Topography of the Heart
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The heart sits between which ribs?
What is the area where the heart makes contact with the thoracic wall called?
The cardiac notch
Which nerve passes over the heart to reach the diaphragm?
The phrenic nerve
What happens to the vagus nerve as it passes over the base of the heart?
It splits into dorsal and ventral branches and then they rejoin before passing through the diaphragm in the oesophageal hiatus
Which sits on towards the right/left: trachea, oesophagus?
Trachea - right. Oesophagus - left
What side does the aorta lie towards: right or left?
How many pairs of ribs do the following species have? a) horse b) ruminants c) pigs d) dog/cat
What is the minimum area for auscultation of the lungs in a normal animal?
The area of contact between the lung and the thoracic wall at the end of expiration
In a diseased state the minimum area changes, give an example when this area would increase/decrease?
- Increase - if lung becomes enlarged e.g. alveolar emphysema
- Decrease - if lung is partially collapsed e.g. pleural effusion
What are the cranial, dorsal and caudal boundaries for auscultation of the lungs?
- Cranial - caudal edge of triceps brachii muscle
- Dorsal - parallel to vertebral column but below the epaxial muscles
- Caudal - basal border of the lung at the end of expiration
What are the position of the heart valves for auscultation?
- Pulmonary - left, 3rd intercostal space
- Aortic - left, 4th intercostal space
- Mitral - left 5th intercostal space
- Tricupsid - right, 4th intercostal space
Where is the best place to palpate the heart?
On the apical heartbeat, left side
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