World Regional Geography

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World Regional Geography
2015-04-05 18:56:34

Definitions from World Regional Geography: A developmental Approach, 11th Edition
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  1. A black political group in South Africa, committed to majority rule and abolition of apartheid; victorious in the 1994 national elections, the first in which blacks could participate.
    African National Congress (ANC)
  2. A major cooperative organization that consists of 54 African states and began functioning in 2002.
    African Union (AU)
  3. A period characterized by the domestication of plants and animals and the development of farming.
    Agricultural Revolution
  4. With domestication of plants and animals, agricultural productivity soared to the point that some farmers produced more than they consumed, creating surpluses.
    Agricultural surplus
  5. A form of tourism in which city dwellers pay for a back-to-the-land vacation that involves helping farmers with harvesting or food processing.
  6. The sustainable harvesting of food and other forest products.
  7. (A.D. 1099-1166) Cartographer, geographer, and traveler famed for creating a map inscribed on a silver ball for King Roger II of Sicily.
    Al-Idrisi, Muhammad
  8. The flat alluvial plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in southern Iraq.
  9. Material, often very fertile, that has been transported and deposited by water.
  10. A sequence of climate zones in mountain areas that vary with elevation as temperature and precipitation change.
    Altitudinal life zones
  11. A river in Uzbekistan that flows into the Aral Sea.
    Amu Darya river
  12. Area of Cambodia where monumental ruins stand as testimony to the agricultural productivity and trade capabilities of this once-powerful empire.
    Angkor Wat
  13. The Land of the Long White Cloud was the name given by the indigenous Maori people to the North Island of New Zealand.
  14. The former policy of the South African government that maintained strict white-nonwhite segregation.
  15. The Appalachian Mountains region of the eastern United States, constituted in part by the Blue Ridge/Great Smokies and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces.
    Appalachian Highlands
  16. Underground, water-bearing rock strata.
  17. A Semitic people of the Middle East and North Africa who share a common language, cultural history, and religion (Islam).
  18. A sea in the southern drylands of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan that is rapidly shrinking due to massive water diversion from its two river sources for desert irrigation projects.
    Aral Sea
  19. A geographic perspective that emphasizes the study of specific regions and an understanding of the varied aspects of those regions.
    Area studies tradition
  20. Dryness; the dominant climatic characteristic of the world's desert and semidesert regions. Generally found in interior continental locations or in coastal areas bordering cold ocean currents.
  21. (384-322 b.c.) First Greek geographer to divide the world into three broad climatic zones. Author of Meteorologica in which he discussed the physical characteristics of the earth.
  22. Established in 1992 to reduce tariffs on trade between member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
    ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
  23. Jews originating from northern, western, and eastern Europe.
  24. A political-economic organization formed in 1967 to promote cooperation among and trade between member nations. Originally composed of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, the group was joined by Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia by 1999.
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  25. A large dam project that was begun on the Nile River at Aswan in the 1960s. The project's goals were to make year-round cropping possible on virtually all Nile River valley land, provide water with which to increase cultivated acreage in Saharan oases (the New Valley Project), generate hydroelectric power for industry, and protect the Nile Valley from destructive floods.
    Aswan High Dam
  26. Budget cutting, job reduction, or other cost-reducing measures by governments in an effort to slow the growth of government-held debt.
    Austerity measures
  27. Signed in 2005, the agreement has attempted to stimulate increased trade by eliminating some of the tariff barriers between the two countries.
    Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA)
  28. The average total precipitation during the year, expressed in inches or millimeters. Precipitation figures are presented in rainfall equivalents but include all forms of precipitation.
    Average annual precipitation
  29. An important indigenous ethnic and linguistic group of Peru and Bolivia.
  30. One of the four high civilizations of pre-Columbian Latin America, centered on the area around present-day Mexico City.
  31. Military leaders, who exercised power "behind the scenes" and controlled family-based feudal territories, dominated Japan from 1100-1850 until the Meiji Restoration reestablished the Emperor's authority.
  32. The breakup or fragmentation of a large political unit into several smaller units, such as that which occurred in the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  33. Phrase coined to describe countries with a single export crop whose economy and political system is controlled by foreign companies and a domestic elite.
    Banana republic
  34. A low structure placed across a stream to block the flow of water and divert the impounded water for irrigation purposes.
  35. A portion of a Middle Eastern city, such as a street or cluster of streets with covered roofs where shopkeepers and merchants are located, but also serving as an informal network of family, craft, and professional associations that manage and control the major traditional industrial and commercial activities of the economy.
    Bazaar (or suq)
  36. Arabs who live by nomadic herding in the deserts of North Africa and the Middle East.
  37. An approach that emphasizes human action and the role that behavior plays in society.
    Behavioral perspective
  38. The countries of Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
  39. A pre-Arabic culture group of Morocco and Algeria, many of whom now speak Arabic and are Muslims.
  40. The 1884 conference of European powers that marked the beginning of the formal era of colonialism in Africa by dividing Africa among these powers.
    Berlin Conference
  41. A conservative Hindu-based political party in India which often has been reluctant to compromise with Muslim and Sikh interests. This has slowed efforts by some to seek common approaches to development challenges.
    Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
  42. The number of births occurring in a given year per 1,000 people.
  43. A policy of the South African government that stresses developing enhanced employment opportunities and better business ownership conditions for blacks.
    Black Economic Empowerment (BEE)
  44. A banana-shaped zone stretching from England across northwest Europe and into northern Italy with a large concentration of industry, infrastructure, and people.
    Blue Banana
  45. A struggle between Bolivia's highland and lowland regions for control of the natural gas resources that provide income for Bolivia's social welfare programs.
    Bolivian gas wars
  46. A Russian word meaning "majority", now taken to mean a Communist, or adherent of communism.
  47. A geographer, mathematician, and navigator who published the first accurate navigation tables for mariners.
    Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773-1838)
  48. A group of countries that are regarded as emerging economies with increasing global economic power.
    BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) countries
  49. English company established in 1600 to trade with India. In pursuit of its commercial interests, the company eventually exercised political and military control over large parts of India until it was replaced by direct British rule in 1858.
    British East India Company
  50. Areas where formerly prosperous industrial zones have experienced industrial decline and job loss with accompanying property abandonment and reduced tax base.
  51. A religion that emerged in India from the teachings of Siddharha Gautama or Buddha ("awakened one") in the fifth century b.c., spread widely in eastern and central Asia, and remains an important faith in Bhutan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.
  52. In China, supportive government policy and private capital are combined to achieve high levels of economic growth.
    Bureaucratic capitalism
  53. The practice in which large companies employ specialized companies, often located in distant countries, to provide services such as call centers in order to reduce labor costs.
    Business process outsourcing (BPO)
  54. A process occurring in dry regions where limited precipitation results in less leaching of soluble materials and thus the accumulation of calcium carbonates in the soil.
  55. A relatively smooth glaciated land surface region that nearly encircles the Hudson Bay and extends southward to the Great Lakes area of the United States. Consists of thin soils, stony surfaces, and areas with no soil at all.
    Canadian Shield
  56. A policy that charges emitters of the waste products that cause climate change for the cost of their pollution, either by a monetary tax on the volume of emissions or the revocation of permits to operate.
    Carbon pricing
  57. The result of Western colonial powers forcing peasant farmers to dedicate a portion of their farmland to the cultivation of export crops.
    Cash cropping system
  58. A large, internally draining body of salty water in southern Russia, into which the Volga River empties, that lies approximately 90 feet (27 meters) below sea level.
    Caspian Sea
  59. A rigid system of social stratification based on occupation, with a person's position passed on by inheritance; derived from the Hindu culture.
    Caste system
  60. Two ranges that stretch from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea.
    Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus (Caucasus Mountains)
  61. Descendants of central European tribes of peoples who arrived in the British Isles and the Brittany area of France around 2000 B.C.E.
  62. The Celts developed languages distinctive from others in western Europe; the numbers of native speakers of Celtic languages (Breton, Scots Gaelic, Irish Erse, and Welsh) are in decline today.
  63. Important to the development of Central Asia during the Soviet era. The government in the U.S.S.R's capital, Moscow, made all political, economic, and cultural decisions and put them into practice throughout the U.S.S.R.
  64. A select few megacorporations in South Korea.
  65. The practice of initial migrants to a country to sponsor a stream of family members to their new location.
    Chain migration
  66. Site of a nuclear plant disaster in 1986 in the former Soviet Union that has left a sizable portion of Ukraine and Belarus contaminated.
  67. A Russian term referring to the fertile black soils of the steppe or semiarid zone of Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan; similar soils in other parts of the world.
