The lowest possible temperature at which gas would have a zero volume.
What is absolute zero?
The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by matter when radiation of all frequencies is passed through it.
What is the absorption spectrum?
A change in velocity divided by time interval over which it occurred.
What is acceleration?
The closeness of a measurement to the standard value of that quantity.
What is accuracy?
Lens for which all light colors have the same focal length.
What are Achromatic Lens?
A pair of forces involved in an interaction that are equal in magnitude and opposition in direction.
What are Action-Reaction Forces?
The number of decays per second of a radioactive substance.
What is activity?
The force of attraction between two unlike materials.
What is adhesion?
The force of air on objects moving through it.
What is air resistance?
The process in which a nucleus emits an alpha particle.
What is alpha decay?
A positively- charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons emitted by radioactive materials.
What is an alpha particle?
A device to measure electrical current.
What is an ammeter?
A solid that has no long- range order; no crystal structure.
What is an amorphous solid?
The unit of electric current; the flow of one coulomb of charge per second.
What is an ampere?
In any periodic motion, the maximum displacement from equilibrium.
What is amplitude?
The angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are striking.
What is the angle of incidence?
The angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are reflected from.
What is the angle of reflection?
The angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves have been refracted from.
What is the angle of refraction?
The quantity of rotational motion. For a rotating object, product of moment of inertia and angular velocity.
What is angular momentum?
The process in which a particle and its antiparticle are converted into energy.
What is annihilation?
A device used to receive or transmit electromagnetic waves.
What is an antenna?
A subatomic particle with no charge or mass emitted in beta decay.
What is an antineutrino?
The point of maximum displacement of two superimposed waves.
What is an antinode?
A principle stating that an object immersed in a fluid has an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
What is Archimedes' Principle?
A radioactive isotope not found in nature.
What is artificial radioactivity?
A unit of mass equal to 1/12 the atomic mass of carbon-12 nucleus.
What is an atomic mass unit?
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
What is atomic number?
Acceleration measured over a finite time interval.
What is average acceleration?
Velocity measured over a finite time interval.
What is average velocity?
The potential difference across a conductor caused by change in magnetic flux.
What is Back-EMF?
A theory explaining electrical conduction in solids.
What is Band Theory?
A subatomic particle composed of three quarks. Interacts with the strong nuclear force.
What is Baryon?
A device that converts chemical to electrical energy consisting of two dissimilar conductors and an electrolyte.
What is a battery?
A slow oscillation in amplitude of a complex wave.
What is a beat?
Principle stating that when a fixed quantity of fluid flows, the pressure is decreased when the flow velocity increases.
What is Bernoulli's Principle?
A radioactive decay process in which an electron or positron and neutrino is emitted from a nucleus.
What is Beta Decay?
A high speed electron emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay.
What is a Beta Particle?
The negative of the amount of energy needed to separate a nucleus into individual nucleons.
What is binding energy?
The temperature at which a substance, under normal atmospheric pressure, changes from a liquid to a vapor state.
What is boiling point?
A nuclear reactor that converts non-fissionable nuclei to fissionable nuclei while producing energy.
What is a Breeder Reactor?
An instrument containing superheated liquid in which the path of ionizing particles is made visible as trails of tiny bubbles.
What is a bubble chamber?
The upward force on an object immersed in fluid.
What is buoyant force?
A device that isolates objects to measure temperature changes do to heat flow.
What is a Calorimeter?
A unit of luminous intensity.
What is a Candela?
The ratio of charge stored per increase in potential difference.
What is capacitance?
An electrical device used to store charge and energy in the electrical field.
What is a capacitor?
The rise of liquid in narrow tube due to surface tension.
What is capillary action?
The ideal efficiency of a heat engine or refrigerator working between two constant temperatures.
What is the Carnot Efficiency?
The force that causes centripetal acceleration.
What is centripetal force?
A nuclear reaction in which neutrons are produced that can cause further reactions.
What is a chain reaction?
An object that has an unbalance of positive and negative electrical charges.
What is a charged object?
The process of charging by touching neutral object to a charged object.
What is charging by conduction?
The process of charging by bringing neutral object near charged object, then removing part of resulting separated charge.
What is charging by induction?
