotid arteries and the left and right subclavian arteries
- c) the left subclavian artery branches independently of the brachiocephalic trunk
What structures do the right and left subclavian arteries supply?
Cranial and ventral thorax, neck and forelimbs
What structures do the common carotid arteries supply?
The head and mid brain
What are the common carotid arteries enclosed in as they ascend up the neck? What other structures are enclosed within this too?
- The carotid sheath
- Vagosympathetic trunk and internal jugular vein
What structure runs very close to the carotid sheath but is not enclosed within it?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Which two main vessels does the common carotid artery split into and what do they supply?
- Internal carotid artery - brain
- External carotid artery - all other structures of the head
Where does the internal carotid artery enter the cranial cavity in horses?
In the guttural pouch
The internal carotid artery contributes to what structure of the brain in horses and carnivores?
Arterial circle of the brain
List all the branches of the subclavian arteries in the dog
- Vertebral artery
- Costocervical artery
- Superficial cervical artery
- Internal thoracic artery
- Axillary artery
What vessels does the vertebral artery form when moves towards the head?
Basilar artery and ventral spinal artery
How does the vertebral artery complicate the religious slaughtering of ruminants?
Slaughtering ruminants by cutting their throat severs the trachea, common carotid arteries, jugular veins, etc but as the vertebral artery is embedded within the spinal column it still supplies the brain with arterial blood. This has welfare implications as the animal may suffer.
What vessels does the costocervical artery go on to form?
The first few dorsal intercostal arteries and deep cervical artery
What vessels does the internal thoracic artery go on to form?
Ventral intercostal arteries, musculophrenic artery, cranial superficial/deep epigastric artery
The axillary artery goes on to form the ... artery and then ... artery?
Where do the 4th - onwards intercostal arteries arise from?
From the descending thoracic aorta
What artery (which supplies the bronchi and oesophagus) arises from ~5th intercostal arteries?
What structures go through the following? a) oesophageal hiatus b) aortic hiatus c) caval foramen?
- a) oesophagus, dorsal and ventral vagus trunks
- b) aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein
- c) caudal vena cava
Is the caudal vena cava on the right or left of the abdominal aorta?
Where does the abdominal aorta terminate?
Terminates below the last lumbar vertebrae
What vessel does the abdominal aorta continue as when it terminates?
The median sacral artery
List the branches of the abdominal aorta from cranial to caudal
- Celiac a.
- Cranial mesenteric a.
- Phrenico-abdominal trunk (caudal phrenic aa. and cranial abdominal aa.)
- Renal aa.
- Testicular or ovarian aa.
- Caudal mesenteric a.
- Deep circumflex iliac aa.
- External iliac aa.
- Internal iliac aa.
- Median sacral a.
Describe how the cranial vena cava forms in a) dog, cat and pig b) ruminants and horses
- a) The external jugular and subclavian arteries join together within the thoracic inlet to form the cranial vena cava
- b) The two jugular veins join together to form a common Bi-jugular trunk at the level of the thoracic inlet. The subclavian arteries do not join the jugular veins until after the thoracic inlet.
The ... is the area between muscles where the jugular vein sits?
How is the external jugular vein formed?
The lingofacial and maxillary veins join together at the angle of the jaw to form the external jugular vein
Where does the azygous vein form?
At the first few lumbar vertebrae by union of the first few lumbar veins
Which part of the diaphragm does the azygous vein pass through?
Where does the azygous vein go in the a) dog b) horse?
- a) joins with the cranial vena cava
- b) empties independently into the right atrium
Is it the right or left azygous vein that only persists in most animals? Which species is the exception to this?
- Ruminants also have a left azygous vein which joins the right atrium
What regions do the a) caudal vena cava b) cranial vena cava c) azygous vein drain?
- a) abdominal region and hind limbs
- b) head and neck
- c) lumbar regions and vertebral column
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