  68. Mexican term for highly productive raised agricultural beds in former wetland areas.
  69. Also known as the Communist Party of China (CPC), this nationalistic and socialist movement was founded in Shanghai in 1921 and came to power after World War II when it defeated its arch rival, the Kuomintang (KMT) Party, in the Chinese Civil War.
    Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
  70. The migration of large numbers of Chinese from China to other countries.
    Chinese diaspora
  71. The fundamental geographic perspective that emphasizes the importance of place.
    Chorological framework
  72. The fundamental historic perspective that emphasizes the importance of time.
    Chronological framework.
  73. A composite index that measures the productivity, infrastructure, quality of life, equity, and environmental sustainability of urban areas.
    City Prosperity Index (CPI)
  74. A sovereign country consisting of a dominant urban unit and surrounding tributary areas.
  75. The dominant place of clan families in defining the political and legal status of people in Africa.
  76. The average temperature, precipitation, and wind conditions expressed for an extended period of years; prevailing conditions over time.
  77. Any shift in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic characteristics that alter prevailing conditions and move the climate system toward a different state.
    Climate change
  78. The period of hostility, just short of open warfare, between the Soviet Union and the United States and its allies, essentially from 1945 to the mid-1960s, although its end is often dated as 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall.
    Cold War
  79. A form of government-organized and supervised large-scale agricultural organization in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; a collective leased land from the government, and workers received a share of net returns to the organization.
    Collective farms
  80. The process of forming collective or communal farms, especially in communist countries; nationalization of private landholdings.
    Collectivization of agriculture
  81. The system by which some powers controlled foreign possessions, usually for economic exploitation; most prevalent from the sixteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries; essential to understanding contemporary development in many developing regions.
  82. Centrally controlled and planned livelihood system; the best example is the communist form of economic organization.
    Command economy
  83. European Union agricultural policy with the aim to protect small farms, set uniform agricultural standards throughout the EU, and encourage beneficial exchange between the richer and poorer parts of the Union.
    Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
  84. An uncompromising allegiance to a particular ethnic or religious group.
  85. In the former Soviet Union, this Party's original purpose was to advance the social revolution; in practice, the party also took control over the soviets - the governing councils.
    Communist Party
  86. The idea that a given area gains by specializing in one or more products for which it has particular relative advantages; leads to trade to obtain other needed commodities.
    Comparative advantage
  87. The philosophy based on the writings and teachings of Confucius, which emphasized the importance of living a virtuous life characterized by obligations to others.
  88. The Spanish conquerors of America, particularly sixteenth-century Mexico and Peru.
  89. A climate defined by the extreme heating and cooling characteristics of land rather than water, with hot summers and cold winters.
    Continental climate
  90. A measure of distance from the oceans. Generally speaking, the more inland, or continental a location, the drier its climate and the greater its temperature range are likely to be.
  91. A situation where some regions lag behind in economic development and thus form a periphery to a more powerful and prosperous core.
    Core-periphery dynamic
  92. An extensive region in the central part of the United States with rich soils where corn and hogs once dominated farm output, but where soy beans and other crops now are also common.
    Corn Belt
  93. An active transformation in which people alter their habitat to produce a new, human-dominated system that meets human needs. Something must be destroyed in order to create the conditions that promote benefits for humankind.
    Creative destruction
  94. Collective name for persons of mixed European (usually French or Spanish) and black heritage who often speak a French or Spanish dialect of the same name and are prominent in Guyana, Suriname, Haiti, and French Guiana.
  95. A system of government in which networks of friends and allies maintain themselves in power by using their official position to extract "rent" from businesses and property owners in return for protection.
    Crony capitalism
  96. A place where contrasting cultures meet and often clash.
    Crossroads location
  97. The upheaval in China during the 1960s when old cultural patterns were condemned and new Maoist patterns were strongly enforced.
    Cultural Revolution
  98. A group of culture traits that are activated together; for example, how clothing is made and distributed to consumers.
    Culture complex
  99. The source area for particular traits and complexes.
    Culture hearth
  100. An area within which the population possesses similar traits and complexes; for example, the Chinese realm or Western society.
    Culture realm
  101. A single element or characteristic of a group's culture, for example, dress style.
    Culture trait
  102. Indian Ocean hurricanes.
  103. An extended region from Nova Scotia to Minnesota where moist, cool conditions and nearby urban markets favor specialization in dairy production.
    Dairy Belt
  104. The principal heavy-industrial region of India, located west of Calcutta, with Jamshedpur serving as the region's focus.
    Damodar Valley
  105. The number of deaths occurring in a given year per 1,000 people in a given area.
    Death rate
  106. An elevated (2,000-3,000 feet/600-900 meters above sea level) surface in southern India, rich in minerals, but limited in its agricultural potential due to its relative dryness.
    Deccan Plateau
  107. Loss of trees in an area, sometimes caused by physical factors such as fires, floods, pests, etc., but more often human-induced (caused by agriculture, logging, and fuelwood consumption).
  108. Refers to the severe decline of primary and secondary mass-production industries in industrialized countries after 1950.
  109. The benefit that results when reduced child mortality, declining fertility, greater economic growth, and improved health care and education produce a larger working-age population, fewer dependents, and greater economic returns.
    Demographic dividend
  110. A theory of the relationship between birthrates and death rates, as well as urbanization and industrialization, based on Western European experience.
    Demographic transition
  111. Dominated the Chinese government from 1976 until his death in 1997, during which time China began to emulate the capitalist economies of its East Asian neighbors.
    Deng Xiaoping
  112. The process by which desert conditions are expanded; occurs in response to naturally changing environments and the destruction of soils and vegetation brought on by human overuse; takes place on the margins of desert regions.
  113. Areas of extreme dryness where human settlement and economic development is severely constrained by lack of water.
  114. A process of change that leads to improved well-being in people's lives, takes into account the needs of future generations, and is compatible with local cultural and environmental contexts.
  115. The process by which a country's national government yields some of its powers to local authorities.
  116. The process whereby cultural groups and their goods and innovations move across and settle the landscape (for example settlers moving into new territories).
    Diffusion process
  117. Long earthen embankments that are used to shield land from the sea.
  118. Dikes have been used extensively in the Netherlands as an effort to reclaim land from the sea for agricultural purposes.
  119. The axis of an extensive trade network that linked the Baltic and Black Sea regions starting in the tenth century.
    Dnieper River
  120. "Economic renovation"; a program adopted by Vietnam's leaders in the 1980s to attract foreign investment.
    Doi moi
  121. Agriculture wherein farmers rely exclusively on rainfall to produce their crops.
    Dry farming
  122. A modern plantation or other commercial agricultural entity operating in the midst of traditional cropping systems.
    Dual economic system
  123. Russia's principle legislative assembly; this body was established first in 1906 by the Tsar to create a more representative base for imperial government, disappeared after the Bolsheviks seized power in 1917, and reemerged after 1993 when democratic forms of governance replaced the Soviet Union.
  124. A geographic perspective in which emphasis is on understanding the natural environment and the processes shaping that environment.
    Earth science tradition
  125. African valley that begins in the north with the Red Sea, extending 6,000 miles (9,700 kilometers) through Ethiopia to the Lake Victoria region, where it divides into eastern and western segments and continues southward.
    East African Rift Valley
  126. Adaptation of Western methods to indigenous culture and values.
    East Asian Model
  127. Christian branch created from the split of the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 1054. In this schism, the western church became Roman Catholicism, and the Greek church became ____.
    Eastern Orthodoxy
  128. Initially centered in Greek-speaking areas and focused on the city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul), the Eastern Orthodox church has now expanded into a collection of 14 self-governing churches with the Russian Orthodox Church being the largest. It is the dominant Christian branch in southern and eastern Europe and represents more than 10 percent of the world's Christians.
  129. Created in 1975, it is one of Africa's largest regional organizations. Among its objectives are the establishment of a common customs tariff, a common trade policy, and the free movement of capital and people.
    Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  130. The assemblage of interdependent plants and animals in particular environments.
  131. The travel to natural areas to understand the physical and cultural qualities of the region, while producing economic opportunities and conserving the natural environment.
  132. The warm, irregularly occurring, equatorial surface current whose southward movement along the western coast of South America blocks the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water and disrupts typical regional weather patterns. Its name in Spanish (the little boy or the child) derives from its folk association in late December with Christmas.
    El Nino
  133. Grants of authority and responsibility from the Spanish crown to Europeans in Latin America; included control over large parcels of land and became a mechanism by which Europeans and their descendants gained and maintained control over land and indigenours villages.
  134. Plants or animals that are found only in one area and nowhere else.
    Endemic species
  135. A state achieved when an energy mix is created whose component fuels are accessible, affordable, efficient, and environmentally sustainable.