The variation in focal length of lens with wavelength of light.
What is Chromatic Aberration?
Motion with constant radius of curvature caused by acceleration being perpendicular to velocity.
What is circular motion?
The time between event and a reference time, usually zero.
What is the clock reading?
The collection of objects such that neither matter nor energy can enter or leave the collection.
What is a closed, isolated system?
A cylindrical tube with one end closed and a sound source at the other end.
What is a closed-pipe resonator?
The ratio of frictional force and the normal force between two forces.
What is the coefficient of friction?
The change in length divided by original length and by temperature change.
What is the coefficient of linear expansion?
The change in volume divided by original volume and by temperature change.
What is the coefficient of volume expansion?
Waves in which all are in step; are in phase.
What are coherent waves?
The attractive force between similar substances.
What is cohesive force?
Two colors that, when added , produce white light. Two pigments, that when combined, produce black.
What is are complementary colors?
A machine consisting of two or more simple machines.
What is a compound machine?
The interaction of photons, usually X rays, with electrons in matter resulting in increased wavelength of X rays and kinetic energy of electrons.
What is the Compton Effect?
Lens thinner in center than edges; a diverging lens.
What are concave lens?
A converging mirror, one with center of curvature on reflecting side of mirror.
What is a concave mirror?
Energies of charge carries in a solid such that the carries are free to move.
What is a conduction band?
Materials through which charged particles move readily; or heat flow readily.
What is a conductor?
A property that is the same before and after an interaction.
What are conserved properties?
Two or more sounds that, when heard together, sound pleasant.
What is consonance?
Acceleration that does not change in time.
What is constant acceleration?
Velocity that does not change in time.
What is constant velocity?
The superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave with an amplitude larger than the component waves.
What is constructive interference?
Heat transfer by means of motion of fluid.
What is convection?
The motion of positive electrical current.
What is conventional current?
A lens that causes light rays to converge; usually a convex lens.
What is a converging lens?
Lens that is thicker in the center than at edges.
What is a convex lens?
A diverging mirror of which the center of curvature is on the side opposite of the reflecting side.
What is a convex mirror?
The ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse.
What is cosine?
A unit of electrical charge. Charge caused by flow of one ampere for one second.
What is a Coulomb?
The high point of wave motion.
What is the crest of a wave?
The minimum angle of incidence that produces total internal reflection.
What is the critical angle?
The structure of a solid consisting of regular arrangement of atoms.
What is a crystal lattice?
The length of a de Broglie wave of particle; Planck’s constant divided by momentum of particle.
What is a de Broglie wavelength?
A unit of sound level.
What is a Decibel?
A variable that responds to change in a manipulated variable.
What is a dependent variable?
A unit of quantity that consists of a combination of fundamental units.
What is a derived unit?
The superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave with zero amplitude.
What is destructive interference?
The bending of waves around objects in their path.
What is diffraction?
A material containing many parallel lines very closely spaced that produces a light spectrum by interference.
What is a diffraction grating?
The reflection of light into many directions by a rough object.
What is diffuse reflection?
The process of checking a derived equation by making sure dimensions are the same on both sides.
What is dimensional analysis?
An electrical device permitting only one way current flow.
What is a diode?
The variation with wavelength of the speed of light through matter resulting in separation of light into spectrum.
What is the dispersion of light?
A change in position. A vector quantity.
What is displacement?
Two or more sounds that, when together, sound unpleasant.
What is dissonance?
The separation between two points. A scalar quantity.
What is distance?
A lens that causes light rays to spread apart or diverge; usually a concave lens.
What is a diverging lens?
Small quantities of material added to a semiconductor to increase electrical conduction.
What are dopants?
A change in wavelength due to relative motion of source and detector.
What is a Doppler Shift?
The study of the motion of particles acted on by forces.
What is dynamics?
The DC current that would produce the same heating effects.
What is effective current?
The DC potential difference that would produce the same heating effects.
What is effective voltage?
The ratio of output work to input work.
What is efficiency?
A force extended on a machine.
What is effort force?
The interaction between two objects in which the total energy is the same before and after the interaction.
What is elastic collision?
The ability of an object to return to original shape after deforming forces are removed.
What is elasticity?
A device, often a battery or generator, that increases potential of electrical charge.
