Plant Biology Test 2

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tresa
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298949
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Plant Biology Test 2
Updated:
2015-05-05 20:17:45
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ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
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  1. Meiosis
  2. Homologous chromosomes
    a set of one maternal chromosome and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis. These copies have the same genes in the same locations, or loci.
  3. allele
    different variations of the same gene
  4. Phloem
    cells specialized to transport organic materials synthesized by plant
  5. cortex (roots)
    • parenchyma cells for starch storage and air spaces
    • endodermis
    • casparian strips to repel water
    • passage cells
  6. Primary growth in roots, 
    dicot/monocot
    vascular tissue maturation

    • xylem cells mature 1st, usually sm diameter cells
    • shatter as other cells elongate around periphery
    • later maturing xylem will be in place (<cell diameter)

    • dicot root

    • monocot root
  7. Primary growth in stems, 
    dicot/monocot
    • Growth:
    • shoot apical meristem
    • -zone of cell: division, elongation, maturation
    • -protected by leaves/scales
    • -node/internode
    • -lateral bud
    • -leaf bud

    • vascular layer
    • function = transport/structure
    • includes p, x, fibers, pith (parenchyma cells), cambium (in some)

    • dicot stem:

    • monocot stem:
  8. Leaves
    • Prophyll
    • Microphyll
    • Megaphyll

    • epidermal cells (cuticle, epidermal c, bulliform c, stomata)
    • cortex
    • vasc tissue (and bundle sheath)

    • dicot leaf:

    • monocot leaf:
  9. types of roots
    • storage roots - sweet potato
    • epiphyte roots - velamen layers of empty cells that absorb/hold water for gradual transport to other parts of plant and epidermis. orchids
  10. homospory
    producing one type of spore, giving rise to the gametophyte by mitosis
  11. heterospory
    production of two types of spores, the megaspore and the microspore
  12. 1st plants
    • just stems
    • no leaves/roots
    • stems may have photosynthesized
    • microphylls = leaves w/ 1 bundle of x/p
    • sporangia -> hap spores -> gametophyte
  13. Phylum Lycophyta
    • ground cedar,
    • princess pine

    seedless!
  14. Phylum Lycophyta,
    Family Lycopodiaceae
    • ground cedar, seedless
    • sporophyte - branching rhizome, areal branches, true roots
    • microphylls spirally arranged
    • sporangia on sporophylls clustered on strobilus
    • homosporus - spores only produce bisexual gametophytes (long lived)
  15. homosporus
    spores only produce bisexual gametophytes

    spores produce gametophytes with both antheridia and archegonia
  16. Family Selaginellaceae
    Shinning club moss

    • Like lycopodiophyta:
    • microphylls (wannabe leaf) on strobili
    • often creeping growth habitat
    • sporangia on sporophylls clustered on strobilus

    • unlike lycopodiophyta:
    • Heterosporus, microspores produce m gametophytes, megaspores produce f gametophytes
  17. Family Isoetaceae
    • large microphylls
    • sporophylls
    • heterosporus - mega/micro spores
    • gametophyte unisexual
  18. Phylum Monilophyta
    • ferns and relatives
    • 2nd only to flowering plants in diversity
    • most abundant/diverse in tropical envs

    true leaves (fronds), sporangia
  19. Life cycle of a fern
    • dom sporophyte
    • water for fertilization
    • indep gametophyte (prothallus)
    • new sporo gen dependent on gametophyte
    • pollen for reprod w/o water

  20. Equisetopsida
    scouring rushes and horsetails

    • scale-like leavesjointed stems
    • separate sporangiophore containing sporangia
    • sporangia on undersides of sporangiophores
    • homosporous
  21. Polypodiopsida
    • rhizomes and true roots&leaves
    • homosporus

    • sporangia always on lower leaf surface,
    • -may be grouped in sori
    • -often produced during devel by inusium
    • Layers
    • -outer: annulus, lip cells
    • -tapetum
    • -spore mother cells inside
  22. Coniferophyta general
    • xylem (wood) tissue: tracheids
    • phloem (nutrient-conducting)
    • tissue: sieve element
    • leaves: modified into needles
    • thick cuticle
    • low surface/volume
    • few stomata
    • sporophyte (diploid) dominate part of life cycle
  23. Coniferophyta sexual reproduction
    • Microsporangiate strobilus
    • produces pollen grains, 4n cells by meiosis
    • pollen grain - outer spore protects microgametophyte inside

    • Megasporangiate cone
    • woody, ovuliferous scale and sterile bract branch off of central axis 
    • f gametophyte produce by megaspore