    Energy security
  136. The principle of managing environmental resources with a view to their long-term sustainability.
    Environmental stewardship
  137. (ca. 276-ca. 196 b.c.) Greek geographer from Alexandria, Egypt who accurately measured the earth's circumference and recognized the need for maps to show relationships between one region and another.
  138. Groups that differ ethnically, linguistically, or religiously from a country's majority, and may seek independence or autonomy on that basis.
    Ethnic minorities
  139. A policy initiative in which the EU encourages trade relations and other common activities with neighbors on its immediate frontiers.
    European Neighborhood Policy
  140. An association of member states that have voluntarily given up some decision-making rights to serve a greater good of European integration.
    European Union (EU)
  141. A view that rejects the idea and process of European integration.
  142. Those countries in the European Union who use the euro as their currency.
  143. The combined loss of water from direct evaporation and transpiration by plants.
    Evapotranspiration rate
  144. An internationally recognized right of control exerted by nation-states over marine resources for 200 nautical miles from their coastline.
    Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
  145. Those foreign to the area to which they supply water; they gain moisture from outside the region and cross dry areas on their journey to the sea, collecting little (if any) runoff along their lower channels.
    Exotic rivers
  146. Enclaves in countries where materials are imported, processed, and reexported as finished products.
    Export processing zones (EPZ)
  147. A strategy for conserving the biodiversity of Earth's food crops by collecting as many varieties as possible of wheat, maize, rice, potatoes, beans, cassava, and other crops and storing seeds and cuttings in seed banks.
    Ex-situ conservation
  148. A space economy of regionally based urbanization in which the proliferation of manufacturing facilities in rural locations along urban-centered transportation corridors has caused the social and economic traits of rural spaces and their residents to become urban in character. For example, megacities such as Jakarta, Manila, and Bangkok, whose populations exceed 10 million inhabitants and which include villages and paddy fields from which industries draw labor, are considered extended metropolitan regions.
    Extended Metropolitan Region (EMR)
  149. European territories that are legacies of the colonial era, such as the Spanish Canary Islands.
    Extraterritorial possessions
  150. The imposition of foreign laws to the exclusion of local laws, allowing foreign citizens to operate as if they were on their native soil and making foreigners of indigenous people who live in such jurisdictions, such as the former treaty ports in China.
  151. Black Jews of Ethiopia, who were converted to Judaism by Semitic Jews between the first and seventh centuries A.D.
  152. A state in which considerable powers are vested in the individual provinces, and the central government is relatively weaker than in a unitary state.
    Federal state
  153. The administrative framework that provides states or territories a measure of economic and political autonomy.
  154. A perspective that emphasizes the role that women play in economic, political, and social spheres.
    Feminist perspective
  155. A rich agricultural and industrial valley divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan and drained by the Syr Darya river, which provides the water for cotton cultivation.
    Ferghana Valley
  156. The tenets that govern the behavior and belief of faithful Muslims: the creed, prayer, charitable giving, fasting, and pilgrimage (specifically to Mecca).
    Five Pillars of Islam
  157. A strategy in the former Soviet Union for achieving rapid industrialization through centralized management and the forced achievement of production goals.
    Five Year Plan
  158. The encouragement of investments by foreign capital, often in specially designated areas, in an effort to spur economic growth and development.
    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  159. Organic energy sources formed in past geologic times, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The occurrence of fossil fuels is finite and not renewable within a time frame meaningful to humankind.
    Fossil fuels
  160. Releasing natural gas from rock formations by fracturing the rocks with a combination of hydraulic pressure and chemicals.
  161. Enclaves in countries where materials are imported, processed, and reexported as finished products.
    Free trade zones (FTZ)
  162. The area in eastern Canada, primarily along the St. Lawrence River, where settlers of French origin established a long-term presence.
    French Canada Core
  163. The time and effort that is required to overcome physical movement across the landscape. Typically this friction is reduced with the advent of transportation innovations (for example, in 1800, traveling from New York to St. Louis could take one month, whereas today it takes only a few hours).
    Friction of distance
  164. The period during each year when frost is not expected to occur, based on average conditions.
    Frost-free period
  165. A massive development project that involves constructing two dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to provide hydroelectric power and water to irrigate large tracts of dry land in southeastern Turkey.
    GAP Project
  166. A small territory on the southeast coast of the Mediterranean Sea; inhabited by Palestinians and administered since 2007 by Hamas who seized control from the Palestinian Authority.
    Gaza Strip
  167. Government-controlled Russian natural gas company.
  168. Population disparity that occurs when one or the other sex makes up an abnormally large percentage of a population.
    Gender bias
  169. For example, India possesses a gender bias in favor of males.
  170. The system of mathematically determined latitude and longitude lines used to determine the location of every place on Earth's surface.
    Geographic grid
  171. A broadly defined basic research field that combines geography, cartography, geodesy, and information science using geographic information systems as an analytical tool.
    Geographic information science (GIScience)
  172. A computerized tool that allows the gathering, constructing, and manipulating of layers of spatial data for the analysis of a wide range of geographical problems.
    Geographic information systems (GIS)
  173. A field of knowledge concerned with the study of how and why things are distributed over the Earth; includes four basic approaches: (1) the study of distributions, (2) the study of the relationships between people and their environment, (3) the study of regions, and (4) the study of the physical Earth.
  174. Increasing atmospheric temperatures, particularly due to the release of greenhouse gases that are produced by the burning of fossil fuels. When these gases build up, they retain heat within the atmosphere.
    Global warming
  175. The growing integration and interdependence of world communities through a vast network of trade and communication links.
  176. The coast of Queensland in Australia, which is attracting great numbers of international tourists.
    Gold Coast
  177. An industrial district in Canada extending from Toronto to Hamilton, on the western end of Lake Ontario.
    Golden horseshoe
  178. The only elected President of the U.S.S.R., Gorbachev initiated reforms that ultimately resulted in the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
    Gorbachev, Mikhail
  179. The brainchild of Mohammad Younis, this microfinance organization began in Bangladesh in 1976 as a microlender of money to poor villagers, a majority of whom were women. Younis won a Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 for this significant and successful grassroots development initiative.
    Grameen Bank
  180. A 1,400-mile (2,250 kilometer)-long canal between modern-day Hangzhou and the heart of the North China Plain; it facilitated the trading of commodities among the regions of the Chinese empire and continues to move bulk goods today.
    Grand Canal
  181. One third of the total Great Barrier Reef system off Australia's eastern coast is controlled by this authority, whose goal is to limit pollution and control tourism so one of nature's most impressive habitats can be conserved.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
  182. A 1,250-mile (2,000 kilometer)-long reef off the coast of Australia; it is one of the greatest natural wonders of the world.
    Great Barrier Reef
  183. Large inland lakes shared by the United States and Canada and drained by the St. Lawrence River/Seaway. The regions surrounding the lakes are characterized by high levels of agricultural and industrial output.
    Great Lakes
  184. Part of the East African Rift Valley, containing crater lakes and the elongated lakes of Africa's deep trenches.
    Great Lakes of East Africa
  185. China's 1958-1961 attempt to socialize agriculture and increase production in both farming and industry.
    Great Leap Forward
  186. Western portion of the Interior Plains of the United States. Consist of sediments brought down from the Rocky Mountains; vary in elevation from 2,000 feet (600 meters) near the Mississippi River to more than 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) at the base of the Rockies.
    Great Plains
  187. The use of new, high-yielding hybrid plants - mainly rice, corn, and wheat - to increase food supplies; includes the development of the infrastructure necessary for greater production and better distribution to the consumer.
    Green Revolution
  188. Gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and others, that trap heat and cause a greenhouse-like effect as they increase in magnitude in the atmosphere.
    Greenhouse gases (GHGs)
  189. A widely used statistical measure of economic output which factors in differences in cost of living from one country to another, so that the resultant figures are more comparable.
    Gross National Income in Purchasing Power Parity (GNI PPP)
  190. An area of industrial growth in Southeast Asia centered on Singapore, the Malaysian state of Johor, and the Indonesian island of Batam.
    Growth triangle
  191. Workers from other countries who seek employment in the urban industrial centers of foreign nations.
    Guest workers
  192. A regional organization that deals with common problems in a unified manner; consists of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates' countries with large oil reserves, small populations, and a location along the Persian Gulf.
    Gulf Cooperation Council
  193. An extension of the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bordering the southeastern United States, Mexico, and some of the Caribbean Islands.
    Gulf of Mexico
  194. Land surface region, composed of sedimentary materials, that extends in the United States from New Jersey to Texas, and then southward into Mexico.
    Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain
  195. A Spanish term used in Latin America for a large rural landholding, usually devoted to animal grazing; which had a high degree of internal self-sufficiency and operated under a semi-feudal system dominated by criollo owners who resided primarily in urban centers.