What is an electrical charge pump?
A continuous path through which electrical charges can flow.
What is an electrical circuit?
The flow of charged particles.
What is electrical current?
A property of space around a charged object that causes forces on other charged objects.
What is an electrical field?
Lines representing the direction of electric field.
What are electric field lines?
The ratio of force exerted by field on a tiny test charge to that change.
What is electric field strength?
A device converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
What is an electric generator?
The ratio of electric potential energy to charge.
What is electric potential?
The difference in electric potential between two points.
What is electric potential difference?
The energy of a charged body in an electrical field.
What is electric potential energy?
A device that uses an electric current to produce a concentrated magnetic field.
What is an electromagnet?
One of the fundamental forces due to electric charges, both static and moving.
What is electromagnetic force?
The production of an electric field or current due to change in magnetic flux.
What is electromagnetic induction?
Energy carried by electromagnetic waves throughout space.
What is electromagnetic radiation?
A wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that move at speed of light through space.
What is an electromagnetic wave?
The potential difference produced by electromagnetic induction.
What is electromotive force?
A subatomic particle of small mass and negative charge found in every atom.
What is an electron?
A region of high probability of finding an electron around an atom.
What is an electron cloud?
Effects on electrons due to wave-like interference of electrons with matter.
What is electron diffraction?
The description of current flow through conductors.
What is an electron gas model?
A device to detect electric charges.
What is an electroscope?
The study of properties and results of electric charges at rest.
What is electrostatics?
The unification of electromagnetic and weak forces.
What is electroweak force?
The magnitude of the charge of an electron. 1.602 *10^ -19
What is elementary charge?
The spectrum produced by radiation from excited atoms.
What is emission spectrum?
A non-material property capable of causing changes in matter.
What is energy?
The amounts of energy an electron in an atom may have.
What are energy levels?
A measure of disorder in a system; ratio of heat added to temperature.
What is entropy?
The force needed to bring an object into transitional equilibrium.
What is equilibrant force?
A condition in which the net force is equal to zero. Condition in which the net torque on an object is zero.
What is equilibrium?
A single resistance that could replace several resistors.
What is equivalent resistance?
The change from liquid to vapor state.
What is evaporation?
An energy level of atom higher than ground state.
What is excited state?
Forces exerted from outside a system.
What are external forces?
A semiconductor in which conduction is primarily the result of added impurities.
What is an extrinsic semiconductor?
A unit of capacitance. One coulomb per volt.
What is a Farad?
Materials in which large internal magnetic fields are generated by cooperative action of electrons.
What are ferromagnetic materials?
Inn music, the fundamental frequency.
What is first harmonic?
A change in internal or thermal energy is equal to heat added and work done on system. Same as law of conservation of energy.
What is the First Law of Thermodynamics?
Material that flows, i.e. liquids, gases, and plasmas.
What is a fluid?
The distance from the focal point to the center of a lens or vertex of a mirror.
What is focal length?
The location at which rays parallel to the optical axis of an ideal mirror or lens converge to a point.
What is the focal point?
Energy values that electrons in a semiconductor or insulator may not have.
What is forbidden gap?
An agent that results in accelerating or deforming an object.
What is force?
A coordinate system used to define motion.
What is frame of reference?
Absorption lines in the sun’s spectrum due to gases in the solar atmosphere.
What are Fraunhofer Lines?
The number of occurrences per unit time.
What is frequency?
The force opposing relative motion of two objects that are in contact.
What is friction?
Those particles( i.e. quarks and leptons) of which all materials are composed.
What are fundamental particles?
The lowest frequency sound produced by a musical instrument.
What is fundamental tone?
The set of units on which a measurement system is based( i.e. meter, second, kilogram, ampere, candela).
What are fundamental units?
The metal safety device in an electric circuit that melts to stop current flow when current is too large.
What is a fuse?
The combination of two nuclei into one with release of energy.
What is fusion?
A device used to measure very small currents.
What is a Galvanometer?
The process by which a nucleus emits a gamma ray.
What is gamma decay?
A high energy photon emitted by a radioactive nucleus.
What is a gamma particle?
A state of matter that expands to fill container.
What is gas?
A device used to detect radiation using its ability to ionize matter.