    • ovule:


    megaspore mother cell (2n)-> megagametophyte w/ 2 archegonia embedded in it (egg cell)

    only 1 functional megaspore (n) per megasporangium
  24. Coniferophyta seed
    fertilized, mature ovule

  25. Other gymnosperm groups may have
    • flagellated sperm
    • broad leaves
    • double fertilization
    • vessel elements as xylem tissue
  26. Cycadophyta
    • gymnosperm
    • palm-like tropical plants
    • separate male and female plants (dioecious)
    • circinate vernation
  27. Flowering plants general
    • seed plants
    • sporophyte dominant 2n
    • vascular
    • heterosporus
    • f gam retained by sporophyte
    • flowers
    • darwin's abominable mystery
  28. Flower parts
  29. what makes up stem epidermis
    • culticle
    • stomata (guard cells, air space)
    • epidermal cels
    • hairs (trichomes)
  30. what makes up stem cortex
    • parenchyma cells
    • collenchyma
    • sclerenchyma
  31. what makes up stem vascular tissue
    • phloem (sieve tube elements, companion cells, phloem fibers)
    • vascular cambium
    • xylem, vessel elements
    • pith - parenchyma cells
  32. what makes up leaf epidermis
    • cuticle
    • stomata - guard cells, air space
    • epidermal cells
    • hairs
  33. what makes up leaves?
    • epidermis
    • ground tissue
    • vascular tissue

  34. what makes up leaf ground tissue (mesophyll)
    • pallisade mesophyll
    • spongy mesophyll
    • air spaces
    • bundle sheath
  35. The first vascular plants had
    • no true roots
    • spores produced in sporangia
  36. Lycopodium and its relatives (the Lycophyta) all produce
    • microphylls
    • one sporangium on each sporophyll
    • separate gametophyte and sporophyte stages to their life
    • cycles
  37. Ferns have
    • have true leaves called megaphylls
    • produce sporangia clustered together in sporangiophores
  38. In conifers the nucellus/megasporangium tissue of an ovule _____.
    is located within the female gametophyte
  39. Water-conserving characteristics of conifers include
    • leaves modified as needles to reduce surface area
    • very thin cuticle layers on epidermal surfaces
    • xylem elements (vessels) that individually hold very large water volumes
  40. The stems of dicot plants differ from those of monocot stem because dicot stems _____ while monocots do not.
    have vascular bundles arranged in a ring-like pattern
  41. In a vascular plant context explain the difference between a spore and a gamete.
    • spores germinate to form a new haploid gametophyte plant  
    • gametes fuse with other gametes to form the zygote and restore diploid number,
  42. Why is a seed considered such an important adaptation in the evolution of plants?
    • seed coat protects embryo inside from outside
    • env
    • allows the embryo to remain dormant until the
    • presence of water
    • aide dispersal (wind, water, animal foot, burrs)     
    • contains nourishment for the developing embryo
  43. The four living phyla
    of gymnosperms are not particularly closely related in an evolutionary sense,
    however, these phyla are still collectively called “gymnosperms”. Explain why
    the term is validly applied to the conifers, cycads, ginkgo, and the Gnetales.
    • they all produce seeds not enclosed within an
    • ovary
    • they are all vascular, sporophyte dominant
    • plants, heterosporous
  44. antheridium
    the haploid structure that produces/contains male gametes.
  45. endodermis
    the central, innermost layer of the cortex. includes the hydrophobic Casparian strip.
  46. homologous chromosome
    the pair of mother/father chromosome that comes together during meiosis.
  47. microspore
    produces male gametophyte (pollen)/4n cells by meiosis in the microsporangium
  48. ovule
    produces female reproductive cells. includes integument, nucellus, f gametophyte
  49. root apical meristem
    source of new cell growth, contains the protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
  50. list 3 types of tissues found in roots, stems, and leaves of vasc plants and state  primary function of each
    • x/p vasc bundle, transport water/organic/inorganic mat
    • epidermis  protects, control what goes in/out
    • cortex - provides structural support, carries out metabolic processes such as starch storage and/or photo synth
  51. during the first half of meiosis (pro1--tel-1), homologous pairs of chromosomes consists of a total of ___ chromatids.
    four
  52. each haploid cell that is the product of meiosis and cytokinesis is genetical distinct b/c of the rearrangement of genetic info during the ____ steps of meiosis.
    • prophase 1
    • metaphase 1
  53. non-seed vasc plants such as ___ produce 2 kinds of spores, one that will produce a f gamethophyte and 1 that will produce a m game.
    selaginella (shining club moss)

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