  196. A Palestinian political party founded in 1987, Hamas is an Islamic resistance movement opposed to the state of Israel. In addition to carrying out military activities and suicide bombings, Hamas is active in providing a network of social services and programs to Palestinians.
  197. (206 b.c.-A.D. 220) A militarily powerful dynasty that organized the first large-scale empire in East Asia.
    Han dynasty
  198. The Indus River Valley empire, dating back to ca. 2350 b.c.; it centered on the three cities of Harappa, Gan-weriwala, and Mohenjo-Daro. It began to decline ca. 1900 b.c.
    Harappan culture
  199. In a predominantly Sunni Muslim country, a Shi'a Muslim, Persian-speaking ethnic community living in central Afghanistan.
  200. From A.D. 794-1185, at a time when Chinese cultural influences were strong, Japanese imperial court art, literature, and poetry flourished and attained their classical expression.
    Heian period
  201. One of the earliest Greek geographers to map and name the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Known as the father of geography and the father of history. Author of Historia (mid-fifth century b.c.).
    Herodotus (ca. 484-425 b.c.)
  202. One of the national languages of India; one of India's several languages of Indo-European origin.
  203. Major mountain chain in Afghanistan.
    Hindu Kush Mountains
  204. A formalized set of religious beliefs with social and political ramifications; the dominant religion of Indian society.
  205. An area of study, such as geography or history, that synthesizes and integrates knowledge from many fields.
    Holistic discipline
  206. Associations formed by migrants, often from the same town or district, to provide assistance in support of community projects in their home country.
    Home town associations (HTA)
  207. A Chinese policy based on a production contract in which a peasant household is obliged to produce a specific amount of grain or cotton to be sold to the state at a regulated price.
    Household responsibility system
  208. In China, household residency permits were required by law until the late 1970s. Without such permits, it was difficult for rural residents to move to cities because their access to food, jobs, housing, and health care was limited to their home district.
    Hukou registration system
  209. Most widely used indicator of human development levels of countries and regions of the world; derived from life expectancy at birth, educational attainment, and income.
    Human Development Index (HDI)
  210. The study of various aspects of human life that create the distinctive landscapes and regions in the world.
    Human geography
  211. (1769-1859) German geographer, author of Kosmos. He combined information from his studies of Greek, archaeology, and various sciences with extensive field work in Latin America to form an integrated geographic composite view of the world.
    Von Humboldt, Alexander
  212. Humid climate type that possesses warm-to-cool summers and bitterly cold winters.
    Humid continental climate
  213. Areas of warm, moist climate, seasonally exposed to intense cyclonic storms (hurricanes; cyclones), typically located on the southeastern sides of continents.
    Humid subtropical climate
  214. Famous Arab geographer, traveler, and map maker.
    Al-Idrisi, Muhammad (1099-1166)
  215. Manufacturing companies that benefit from policies that favor local production of goods rather than their importation.
    Import substitution industries
  216. Strategies intended to protect infant industries from foreign competition, thereby stimulating local demand for local products and expanding local manufacturing employment opportunities.
    Import-substitution industrialization (ISI)
  217. One of the four high civilizations of pre-Colombian Latin America, centered on the city of Cuzco, Peru, in the Andes and extending from southern Colombia to central Chile.
  218. Significant differences in income between specified groups of people or regions.
    Income disparities
  219. The migration of large numbers of South Asian Indians to other, largely English-speaking countries.
    Indian diaspora
  220. The policy on which British colonial rule was based; its purpose was to incorporate the local power structure into the British administrative structure.
    Indirect rule
  221. The combined lowland alluvial plains of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers. The fertile soils of this well-watered region support half of South Asia's human population.
    Indo-Gangetic Plain
  222. Western political control of colonial territory and economic interests.
    Industrial colonialism
  223. The conversion of former industrial sites for other purposes, such as converting factory buildings into art museums or office parks.
    Industrial reuse
  224. The period of rapid technological change and innovation that began in England in the mid-eighteenth century and subsequently spread worldwide; accompanied by the development of inexpensive, massive amounts of inanimate energy through the use of fossil fuels.
    Industrial Revolution
  225. The number of children per thousand live births who die before reaching the age of one year.
    Infant mortality rate
  226. Jobs not covered by national labor and employment laws, such as street vending, small business operation, and domestic work.
    Informal economy
  227. Groups of structures, often of a temporary nature, that exist outside of formal legal rules and property markets.
    Informal settlements
  228. In contrast to the prehistoric cave dweller and his wall, our ability to produce, store, access, and apply information is massive and nearly instantaneous - truly revolutionary. It is how the information is produced, stored, and accessed that creates a revolution; in the Information Age it comes down to a single transforming technology: the microprocessor.
    Information Revolution
  229. Early factors that propel the development and expansion of particular activities.
    Initial advantage
  230. A strategy for conserving the biodiversity of Earth's food crops through smallholder tropical polyculture. By this method, a farmer may cultivate several varieties of 20 to 30 crops, thus preserving 40 to 120 varieties of food crops in a single plot.
    In-situ conservation
  231. Ones marked by revolt, insurrection, and guerrilla activity from national liberation movements that oppose the established authority.
    Insurgent states
  232. A vast sedimentary accumulation zone between the Appalachian Plateau and the Great Plains, essentially comprising the drainage basins of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers in the United States, and extending northward west of the Canadian Shield as far as the Arctic.
    Interior Lowlands
  233. A large part of the western United States situated between the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains on the west, including the Columbia and Colorado plateaus.
    Interior Plateaus
  234. A condition found in many less-developed countries where local elites, often living in urban cores, exploit the masses, many of whom live in outlying peripheral rural regions.
    Internal colonialism
  235. People who are forced to flee their homes, but who stay in their own country, creating a domestic refugee population.
    Internally displaced people
  236. A low-pressure system created by high temperatures along the equator, which shifts its position following the seasonal movement of the sun north or south of the equator.
    Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
  237. Uprising by Palestinian Arabs against Israeli control of the West Bank.
  238. The use of water derived from either surface streams or groundwater sources to grow crops; often found in arid areas where rainfall is insufficient to produce a reliable crop. Center-pivot irrigation tapping groundwater in the North American Great Plains or the use of Nile River water stored behind Egypt's Aswan Dam are examples.
    Irrigated agriculture
  239. The dominant religion of the Middle East and North Africa. This universalizing belief system was established by the Prophet Mohammed after he began having divine visions beginning in A.D. 610.
  240. Islam (which literally means "submission to the will of Allah, [or God]") has five tenets, or pillars, that must be upheld by its adherents: there is only one God and Mohammed is his Prophet (the creed); the offering of regular prayer; the responsibility of the more prosperous to aid the less fortunate; a fast during the ninth month of the lunar calendar; and the undertaking of a pilgrimage to Mecca.
  241. The narrow strip of land that connects Central and South America.
    Isthmus of Panama
  242. The northernmost Indian state with mixed Hindu and Muslim populations.
    Jammu and Kashmir
  243. The Japanese approach to development, characterized by efficient government and bureaucracy, a sound currency and banking system, growth of education, and effective harnessing of the abilities of the Japanese people.
    Japan Model
  244. The four major caste groups to which all Hindus belong, with Brahmins at the top of the socioeconomic hierarchy and untouchables at the bottom.
  245. Former Jewish settlement areas in eastern Poland.
    Jewish Pale
  246. Members of an ethnic group who claim as their belief system Judaism, a monotheistic religion formed by one of several Semitic peoples who resided in Southwest Asia more than 3,000 years ago.
  247. Subjected to repeated episodes of persecution throughout their history, the majority of the Jewish population became scattered throughout the world but eventually established their homeland of Israel in 1948. Today Jews make up a small but regionally prominent ethnic minority in the Middle East by constituting more than two-thirds of Israel's population.
  248. A stone-age cultural period from which Japanese culture began to emerge around 12,000 years ago.
    Jomon period
  249. A prominent desert east of the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
    Kara Kum desert
  250. Large industrial/financial cliques that formed in Japan after the American occupation ended following World War II.
  251. The Communist Party of Cambodia, overthrown by the Vietnamese but of continuing importance for many years as an insurgent group and a political force.
    Khmer Rouge
  252. The ties and relations of the extended family unit, often used in association with traditional societies.
    Kinship relations
  253. During the Soviet period, families were allowed to have a small amount of land adjacent to their homes for growing whatever they wanted for their own consumption or for trade.
    Kitchen gardens
  254. Nickname for the inhabitants of New Zealand.
  255. Seat of the Russian government in Moscow.
  256. A pastoral and agricultural people residing largely in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, with lesser numbers in Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
  257. A prominent desert in Turkmenistan.
    Kyzyl Kum desert
  258. The world's deepest lake with a maximum depth of more than a mile (1.6 kilometers), one of the world's greatest natural wonders and a Russian destination for nature lovers.