What is a Geiger-Mueller Tube?
An explanation of gravity and accelerated motion invented by Einstein.
What is the General Theory of Relativity?
A carrier of strong nuclear force.
What is gluon?
Theories being developed that unify the stronger and electroweak forces into one force.
What are grand unified theories?
A distortion of space due to the presence of mass.
What is gravitational field?
The attraction between two objects due to their mass.
What is gravitational force?
The ratio of gravitational force to an object’s acceleration.
What is gravitational mass?
The change of energy of an object when moved in a gravitational field.
What is gravitational potential energy?
A particle that carries the gravitational force. Not yet observed.
What is a graviton?
The lowest energy level of an electron in an atom.
What is ground state?
The process of connecting a charged object to Earth to remove the object’s unbalanced charge.
What is grounding?
The length of time for half of a sample of radioactive material to decay.
What is Half-Life?
Frequencies produced by musical instruments that are multiples of fundamental tone.
What are harmonics?
The quantity of energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature.
What is heat?
A device that converts thermal energy to mechanical energy.
What is a heat engine?
The quantity of energy needed to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid state at the melting point.
What is heat of fusion?
The quantity of energy needed to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gaseous state at the boiling point.
What is heat of vaporization?
Deuterium oxide used mainly in CANDU nuclear reactors.
What is heavy water?
Principle stating that the more accurately one determines the position of a particle, the less accurately the momentum can be known, and vice versa.
What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
A unit of frequency equal to one event or cycle per second.
What are Hertz?
The absence of an electron in a semiconductor.
What is a hole?
Law stating that the deformation of an object is proportional to force causing it.
What is Hooke's Law?
A model of spreading of waves in which each point on wavefront is source of circular or spherical waves.
What is Huygens' Wavelets?
Machines using fluids to transmit energy.
What is a hydraulic system?
A mathematical curve that describes an inverse relationship between two variables.
What is a hyperbola?
The side opposite the right angle in a triangle.
What is the hypotenuse?
In a simple machine, the ratio of effort distance to resistance distance.
What is ideal mechanical advantage?
The rate at which electromagnetic wave energy falls on a surface.
What is illuminance?
An object on which light falls.
What is an illuminated object?
The reproduction of an object formed with lenses or mirrors.
What is an image?
The product of force and time interval over which it acts.
What is impulse?
Theory stating that the impulse given to an object is equal to its change in momentum.
What is Impulse-Momentum Theorem?
An object that emits light because of its high temperature.
What is an incandescent body?
A wave that strikes a boundary where it is either reflected or refracted.
What is an incident wave?
A light consisting of waves that are not in step.
What is incoherent light?
A variable that is manipulated or changed in an experiment.
What is an independent variable?
The ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to its speed in a material.
What is index of refraction?
A collision in which some of the kinetic energy is changed into another form.
What is an inelastic collision?
The tendency of an object not to change its motion.
What is inertia?
The ratio of the net force exerted on an object to its acceleration.
What is inertial mass?
The velocity of an object at time t=0.
What is initial velocity?
The acceleration at a specific time; slope of tangent to velocity- time graph.
What is instantaneous acceleration?
The position of an object at specific time.
What is instantaneous position?
The slope of the tangent to position- time graph.
What is instantaneous velocity?
A material through which the flow of electrical charge carriers or heat is greatly reduced.
What is an insulator?
A pattern of dark and light bands from interference of light waves.
What are interference fringes?
The displacements of two or more waves, producing either large or smaller waves.
What is interference of waves?
The forces between objects within a system.
What are internal forces?
A semiconductor in which conduction is by charges due to host material, not impurities.
What is an intrinsic semiconductor?
A mathematical relationship between two variables, x and y, summarized by the equation xy=k, where k is a constant.
What is an inverse relationship?
Particles or waves that can remove electrons from atoms, molecules, or atoms in a solid.
What is ionizing radiation?
A collection of objects not acted upon by external forces into which energy neither enters nor leaves.
What is an isolated system?
An atomic nuclei having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
What is an isotope?
The SI unit of energy equal to one Newton-meter.
What is a Joule?
An increase in temperature of electrical conductor due to conversion of electrical to thermal energy.
What is Joule Heating?
