anatomy help

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  1. skeletal muscle
    striated, voluntary control, temperature management, multi-nucleated
  2. cardiac muscle
    heart, striated, involuntary, autorhythmic pacemaker
  3. epimyseum
    DCT that covers a whole muscle
  4. perimyseum
    DCT that covers fascicles in a muscle (10-100 plus myofibrils each)
  5. endomysium
    separates myofibrils from each other
  6. motor neurons
    nerves that stimulate muscle contraction
  7. hypertrophy
    thickening of muscle fibers
  8. hyperplasia
    more muscle fibers added
  9. sarcolemma
    the plasma membrane of the myofibril
  10. transverse tubules
    tunnels in sarcolemma that help to ensure uniformity in action
  11. thin filaments
    8 nm diameter (actin)
  12. thick filament
    16 nm (myosin)
  13. sarcomere
    structural unit of a myofibril
  14. z discs
    dense protein material that separates each sarcomere
  15. A band
    length from z disc to z disc in sarcomere
  16. h zone
    only thick filaments in the center of sarcomere
  17. I band
    z-discs of sarcomeres
  18. myosin
    motor protein converts chemical in mechanical energy ( have myosin heads that control the actin)
  19. Actin
    helix shaped thin filament which has myosin binding site for globular head
  20. tropomyosin and troponin
    • tropomyosin relaxes muscle by blocking actin binding site from myosin head
    • troponin holds tropomyosin in place
  21. NMJ (neuromuscular junction)
    point between synapse bulb and the muscular receptors (neurotransmiters send message from nerve to muscle)
  22. titin
    secures thick filament position
  23. dystrophin
    helps to generate tension by linking actin to intergral membrane proteins in the sarcolemma
  24. acetylcholine
    neurotransmitter of motor neurons
  25. synaptic vesicles
    hold acetylcholine
  26. Calcium ion release channels
    SR releases these ions upon contraction in order to combine with troponin and get rid of the tropomyosin that inhibits movement of myosin to actin
  27. Contraction cycle
    • 1. ATP splits- ATP is removed a phospate to gain energy
    • 2 myosin attaches to actin to release phosphate
    • 3. powerstroke- force of contraction generated
    • 4. myosin head will atach to another atp provided that it is available
  28. Relaxation
    • Achase helps to break down acetylcholine which stops Ca 2 plus production
    • active transport pumps open to force calcium back
  29. twitch contraction
    brief contraction of all the muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single nerve impulse
  30. latent period
    delay between stimulus and actual contraction
  31. wave summation
    stimuli in close succession that allow for larger contractions
  32. unfused vs fused tetanus
    stimulus comes but slower vs. coming very quickly
  33. tone
    muscle tautness caused by weak contractions of motor units- stability
  34. flaccid
    relaxed, no tone
  35. isotonic contraction
    no change in tension, change in length- moving stuff
  36. concentric isotonic
    shortens to pull on another structure, produce movement and reduce angle of joint - picking up book
  37. eccentric
    length increases - biceps to help lower book on table
  38. isometric contraction
    a lot of tension, but no length change ( load exceeds muscle tension) holding book stead with outstretched arm
  39. how to make energy
    • 1. creatine phosphate
    • 2.anaerobic
    • 3. aerobic
  40. creatine
    helps to remove phospate head from ATP to make ADP which generates force, vice versa for 15 seconds
  41. anaerobic
    no oxygen, glucose is catbolized to create 4 ATP with losing 2 ( glucose split into pyruvic acid) (30-40 sec)
  42. aerobic
    oxygen, pyruvic acid goes into mitochondria to make ATP, carbon dioxide, water and heat
  43. fatigue
    not enough calcium, creaitine, acetylcholine, etc
  44. slow oxidative
    smallest, weakest type of skeletal fiber (dark red) a lot of mitochondria to use aerobic, ATP is split slowly, but high endurance
  45. fast o
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anatomy help
2015-03-23 10:52:23

anatomy vocab
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