    Lake Baikal
  259. A situation in which a small number of people control most of the productive land.
    Land concentration
  260. A product of human actions that lower a region's biological productivity or diminish its usefulness to humans.
    Land degradation
  261. Countries without a marine coast; their trade with the outside world must pass through neighboring, sometimes hostile, countries.
    Landlocked states
  262. Almost 40 percent of the world's landlocked states are in Africa.
  263. The constant change that landscapes undergo in response to natural and human-induced processes.
    Landscape modification
  264. A process of soil formation in the tropics; the leaching of soluble minerals from soils because of abundant rainfall, thereby leaving residual oxides of iron and aluminum.
  265. Marxist, leader of the Bolsheviks who started the bloody civil war in 1917 that resulted in the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R) in 1922.
    Lenin, Vladimir
  266. The eastern Mediterranean region from western Greece to western Egypt.
  267. A common auxiliary language used by peoples of different languages and dialects; commonly used for trading and political purposes.
    Lingua franca
  268. Deposits of wind-transported, fine-grained material; usually easily tilled and quite fertile.
  269. The decade of the 1980s when Latin America suffered from a serious economic crisis.
    Lost decade
  270. The French-speaking region of Canada found on the lower reaches of the St. Lawrence River and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (present-day Quebec), as distinguished from Upper Canada.
    Lower Canada
  271. Persons who remained loyal to Great Britain during and after the Revolutionary War. After the revolution, many of these loyalists no longer felt welcome in the lower 13 colonies and so fled to British North America (modern Canada).
  272. The ancient urban core of Middle Eastern cities.
  273. Traditional Islamic schools, often attached to a mosque, where students study the Quran, learn basic reading and writing skills, and are introduced to the spiritual, philosophical, and legal scholarship of the Islamic community.
  274. A region of northwestern Africa that includes portions of Morroco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
  275. A theory advanced by Thomas Malthus that human populations tend to increase more rapidly than the food supply.
    Malthusian theory
  276. The conviction of many nineteenth-century Americans that God willed the United States to extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans; a similar belief claims a special U.S. mission to promote democracy throughout the world.
    Manifest destiny
  277. A geographic perspective that emphasizes the relationship between people and the physical environment used to support their livelihoods.
    Man-land tradition
  278. Emerged as leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1935; died in 1976.
    Mao Zedong
  279. The pre-European Polynesian inhabitants of New Zealand, who have been more successfully integrated into modern society than the Aborigines of Australia.
  280. From the Spanish verb maquilar, meaning "to mill or to process"; used to denote foreign-owned (largely U.S.) manufacturing firms located in Latin America, particularly northern Mexico, to realize the advantage of low-cost labor.
    Maquiladora industry
  281. Climatic region of northern Europe, northwestern North America, southern Chile, and portions of Australia and New Zealand; characterized by year-round cool and wet atmospheric conditions.
    Marine west coast climate
  282. Cultural group residing in Iraq's southern marsh region. In order to maintain their culture, these people combined agriculture, cattle rearing, and fishing. Drainage efforts in the 1990s undermined their livelihood and reversing the process has been largely unsuccessful.
    Marsh Arabs
  283. A political state; the first of a series of empires that ruled over parts of South Asia.
    Mauryan Empire
  284. One of the four high civilizations of pre-Colombian Latin America, situated in southern Mexico and northern Central America.
  285. The shape ("half-moon") formed by departments in the eastern lowlands of Bolivia, whose inhabitants share few historical or cultural connections to the indigenous communities of the highlands.
    Media Luna
  286. A dry summer subtropical climate common to the Mediterranean Basin, southern California, central Chile, and portions of Australia.
    Mediterranean climate
  287. Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. Previously served as the third President of Russia.
    Medvedev, Dmitrii
  288. Originally the continuous urban zone between Boston and Washington, D.C.; now used to describe any region where urban areas have coalesced to form a single massive urban zone.
  289. Marked the end of Tokugawa rule in 1868 and the beginning of the period when Japanese society and its economy were transformed from feudal to modern.
    Meiji Restoration
  290. Meiji means "enlightened rule", which in this case meant adopting selected Western traits, particularly education and technology.
  291. Section of the South Pacific consisting of islands stretching along the northern perimeter of Australia, from New Guinea eastward to Fiji.
  292. The name derives from melanin, the pigment in human skin, and refers to the dark-skinned, Papuan-speaking peoples who predominate in this area.
  293. The period before A.D. 1800 when European powers exerted control indirectly by supporting private trading companies who established commercial and political relationships with local elites to obtain the goods they wanted.
    Mercantile colonialism
  294. The philosophy by which most colonizing nations controlled the economic activities of their colonies; held that the colony existed for the benefit of the mother country.
  295. Persons in Latin America of mixed European and indigenous ancestry.
  296. "Land of the midday sun", an area comprising the Italian peninsula south of Rome, plus Sicily and Sardinia.
  297. A development strategy that targets economically marginal people with good business ideas to receive small loans, insurance, and money transfers so they can launch and operate a small business.
  298. The groups of islands in the Pacific just north of Melanesia, from Guam and the Marianas in the west to Kiribati in the east. The region's name refers to the small islands that predominate here.
  299. Very small independent countries whose potential for agricultural and industrial development is limited.
  300. Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
    Middle America
  301. An early settlement area centered on Pennsylvania and New York that was settled by substantial numbers of German, Scots-Irish, Dutch, and Swedish in addition to the dominant English.
    Middle Atlantic Core
  302. A reference to China, reflecting the traditional Chinese view of China as the center of the known universe.
    Middle Kingdom
  303. The area serviced by a given milk-producing region.
  304. In 2001 the United Nations launched a program that targeted for eradication the most intractable development challenges, including extreme hunger and poverty, gender inequality, child mortality, and HIV/AIDS.
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  305. The Japanese government agency responsible for guiding and directing the development of the Japanese economy.
    Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI)
  306. A potentially unhealthy development situation in which limited local development opportunities encourage migration, migrants send back remittances that support their families but do not lead to productive investments, most local jobs are found in government bureaucracies, and inability to generate investments, jobs, and economic growth produce a cycle of dependence on foreign aid to support basic services.
    MIRAB (Migration, Remittances, Aid, and Bureaucracy) economies
  307. The raising of crops for both human and animal feed.
    Mixed farming
  308. Mixed farms often have animals, such as cattle or pigs, on the farm itself. Dairy farms can be viewed as a specialized form of mixed farming.
  309. A seasonal reversal in surface wind direction; associated primarily with South, East, and Southeast Asia.
  310. People of mixed Arab and Berber stock of northwest Africa who invaded and inhabited Iberia from the eighth through the fifteenth centuries, thereby diffusing racial and cultural traits to Spain and Portugal.
  311. The most powerful of all the Islamic empires of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in South Asia.
    Mughal Empire
  312. Opposition movements in Afghanistan and elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa, inspired by Islamic fundamentalism.
  313. Muslim clergy who have traditionally been responsible for interpreting religious law, providing basic education, serving as notaries for legal documents, and administering religious endowments.
  314. The ability of a person to communicate in more than one language.
  315. The name given to a region designated by the Malaysian government for development as an information technology research center
    Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)
  316. People who surrender to the will of God (Allah) as revealed by the prophet Mohammed; followers of Islam.
  317. Part of Azerbaijan with an Armenian majority, whose desire for independence resulted in war between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Fighting ceased in 1994, but the fundamental issues are as yet unresolved.
    Nagorno-Karabakh region
  318. From A.D. 710-794, a time when Chinese cultural influences became stronger and the Japanese adopted Chinese written characters.
    Nara period
  319. A territorial expression of loyalty to a state or an ethnic group's desire for political independence in the form of a separatist movement.
  320. A political entity that has control over its territory and bases its legitimacy on representing a particular group of people who share common characteristics (ethnicity, language, religion, and so on)
  321. Retention of the trade relationships and patterns of pre-World War II colonialism. Often cited to explain continuing uneven distribution of wealth.
  322. An economic and social approach based on a reduced role for government in many areas of public life and an unrestrained free market economy.
    Neoliberal policies and neoliberalism
  323. Referring to contemporary modifications of the notions of Thomas Malthus regarding population growth and production capacity.
  324. Malaysia's master plan, the goal of which was to increase the economic contributions of the majority ethnic Malays, at the expense of both Chinese and Western economic interests.
    New Economic Policy (NEP)
  325. The most northern of the American coastal culture cores developed in southern New England where numerous bays and harbors became the focus of maritime trade and fishing.