A scale with 0 K= absolute zero and 273.16 K = triple point of water.
What is the Kelvin temperature scale?
The three laws of motion of bodies attracted together by the gravitational force.
What are Kepler's Laws?
The SI unit of mass.
What is a kilogram?
The amount of energy equal to 3.6 * 10^ 6 J. Usually used in electrical measurement.
What is a kilowatt hour?
The study of motion of objects without regard to the causes of this motion.
What is Kinematics?
The energy of an object due to its motion.
What is kinetic energy?
A description of matter as being made up of extremely small particles in constant motion.
What is kinetic-molecular energy?
A device that produces coherent light by stimulated emission of radiation.
What is a laser?
A proposed method of creating nuclear fusion by using heating caused by intense laser beams to squeeze matter together.
What is laser-induced fusion?
Law stating that in a closed, isolated system, the total momentum is constant.
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?
Law stating that the angle of incidence of a wave is equal to the angle of reflection.
What is the Law of Reflection?
Law stating that the gravitational force between two objects depends directly on the product of their masses and inversely on the square of their separation.
What is the Law of Universal Gravitation?
An optical device designed to converge or diverge light.
What is a lens?
Law stating that the magnetic field generated by an induced current opposes the change in field that caused the current.
What is Lenz' Law?
A particle that interacts with other particles only by the electroweak and gravitational interactions.
What is a lepton?
The component of the displacement of the force from the axis of rotation in the axis of rotation in the direction perpendicular to the force.
What is the lever arm?
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm that is visible.
What is light?
A device to accelerate subatomic particles by applying successive electric field.
What is a linear accelerator?
A relationship between two variables, x and y, summarized by the equation y= ax + b, where a and b are constant.
What is a linear relationship?
A force in direction toward equilibrium position that depends linearly on distance from distance from that position.
What is linear restoring force?
Materials that have fixed volume but whose shape depends on the container.
What are liquids?
A naturally occurring magnetic rock.
What is lodestone?
A wave in which the direction of disturbance is the same as the direction of travel of wave.
What are longitudinal waves?
A physiological measure of amplitude of a sound wave; heard on pitch and tone color as well as amplitude.
What is loudness?
A unit of luminous flux.
What is a Lumen?
A measure of light emitted by source in candelas; luminous flux divided by 4pi.
What is luminance intensity?
The flow of light from source measured in lumens.
What is luminous flux?
An object that emits light, as opposed to one that reflects light.
What is a luminous object?
A unit of luminous flux; one lumen per square meter.
What is a Lux?
A device that changes force needed to do work.
What is a machine?
The space around a magnet throughout which magnetic force exists.
What is a magnetic field?
The ratio of the size of an optical image to the size of the object.
What is magnification?
A variable that the experimenter can change.
What is a manipulated variable?
A mass equivalent of the binding energy; m=E/c^ 2
What is mass defect?
The number of nucleons ( protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
What is mass number?
A device used to measure the mass of atoms or molecules.
What is a mass spectrometer?
Wave-like properties of particles such as electrons.
What are matter waves?
The ratio of resistance force to effort force in a machine.
What is mechanical advantage?
The sum of potential and kinetic energy.
What is mechanical energy?
A condition at which natural oscillation frequency equals frequency of driving force; amplitude of oscillatory motion at a maximum.
What is mechanical resonance?
A wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.
What is a mechanical wave?
The temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid state.
What is melting point?
A medium mass subatomic particle consisting of combination of a quark and antiquark.
What is a meson?
The SI unit of length.
What is a meter?
1/do +1/di=1/f, where do is object distance, di is image distance, f is focal length.
What is the mirror equation?
A material used to decrease speed of neutrons in nuclear reactor.
What is a moderator?
The product of an object’s mass and velocity.
What is momentum?
A light of a single wavelength.
What is monochromatic light?
Measures the amount of overlap between the magnetic flux produced in one coil and that which passes through a second coil, thus the amount of EMP induced in a secondary coil by the varying flux in the primary coil.
What is mutual inductance?
A defect of eye, commonly called nearsightedness, in which distant objects focus in front of the retina.
What is myopia?
A semiconductor in which current is carried by electrons.
What is an n-type semiconductor?
The vector sum of forces on object.
What is net force?