    New England Core
  326. This group has appeared recently in Russia, at least in the larger urban areas.
    New middle class
  327. Unlike the New Russians, new middle-class people are professionals who draw salaries in fields valued by the global economy.
  328. African Union (AU) program designed in 2001 to complement the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) in alleviating poverty, accelerating regional integration, and promoting good governance.
    New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
  329. Have emerged as the first class of wealthy Russians since 1917. Their conspicuous consumption and uncultured ways make them the target of scorn.
    New Russians
  330. The more urbanized and industrialized South, which emerged in the United States in the twentieth century.
    New South
  331. Involves herding of sheep, goats, and camels in dryland areas in an annual migration cycle often covering hundreds of miles, to bring animals to grass and water only available on a seasonal basis, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa.
    Nomadic herding
  332. A diverse group of largely voluntary organizations that work at the grassroots level to provide technical advice and economic, social, and humanitarian assistance.
    Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
  333. A social policy that combines heavy taxation with broad and generous public services.
    Nordic Model
  334. Went into effect in 1994. Canada, Mexico, and the United States are now members of a single trade union intended to lead eventually to completely free trade and increased interaction between the member countries.
    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  335. This warm Gulf Stream extension reaches the coast of northwest Europe and modifies the air masses that dominate European weather patterns.
    North Atlantic Current
  336. An island of life in the desert, where surface erosion and relatively high groundwater levels result in water being found close to the surface.
    Oasis (pl. oases)
  337. West Siberian lowland river. When its tributaries thaw in the spring, ice in the lower part of this river acts like a giant plug, sometimes until late summer, causing extensive flooding.
    Ob River
  338. The vast realm of Pacific Islands extending over several million square miles, including the islands of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
  339. Russian privatization of industry has resulted in a struggle for survival between the new "entrepreneurs" and these few individuals who control vast economic empires.
  340. Much like Special Economic Zones (SEZs), but with lower levels of government funding for site improvement.
    Open coastal cities
  341. Larger economic regions around Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and open coastal cities.
    Open economic regions
  342. A dangerously addictive drug from which heroin is derived.
  343. Ukraine's 2004 Orange Revolution, a public rebellion against government practices that took its name from the opposition party's color, and led to the election of Viktor Yushchenko, who promised to root out corruption and restructure both state and economy.
    Orange Revolution
  344. A group of oil-producing countries that controls 85 percent of all the petroleum entering international trade; a valorization scheme to regulate oil production and prices.
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  345. Mountains create a barrier to a moving air mass that must be overcome, which in the process modifies the temperature and moisture characteristics of the air mass. The result is excess precipitation on the windward side and drought on the leeward side of the mountain.
    Orographic effect
  346. Mountain-induced rains such as those of the Cascade Mountains in the American Northwest.
    Orographic precipitation
  347. The interior and isolated backlands of Australia, particularly those areas beyond intense settlement.
  348. Loss of vegetative ground cover resulting from stocking more grazing animals than the land can sustain.
  349. Persons of Chinese ancestry now living in other countries. Many maintain family and economic ties with relatives and associates still living in China.
    Overseas Chinese
  350. A system of mountains and valleys that extends along the western edge of North America.
    Pacific Coastlands
  351. Includes those countries rimming the Pacific Ocean in both East Asia and the western Americas; sometimes refers more exclusively to the East Asian rimland countries.
    Pacific Rim countries
  352. A zone that encircles the Pacific Ocean, which includes Japan, the Philippines, and parts of Indonesia, as well as the Andes Mountains of South America and many of the coastal ranges of Canada, Alaska, and eastern Siberia.
    Pacific Ring of Fire
  353. An umbrella organization created by the Arab states in 1964 to control and coordinate Palestinian opposition to Israel; originally subservient to the wishes of the Arab states, now dominated by the independent, nationalist ideology of El-Fatah, the largest and most moderate of the Palestinian resistance groups.
    Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
  354. The Arabs who claim Palestine as their rightful homeland; some 5 million Palestinian Arabs residing in various Middle Eastern states, and another 6 million living in Israel, Gaza, and the West Bank.
  355. Major mountain range in Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
    Pamir Mountains
  356. An economic system dependent on the raising of livestock - sheep, cattle, or dairy animals.
    Pastoral economy
  357. System in which a group depends solely on pastures for their livestock herds.
  358. The best-known African pastoralists are the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria, the Masai of Kenya, and the nomadic Tswanas of Botswana.
  359. The practice of charging people who benefit from environmental services such as clean water for the cost of such services.
    Payment for environmental services (PES)
  360. An alternate term for Iberians, used in colonial Latin America.
  361. Protestant groups that focus on the literal interpretation of the Bible.
  362. Permanently frozen ground common in high latitudes.
  363. A group of people who speak an Indo-European language and live in Iran and Central Asia, where they are often called Tajiks.
    Persian ethnic groups
  364. Natives of Iran; one of two of the largest non-Arabgroups in the Middle East (the other is the Turks).
  365. That component of geography that focuses on the natural aspects of the earth, such as climate, landforms, soils, or vegetation.
    Physical geography
  366. Population density expressed as the number of people per unit of arable land.
    Physiologic density
  367. The process whereby portions of Earth's surface are folded, fractured, and uplifted through the movement of Earth's lithospheric plates. Many of the mountain ranges in Europe (for example, the Alps, Pyrenees, and Carpathians) were formed as a result of the slow collision of the Eurasian and African plates.
    Plate tectonics
  368. A process in humid regions whereby soluble materials are leached from upper soil layers, leaving residual soils that are frequently infertile and acidic.
  369. Characterized by freezing conditions much of the year, this climate experiences long, dark winters and short summers.
    Polar climate
  370. A tract of land reclaimed from the sea and protected by dikes.
  371. A large grouping of islands in the Pacific stretching in a huge triangular area from Midway and Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south, and eastward as far as Pitcairn Island. The name means "many islands". It is the largest in size of the three Pacific Island subregions.
  372. The number of people per unit of area.
    Population density
  373. The placement or arrangement of people within a region.
    Population distribution
  374. For a country or region, this rate involves calculation of the birthrate and death rate, modified by subtracting people who emigrate from the area and adding people who immigrate into the area.
    Population growth rate
  375. Service industries involve neither extraction of resources nor manufacturing but instead include a broad range of activities such as government, transportation, banking, retailing, and tourism. Postindustrial denotes service industry dominance, often coincident with deindustrialization.
    Postindustrial service industries
  376. A theoretical perspective that attempts a radical critique of modernist approaches to culture, economy, and society.
    Postmodern perspective
  377. Material deprivation that affects biologic and social well-being; the lack of income or its equivalent necessary to provide an adequate level of living.
  378. In Canada, the great expanse of land between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains, the northern extension of the Great Plains and the Interior Lowlands.
  379. This rule mandates that whenever significant change is likely to occur as a result of a proposed development or whenever the long-term implications of a proposed change are obscure, implementation of the anticipated project must proceed slowly, with proper examination of likely impacts and available remedial actions.
    Precautionary principle
  380. Focuses on extractive activities, such as agriculture, mining, forestry, and fishing.
    Primary level of economic activity
  381. A city where a disproportionate share of a country's population and economic power is concentrated.
    Primate city
  382. (A.D. 1394-1460) Portuguese ruler; sponsored explorers seeking new routes to Asia and the Americas.
    Prince Henry the Navigator
  383. The misconception that the New World was a lightly populated, unmodified wilderness when it was first encountered by Christopher Columbus.
    Pristine myth
  384. In the Soviet Union, Stalin tried unsuccessfully to abolish farm families' home gardens, their private plots, but Soviet agriculture depended heavily on this, especially for fruits and vegetables.
    Private-plot production
  385. The process of transferring partially or completely state-owned industries and farms to private control.
    Privatization of industry
  386. Businesses such as banking, insurance, communications, and consulting.
    Producer services
  387. Policies that encourage larger families by offering support through such practices as generous maternity leave and housing and educational subsidies.
    Pronatalist policies
  388. Christian branch formed from the second great schism, the Protestant Reformation during the 1500s, which split the western church into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. This branch constitutes approximately 24 percent of the world's Christians.
  389. A fundamentalist form of Protestantism includes those Protestant religions in Latin America that are growing rapidly at the expense of nominal Catholicism; emphasizes a literal interpretation of the Bible as the basis for Christian life.
  390. (ca. a.d. 90-168) Greek astronomer and early mapmaker from Alexandria, Egypt. Designed a map of the world (ca. A.D. 150) that used a coordinate system to show the location of 8,000 known places.
  391. An ethnic group of the northwest corner of India that also occupies portions of Afghanistan.
  392. Second president of Russia from 2000 to 2008, Prime Minister during the presidency of Dmitrii Medvedev, and fourth President of Russia since 2012.