An object that has no net electric charge.
What is a neutral object?
A chargeless, massless, subatomic particle emitted with beta particles; type of lepton.
What is a neutrino?
A subatomic particle with no charge and mass slightly greater than that of proton; type of nucleon.
What is a neutron?
The SI unit of force.
What is a Newton?
Laws relating force and acceleration.
What are Newton's Laws of Motion?
A point where disturbances caused by two or more waves result in no displacement.
What is a node?
Perpendicular to plane of interest.
What is normal?
A force perpendicular to surface.
What is normal force?
An equation representing a nuclear reaction.
What is a nuclear equation?
A reaction in which large nucleus splits into two parts, often approximately equal in mass.
What is nuclear fission?
A reaction in which two nuclei are combined into one.
What is nuclear fusion?
A reaction involving the strong force in which the number of protons or neutrons in a nucleus changes.
What is a nuclear reaction?
A device in which nuclear fusion is used to generate electricity.
What is a nuclear reactor?
The change of one nucleus into another as the result of a nuclear reaction.
What is a nuclear transmutation?
Particle which can be either a proton or a neutron.
What is a nucleon?
The nucleus of an isotope.
What is a nuclide?
A source of diverging light rays; either luminous or illuminated.
What is an object?
The interval between two frequencies with a ratio of two to one.
What is an octave?
The SI unit of resistance; one volt per ampere.
What is an Ohm?
Law stating that the resistance of an object is constant, independent of voltage across it.
What is Ohm's Law?
A material that does not transmit light.
What is opaque?
A cylindrical tube with both ends closed and a sound source at one end.
What is an open-pipe resonator?
A semiconductor in which conduction is the result of motion of holes.
What is a p-type semiconductor?
The formation of particle and antiparticle from gamma rays.
What is pair production?
A mirror the shape of a paraboloid of revolution that has no spherical aberration.
What is a parabolic mirror?
A circuit in which there are two or more paths for current flow.
What is a parallel circuit?
A connection of two or more electrical devices between two points to provide more than one current path.
What is a parallel connection?
The SI unit of pressure; one neutron per square meter.
What is a Pascal?
Principle stating that pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout it.
What is Pascal's Principle?
The time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion.
What is the period?
Motion that repeats itself at regular intervals of time.
What is periodic motion?
Election of electrons from surface of metal exposed to electromagnetic radiation.
What is photoelectric effect?
A quantum of electromagnetic waves; particle aspect of these waves.
What is a photon?
A device that converts electromagnetic radiation into electrical energy.
What is a photovoltaic cell?
The study of matter and energy and their relationship.
What is Physics?
The electric potential produced by deforming material.
What is piezoelectricity?
Colored material that absorbs certain colors and transmits or reflects others.
What is pigment?
Perceived sound characteristics equivalent to frequency.
What is pitch?
The ratio of the energy of a photon to its frequency.
What is Planck's Constant?
A flat, smooth surface that reflects light regularly.
What is a plane mirror?
A state of matter in which atoms are separated into electrons and positive ions or bare nuclei.
What is plasma?
An object idealized as so small to be located at only one position.
What is a point object?
A light in which electric fields are all in same plane.
What is polarized light?
The separation between an object and a reference point.
What is position?
A graph of an object’s motion that shows how its position depends on clock reading, or time.
What is a position-time graph?
An antiparticle equivalent of an electron.
What is a positron?
The difference in electric potential between two points.
What is potential difference?
The energy of an object due to its position or state.
What is potential energy?
An electrical device with variable resistance; rheostat.
What is a potentiometer?
The rate of doing work; rate of energy conversion.
What is power?
The degree of exactness in a measurement.
What is precision?
Amount of force per unit area.
What is pressure?
A transformer coil that, when connected to voltage source, creates varying magnetic flux.
What is a primary coil?
Red, green, or blue light.
What are primary light colors?
Yellow, green, or magenta light.
What is primary pigment?
The line connecting center of curvature of spherical mirror with its geometric vertex. Line perpendicular to plane of lens passing through its center.
What is the principal axis?
Principle stating the displacement due to two or more forces is equal to vector sum of forces.
What is the Principle of Superposition?
The motion of objects given initial velocity that then move only under force of gravity.
What are projectiles?
A subatomic particle with positive charge that is nucleus of hydrogen atom.
What is a proton?
A quantity that cannot be divided into smaller increments forever, for which there exists a minimum, quantum increment.
What is quantized?
The study of properties of matter using its wave properties.
What is quantum mechanics?
An atomic model in which only probability of locating electron is known.
What is the quantum model of atom?
The integer ratio of energy to its quantum increment.
What is quantum number?
The basic building block of protons, neutrons, other baryons, and mesons.
What is a quark?
A model in which all particles that interact via the strong interaction are composed of two or three quarks.
What is quark model?
Electromagnetic waves that carry energy.
What is radiation?
A spontaneous change of unstable nuclei into other nuclei.
What is radioactive decay?
Materials that undergo radioactive decay.
What are radioactive materials?
The horizontal distance between launch point of projectile and where it returns to launch height.
What is the range of projectile?
Model in which light may be represented by straight line along direction of motion.
What is the ray model of light?
The study of light using ray model.
What are ray optics?
Two optical images are separable if central bright spot of one image falls on first dark band of second.
What is Rayleigh Criterion?
An optical image at which rays from object converge.
What is a real image?
A device that detects electromagnetic waves.
What is a receiver?
Location at which potential energy is chosen to be zero.
What is a reference level?
A zero location in a coordinate system or frame of reference.
What is a reference point?
A change in direction of light ray when passing one medium to another.
What is refraction?
The ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to that in the medium.
What is refractive index?
The ratio of potential difference across device to current through it.
What is resistance?
A force exerted by a machine.
What is resistance force?
A device designed to have a specific resistance.
What is a resistor?
A variable that changes as a result of change in manipulated variable.
What is a responding variable?
An energy due to the mass of an object; E= mc^ 2.
What is rest energy?
The vector sum of two or more vectors.
What is resultant?
Rules used to find force on current or moving particle in magnetic field; used to find direction of magnetic field caused by current or of induced EMF.
What are right-hand rules?
A nuclear model of an atom; essentially all mass in compact, positively- charged object at center, surrounded by electrons.
What is Rutherford's Model of an Atom?
A quantity, like distance, that has only a magnitude, or size.
What is a scalar?
A representation of electric circuit using symbols.
What is a schematic diagram?
Numbers expressed in form M * 10 ^ n , where 1< M < 10, and n is an integer.
What is scientific notation?
A flash of light emitted when a substance is struck by radiation.
What is scintillation?
The SI unit of time.
What is a second?
Law stating that heat flows only from region of high temperature to region of lower temperature.
What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
A transformer coil in which varying EMF is induced.
What is a secondary coil?
Yellow, cyan, or magenta light.
What are secondary light colors?
Red, green, or blue pigment.
What is secondary pigment?
Induced EMF produced in coil by changing current.
What is self-inductance?
A material in which electrical conduction is smaller than that in a conductor, but more than in insulator.
What is a semiconductor?
A circuit in which electrical current flows through each component, one after another.
What is a series circuit?
An arrangement of electrical devices so that there is only one path through which current can flow.
What is a series connection?
A low resistance connection between two points, often accidental.
What is a short circuit?
An internationally agreed -upon method of using the metric system of measurement.
What is SI?
Reliable digits reported in a measurement.
What are significant digits?
Motion caused by linear restoring that has a period independent of amplitude of motion.
What is simple harmonic motion?
A machine consisting of only one lever, inclined plane, wedge, screw, pulley, or wheel and axle.
What is a simple machine?
The ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse.
What is sine?
A force between two surfaces in relative motion.
What is sliding friction?
The ratio of the vertical separation, or rise to the horizontal separation, or run.
What is slope?
A state of matter with fixed volume and shape.
What is Solid?
A quantity measuring logarithm of sound intensity in decibels.
What is sound level?
A device used to detect a path of charged subatomic particles by a spark that jumps along path of ionization created in a gas.
What is a spark chamber?
The thermal energy needed to change temperature of unit mass of substance one Kelvin.
What is specific heat?
A device used to study spectrum of material.
What is a spectroscope?
A collection of wavelengths in electromagnetic spectrum.
What is a spectrum?
The ratio of the distance traveled to time interval.
What is speed?