    Putin, Vladimir
  393. An underground tunnel, sometimes several miles long, tapping a water source; natural water flow accomplished by gravity; common in several Middle Eastern countries, where they are used to tap groundwater found in alluvial fans.
  394. Communities in the Brazilian hinterland formed by runaway slaves.
  395. The sacred text of Islam.
  396. An effect produced by descending, drying air masses, causing the leeward or interior sides of mountains to be much drier than the windward sides.
  397. The program launched by Nelson Mandela's government of South Africa, based on six major principles of improvement.
    Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP)
  398. Distinctive differences in well-being among the inhabitants of the several regions of a given country; most likely to be seen in economic, social, and biologic conditions.
    Regional disparity
  399. That component of geography that focuses on particular regions and the geographic aspects of the economic, social, and political systems of those regions.
    Regional geography
  400. Money or goods sent back to their home country by migrants.
  401. Power derived from sources, such as water, wind, and solar radiation, that can be infinitely used, as opposed to fossil fuels, which are mined as finite resources.
    Renewable energy
  402. The use of the resources of the state for the benefit of private interests. In Russia and some other Eurasian countries, public officials "privatize" their government functions, by seeking "rent" in exchange for allowing development to proceed.
  403. A currency, such as the U.S. dollar or the euro, held by governments or banks as part of their foreign exchange funds and used to conduct international transactions.
    Reserve currency
  404. A policy instituted in South Africa in 1994 to permit the government to investigate land claims and restore ownership to those who unjustly lost land.
    Restitution of Land Rights Act
  405. (1779 - 1859) Author of Die Erdkunde; held the first chair of geography in Germany, at the University of Berlin in 1820.
    Ritter, Karl
  406. A great series of mountain ranges in the western United States and Canada.
    Rocky Mountains
  407. Christian branch created from the split of the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 1054. In this schism, the western church became ____, and the Greek church became Eastern Orthodoxy. It is the dominant Christian branch in southwestern Europe and constitutes approximately 50 percent of the world's Christians.
    Roman Catholicism is focused on Rome and the Vatican, with the Pope being the highest authority in the Church.
  408. Georgia's 2003 Rose Revolution, so-named because demonstrators carried roses to emphasize nonviolence, ousted Eduard Shevardnadze, the former Gorbachev ally whose corrupt regime failed to revive the economy or keep the country intact.
    Rose Revolution
  409. A technique that collects water from a larger area and concentrates it in valley bottoms and on terraced slopes; it permits agriculture in regions that are otherwise too dry for crop cultivation.
    Run-on farming
  410. A policy of cultural and economic integration practiced in the former U.S.S.R. that required all other Slavic and non-Slavic groups to learn the Russian language.
  411. To create sustainable livelihoods in the present, people often create sacrifice zones, sacrificing the future use of potentially sustainable resources or the present productivity of distant areas.
    Sacrifice zones
  412. The semiarid grassland along the southern margin of the Sahara Desert in Western, Central, and Eastern Africa.
  413. The accumulation of salts in the upper part of the soil, often rendering the land agriculturally useless; commonly occurs in moisture-deficient areas where irrigated agriculture is practiced.
  414. The name given to the Hindu and Sikh untouchables by the Indian government.
    Scheduled castes
  415. The area of the EU that has agreed to completely passport-free travel across the borders of member countries.
    Schengen Zone
  416. Increases in ocean level caused by global warming that put low-lying coastal areas and atolls at risk of flooding, storm surges, and outright submersion.
    Sea level rise
  417. Includes activities that transform raw materials into usable goods.
    Secondary level of economic activity
  418. Indifference to religion and/or a belief in the separation of church and state.
  419. The phenomenon in which a group of people seeks to pursue independence from their nominal country.
    Separatism is usually ethnic (cultural) in nature, and in most instances ethnicity must be linked to some major grievance such as persecution, attempted ethnocide, forced assimilation, domination, lack of autonomy, or denial of access to the country's power structure for separatism to be sparked.
  420. Jews originating from Southern Europe and the Middle East.
  421. A concept of historical geography that considers the geography of an area during successive periods of time.
    Sequential occupancy
  422. Ethnic group of Orthodox Christians, the majority of whom reside in Serbia, which is the largest (in land area and population) of the republics that made up the former Yugoslavia.
    Serbs speak a Serbo-Croatian Slavic language but use a Cyrillic alphabet.
  423. For centuries in Russia, term used for the peasants that were bound to the land and required to serve the landowners. Over time this condition turned into slavery.
  424. New territories that are occupied and culturally imprinted by settlers, usually by the process of diffusion.
    Settlement frontiers
  425. An Arabic legal code based on the Quran.
  426. Common channel located in southern Iraq through which the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow into the Persian Gulf.
    Shatt al-Arab
  427. A politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict.
  428. One of two main branches in Islam, predominant in Iran and in parts of Iraq and Yemen.
  429. Shi'ites believe that Islam should be led by descendants of Muhammad, while Sunnis believe that the leader of Islam should be appointed by election and consensus.
  430. Sunnis make up 84 to 90 percent of the world's Muslims. The word Sunni refers to the words and actions of Muhammad. The Sunnis try to follow Muhammad's example of how to live as a Muslim.
  431. A farming system of land rotation, based on periodic change of cultivated area; allows soils with declining productivity to recover; an effective adaptation to tropical environments when population density remains low.
    Shifting cultivation
  432. Religion in Japan based on the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
  433. An Indian religion that includes elements of the Hindu and Islamic faiths.
  434. Caravan route stretching from China to the Middle East and ultimately on to Europe, the main historical corridor for goods from the east.
    Silk Road
  435. Russian President Putin's appointees.
  436. Smaller companies that supply materials and parts to larger companies.
    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
  437. Soil loss associated with the loss of protective vegetative cover. Once the topsoil is exposed to the forces of running water and wind, it can be carried away in very short periods of time.
    Soil erosion
  438. (a.d. 960-1279) A period of Chinese history during which advancements occurred that made the Chinese agricultural economy one of the most sophisticated in the world.
    Song dynasty
  439. A group founded in 1980 to reduce dependency on South Africa for rail, air, and port links; imports of manufactured goods; and the supply of electrical power.
    Southern African Development Community (SADC)
  440. Developing first on the coastal plain southward from Virginia, the region developed a plantation economy featuring export crops (indigo; tobacco; cotton).
    Southern Core
  441. The process whereby the settlement frontier is eliminated through the creation of trade areas and the establishment of ties with the core areas and the surrounding communities.
    Spatial integration
  442. According to historian Frederick Jackson Turner, European core areas on the Atlantic seaboard provided important early sources of settlers responsible for the spatial integration process in the United States and Canada.
  443. The geographic approach that places location at the center of research, analysis, and explanation.
    Spatial perspective
  444. The close association of human and natural phenomena in place and their mutual interdependence and interaction.
    Spatial relationships
  445. A geographic perspective that emphasizes how things are organized in space, especially spatial distributions, associations, and interactions.
    Spatial tradition
  446. Areas in China that function as modern-day treaty ports, receiving a substantial amount of foreign investment.
    Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
  447. An area from southern New England to Texas in which a variety of livestock and crop areas are based on local environmental characteristics and market opportunities.
    Specialty Crop and Livestock region
  448. Overcame all rivals after Lenin died in 1924 to take over rule of the Soviet Union. He initiated collectivization of farms, the "Gulag" labor camp system, and the Five Year Plan for industrialization; millions died in the Soviet Union during his rule due to famine, war, and repressive policies.
    Stalin, Joseph
  449. The five stages of economic growth from the theory developed by Walt Rostow.
    • 1. Traditional society,
    • 2. Preconditions for takeoff,
    • 3. Takeoff,
    • 4. Drive to maturity,
    • 5. High mass consumption.
  450. Large agricultural systems controlled and managed by the government in the old Soviet Union; workers were paid wages.
    State farms
  451. A development philosophy found in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and other Asian countries in which the state either partially owns corporations that operate under commercial principles or directs the structure and orientation of the national economy.
    State-led industrialization
  452. The very large sheep or cattle ranches associated with Australia.
  453. Grasslands in the midlatitudes and the subtropics.
  454. Intermediate between drier and wetter conditions, these semiarid climate zones are typically characterized by grasslands and high precipitation variability.
    Steppe climate
  455. Aboriginal children that were forcibly taken from their mothers to be brought up by whites, a practice that only ended in Australia in 1969.
    Stolen Generation
  456. (64 b.c.- ca. a.d. 23) Geographic scholar, author of Geographia, whose fascination with the cultural and natural differences that existed in his world was a precursor to the modern regional studies approach.
  457. Programs initiated to adjust malfunctioning economies, assist in debt restructuring, and promote greater economic efficiency and growth; widely implemented in the Sub-Saharan and Latin American countries.
    Structural adjustment programs (SAPs)
  458. Long, cold winters and short summers with limited precipitation characterize this high-latitude climate.
    Subarctic climate
  459. (1866-1925) Chinese revolutionary and political leader known as the "father of the republic".
    Sun Yat-sen
  460. Sun Yat-sen's goals focused on what "Three Principles of the People"?
    Nationalism, democracy, and livelihood.
  461. The largest branch of Islam; predominant throughout most Middle Eastern countries, with the exception of Iran.
  462. Industries in Japan that the government considers no longer competitive and therefore appropriate to be phased out.
    Sunset industries
  463. A policy of reconciliation between South Korea and North Korea, introduced in 2000.
    Sunshine Policy
  464. The ability of a resource use system to function well for a long time by taking into account the long-term environmental consequences of change.
  465. Belief systems that result from the combination of introduced and local beliefs.
  466. A river in Kazakhstan that flows into the Aral Sea.
    Syr Darya river
  467. An approach to geographic study in which the emphasis is on specified subjects; for example, economic geography, urban geography, climatology, water resources, or population geography.
    Systematic geography
  468. A large dam on the Euphrates River in Syria, intended to significantly increase irrigated agriculture and hydroelectric power generation.
    Tabqah Dam
  469. The large coniferous forest extending across northern Russia.
  470. A fundamentalist Islamic student-based movement that originated in the Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan.
    Taliban movement
  471. Language spoken by Sri Lankans of Dravidian descent, who are known as Tamils, and who are also a minority in Sri Lanka. The Tamils feel they have been systematically discriminated against by the majority group, the Sinhalese Buddhists.
  472. Areas that concentrate high-tech manufacturing, computer-based information services, and research-and-development activities.
  473. Human-made mounds designed to protect their inhabitants from seasonal floods.
  474. Technique in which steep hillsides are cut in a stair-step fashion and shored up by retaining walls for agricultural purposes.
  475. Includes activities that focus on the provision of goods and services.
    Tertiary level of economic activity
  476. A condition that develops when warm, stable air overlies cool air, trapping the cool air and any pollutants that are released beneath it.
    Thermal inversion
  477. The global system of ocean currents, driven by temperature and salinity differences, that brings warmer seawater from the tropics to Europe and moderates Europe's climate.
    Thermohaline circulation
  478. A region of China where the Chang Jiang ("Long River") flows through a narrow, 150-mile (240-kilometer) long, steep-walled valley no wider than 350 feet (107 meters).
    Three Gorges
  479. The largest environmental zone of western China, as well as the largest and most elevated plateau in the world, it occupies 25 percent of China's territory. It is a cold, inhospitable environment referred to as the "rooftop of the world" or the "third pole".
    Tibetan Plateau
  480. A large, multinuclear urbanized region in Japan extending from Tokyo to Osaka.
    Tokaido Megalopolis
  481. Historical Japanese road between Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka. It was a government postal highway with 57 stations with porter stations, horse stables, and lodging.
    Tokaido Road
  482. The period (1615-1868) during which the focus of power in Japan shifted to the Kanto Plain area and many of the modern Japanese characteristics were firmly fixed in the culture.
    Tokugawa period
  483. The average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime.
    Total fertility rate
  484. Collectives owned by towns and villages, but often including private capital investment, that produce products for both domestic consumption and export.
    Town and village enterprises (TVEs)
  485. Trade agreements between groups of countries.
    Trade blocs
  486. Globe-trotting executives and professionals, who view their work as part of a globally competitive process, share upscale lifestyles, and see themselves as citizens of the world as well as citizens of their own countries.
    Transnational capitalist class
  487. A corporation with offices, production facilities, and other activities in multiple countries. It is geographically mobile and can take advantage of lower labor costs in one country or a more lenient regulatory environment in another country to minimize production costs and/or maximize revenues.
    Transnational corporation (TNC)
  488. Migrant use of modern transport and communication technologies to stay in touch with their home community, remit money and goods, and return periodically for visits.
    Transnational migration
  489. System that crosses Siberia, beginning at the Ural Mountains and ending at the Pacific Ocean terminus of Vladivostok.
    Trans-Siberian Railway
  490. A treaty negotiated between Spain and Portugal in 1494 that divided the New World between those two countries at roughly the 50th meridian, giving Portugal the rights to areas to the east and Spain to areas to the west; this treaty followed a papal bull from the previous year, which had declared the New World as belonging to Spain, and Africa and India to Portugal.
    Treaty of Tordesillas
  491. Seismic sea waves triggered by energy released from deep earthquakes and also from massive landslides and volcanic eruptions.
  492. Vegetation zone found on the margins of the Arctic, particularly in northern Russia and northern Canada. No trees grow because of the short growing season, infertile soil, and shallow layer of thawed ground; beneath lies permanently frozen earth or permafrost.
  493. A wide variety of ethnic communities (Azerbaijanis, Kazakhs, Uyghurs, Yakuts) living in southwest, central, and northern Asia and speaking related Turkic languages. Natives of Turkey; one of two of the largest non-Arab groups in the Middle East (the other is the Persians).
    Turkic ethnic groups
  494. The equivalent of hurricanes or tropical cyclones; occur in the Pacific, especially in the area of the China seas.
  495. A Swahili word meaning "familyhood", expressing a feeling of community and cooperative activity; a term used by the Tanzanian government to indicate a commitment to rapid economic development according to principles of socialism and communal solidarity.
  496. The English-speaking region of Canada found on the upper reaches of the St. Lawrence River and in the Great Lakes region (present-day Ontario), as distinguished from Lower Canada.
    Upper Canada
  497. A chain of ancient, greatly eroded, low mountains in Russia that mark the traditional boundary between Asia and Europe.
    Ural Mountains
  498. Phenomenon in which cities tend to be characterized by significantly higher temperatures than those of the surrounding areas. This temperature imbalance is largely due to the air pollution generated by cities as well as the large amounts of heat that are absorbed by the pavement and masonry of the urban infrastructure.
    Urban heat islands
  499. The replacement of one plant community by others over time.
    Vegetation succession
  500. A type of local-scale microfinancing that helps families defray the costs associated with unforeseen emergencies, such as illness, natural disasters, and funerals, as well as improvements like home improvement, solar energy systems, and mobile phones.
    Village banking
  501. Water that is not physically present, but is represented in a commodity because water was needed to grow or produce it; for example, the water invested in a wet place to grow rice that is then exported to a dry place that lacks sufficient water to grow its own rice.
    Virtual water
  502. With its tributaries, this river forms Russia's major water route, allowing for the development of industrial activities.
    Volga River
  503. The combination of tourism and volunteer work for a good cause.
  504. A narrow strip of land created between the Russian-controlled Pamir Mountains and British India still connects Afghanistan to China today.
    Wakhan Corridor
  505. They use opium profits to finance and arm the militias that keep the countryside of Afghanistan unstable and out of the reach of the elected government.
  506. The territory occupied by Israel since 1967 that lies immediately west of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea; claimed by Palestinians.
    West Bank
  507. West of the Corn Belt, in the Great Plains, lie the wheat belts (winter wheat and spring wheat), where farmers have converted prairie to cropland.
    Wheat Belts
  508. The policy formerly used by Australia in an attempt to exclude nonwhites from migrating permanently to Australia and to encourage whites, especially the British, to settle in Australia; officially termed the restricted immigration policy.
    White Australia Policy
  509. Centers of global finance, corporate decision making, and creativity that have worldwide reach, such as New York City, Hong Kong, and London.
    World cities
  510. An area with cultural and natural properties deemed to be of outstanding universal value.
    World Heritage Site
  511. Fear of people of foreign origin.
  512. Period some 1,700 years ago that led to the emergence of the first Japanese state, centered on a military aristocracy and anchored by successive kings.
    Yamato period
  513. Some 2,300 years ago migrants from a region just north of China arrived in Japan via the Korean Peninsula and, among other innovations, introduced sedentary agriculture and paddy rice.
    Yayoi period
  514. Marks the boundary between the West Siberian lowland and the plateau of Central Siberia.
    Yenisey River
  515. A large Japanese financial enterprise, similar to a conglomerate in the United States but generally more integrated horizontally and vertically.
  516. An indigenous movement in Mexico in defense of the rights of indigenous peoples to land, jobs, and political freedom.
    Zapatista movement
  517. Flows from Tajikistan into Uzbekistan and disappears into the Kyzyl Kum desert.
    Zarafshon River
  518. (1027-256 b.c.) A militaristic dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty; they established their capital at a site close to present-day Xian.
    Zhou dynasty