In vacuum, 2.9979458 * 10^8 m/s.
What is the speed of light?
The inability of spherical mirror to focus all parallel rays to a single point.
What is spherical aberration?
A wave with stationary nodes.
What is a standing wave?
The force that opposes the start of motion between two surfaces.
What is static friction?
A transformer with an output voltage smaller than input voltage.
What is a step-down transformer?
A transformer with an output voltage larger than input voltage.
What is a step-up transformer?
An emission of a photon from an excited atom caused by impact of a photon of the same energy.
What is a stimulated emission?
A force of very short range that holds neutrons and protons in nucleus together.
What is a strong nuclear force?
An electrical conductor that has no resistance and low temperatures.
What is a superconductor?
A wave on surface of liquid with characteristics of both longitudinal and transverse waves.
What is a surface wave?
A property that is now charged when operation or reference frame is charged.
What is symmetry?
A device to accelerate particles in which particles move in circular path.
What is a synchrotron?
A defined collection of objects.
What is a system?
The ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side.
What is tangent?
The measure of hotness of an object on a quantitative scale. In gases, proportional to average kinetic energy of molecules.
What is Temperature?
The velocity of falling object reached when force of air resistance equals weight.
What is terminal velocity?
A charge used, in principle, to measure electric field.
What is a test charge?
Internal energy. Sum of kinetic and potential energy of random motion of particles making up object.
What is thermal energy?
A state between two or more bodies where temperatures do not change.
What is thermal equilibrium?
The increase of length or volume of object due to change in temperature.
What is thermal expansion?
A device used to measure temperature.
What is a thermometer?
What is a thermonuclear reaction?
Light interference caused by reflection from both front and rear surface of thin layer of liquid or solid.
What is thin-film interference?
Sound quality or tone color; spectrum of sound frequencies that produce a complete wave.
What is timbre?
The difference in time between two clock readings.
What is a time interval?
A type of fusion reactor.
What is a Tokamak?
Timbre or tone quality.
What is tone color?
The product of force and the lever arm.
What is torque?
The path followed by a projectile.
What is trajectory?
A device to transform energy from one electrical circuit to another by means of mutual inductance between two coils.
What is a transformer?
A semiconductor device that controls large current by means of small voltage changes.
What is a transistor?
Material transmitting light without but distorting its path.
What is translucent?
A nuclear change from one element to another.
What is transmutation?
Material transmitting light without distorting directions of waves.
What is transparent?
A wave in which disturbance is perpendicular to direction of travel of wave.
What is a transverse wave?
A moving, periodic disturbance in a medium or field.
What is a traveling wave?
A branch of math that deals with the relationship among angles and sides of triangles.
What is trigonometry?
The low point of wave motion, where displacement is most negative.
What is the trough of a wave?
What is uniform acceleration?
A motion in a circle of constant radius with constant speed.
What is uniform circular motion?
In a solid, the range of energies of electrons that are bound to atoms.
What is the valence band?
A quantity having both magnitude (size) and direction.
What is a vector quantity?
The process of finding the effective value of a component in a given direction.
What is vector resolution?
The ratio of change in position to time interval over which change takes place.
What is velocity?
A plot of velocity of object as a function of time.
What is a velocity-time graph?
A point from which light rays appear to diverge without actually doing so.
What is a virtual image?
A fluid that creates force that opposes motion of objects through it. The force is proportional to object’s speed.
What is a viscous fluid?
A liquid that is easily vaporized.
What is a volatile liquid?
A unit of power, one joule per second.
What is a Watt?
The distance between corresponding points on two successive waves.
What is wavelength?
A single disturbance moving through a medium or field.
What is a wave pulse?
A particle that carries or transmits the weak interaction of force.
What is a weak boson?
A force involved in beta decay of the neutron and atomic nuclei; one aspect of the electroweak force.
What is a weak interaction?
The force of gravity of an object.
What is weight?
An object in freefall, on which only the gravitational force acts.
What is weightlessness?
A chamber containing supersaturated vapor through which ionizing radiation leaves trails of visible droplets.
What is a Wilson cloud chamber?
The product of force and displacement in the direction of the force.
What is work?
The energy needed to remove an electron from metal.
What is work function?
Theory stating that the work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy.